List of parties to the Geneva Conventions

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  Parties to GC I–IV and P I–III
  Parties to GC I–IV and P I–II
  Parties to GC I–IV and P I and III
  Parties to GC I–IV and P I
  Parties to GC I–IV and P III
  Parties to GC I–IV and no P

The Geneva Conventions, which were most recently revised in 1949, consist of seven individual treaties which are open to ratification or accession by any sovereign state. They are:

The four 1949 Conventions have been ratified by 196 states, including all UN member states, both UN observers the Holy See and the State of Palestine, as well as the Cook Islands. The Protocols have been ratified by 174, 167 and 68 states respectively. In addition, Article 90 of Protocol I states that "The High Contracting Parties may at the time of signing, ratifying or acceding to the Protocol, or at any other subsequent time, declare that they recognize ipso facto and without special agreement, in relation to any other High Contracting Party accepting the same obligation, the competence of the [International Fact-Finding] Commission to enquire into allegations by such other Party, as authorized by this Article." [1] 76 states have made such a declaration.

Parties to the 1949 Conventions and Protocols I–III[edit]

Below is a list of state parties to the Geneva Conventions.

Year of ratification/accession/succession[Note 1]
State[2][3] GC I–IV[4][5][6][7] Protocol I[8] Protocol II[9] Protocol III[10] Prot. I Art. 90 Declaration[11] Notes
 Afghanistan 1956 2009 2009
 Albania 1957 1993 1993 2008
 Algeria 1960 1989 1989 1989
 Andorra 1993
 Angola 1984 1984 S
 Antigua and Barbuda 1986 1986 1986
 Argentina 1956 1986 1986 2011 1996
 Armenia 1993 1993 1993 2011
 Australia 1958 1991 1991 2009 1992
 Austria 1953 1982 1982 2009 1982
 Azerbaijan 1993
 Bahamas 1975 1980 1980
 Bahrain 1971 1986 1986
 Bangladesh 1972 1980 1980
 Barbados 1968 1990 1990
 Belarus 1954 1989 1989 2011 1989 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II ratified as the  Byelorussian SSR.
 Belgium 1952 1986 1986 S 1987
 Belize 1984 1984 1984 2007
 Benin 1961 1986 1986
 Bhutan 1991
 Bolivia 1976 1992 1983 S 1992
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 1992 1992 S 1992
 Botswana 1968 1979 1979
 Brazil 1957 1992 1992 2009 1993
 Brunei 1991 1991 1991
 Bulgaria 1954 1989 1989 2006 1994
 Burkina Faso 1961 1987 1987 S 2004
 Burundi 1971 1993 1993 S
 Cambodia 1958 1998 1998
 Cameroon 1963 1984 1984
 Canada 1965 1990 1990 2007 1990
 Cape Verde 1984 1995 1995 S 1995
 Central African Republic 1966 1984 1984
 Chad 1970 1997 1997
 Chile 1950 1991 1991 2008 1991
 China 1956 1983 1983  Macau was declared by China to be covered by its ratification of Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II from 20 December 1999,[12][13] the same date Portugal renounced their obligations for the territory[12] following the transfer of sovereignty over Macau to China.

 Hong Kong was declared by China to be covered by its ratification of Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II from 1 July 1997,[14] the same date the UK renounced their obligations for the territory[15][16] following the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong to China.

 Colombia 1961 1993 1995 S 1996
 Comoros 1985 1985 1985
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1961 1982 2002 2002
 Republic of the Congo 1967 1983 1983 S
 Cook Islands 2002 2002 2002 2011 2002
 Costa Rica 1969 1983 1983 2008 1999
 Côte d'Ivoire 1961 1989 1989
 Croatia 1992 1992 1992 2007 1992
 Cuba 1954 1982 1999
 Cyprus 1962 1979 1996 2007 2002
 Czech Republic 1993 1993 1993 2007 1995
 Denmark 1951 1982 1982 2007 1982 All the treaties extended to the Faroe Islands and to Greenland.[Note 2]
 Djibouti 1978 1991 1991
 Dominica 1981 1996 1996
 Dominican Republic 1958 1994 1994 2009
 Ecuador 1954 1979 1979 S
 Egypt 1952 1992 1992
 El Salvador 1953 1978 1978 2007
 Equatorial Guinea 1986 1986 1986
 Eritrea 2000
 Estonia 1993 1993 1993 2008 2009
 Ethiopia 1969 1994 1994 S
 Fiji 1971 2008 2008 2008
 Finland 1955 1980 1980 2009 1980
 France 1951 2001 1984 2009
 Gabon 1965 1980 1980
 The Gambia 1966 1989 1989
 Georgia 1993 1993 1993 2007
 Germany 1954 1991 1991 2009 1991
 Ghana 1958 1978 1978 S
 Greece 1956 1989 1993 2009 1998
 Grenada 1981 1998 1998
 Guatemala 1952 1987 1987 2008
 Guinea 1984 1984 1984 1993
 Guinea-Bissau 1974 1986 1986
 Guyana 1968 1998 1998 2009
 Haiti 1957 2006 2006 S
 Holy See 1951 1985 1985
 Honduras 1965 1995 1995 2006
 Hungary 1954 1989 1989 2006 1991
 Iceland 1965 1987 1987 2006 1987
 India 1950
 Indonesia 1958
 Iran 1957 S S
 Iraq 1956 2010
 Ireland 1962 1999 1999 S 1999
 Israel 1951 2007
 Italy 1951 1986 1986 2009 1986
 Jamaica 1964 1986 1986 S
 Japan 1953 2004 2004 2004
 Jordan 1951 1979 1979
 Kazakhstan 1992 1992 1992 2009
 Kenya 1966 1999 1999 2013
 Kiribati 1989
 North Korea 1957 1988
 South Korea 1966 1982 1982 S 2004
 Kuwait 1967 1985 1985 2013
 Kyrgyzstan 1992 1992 1992
 Laos 1956 1980 1980 1998
 Latvia 1991 1991 1991 2007
 Lebanon 1951 1997 1997
 Lesotho 1968 1994 1994 2010
 Liberia 1954 1988 1988
 Libya 1956 1978 1978
 Liechtenstein 1950 1989 1989 2006 1989
 Lithuania 1996 2000 2000 2007 2000
 Luxembourg 1953 1989 1989 S 1993
 Macedonia 1993 1993 1993 2008 1993
 Madagascar 1963 1992 1992 S 1993
 Malawi 1968 1991 1991 2014
 Malaysia 1962
 Maldives 1991 1991 1991
 Mali 1965 1989 1989 2003
 Malta 1968 1989 1989 S 1989
 Marshall Islands 2004
 Mauritania 1962 1980 1980
 Mauritius 1970 1982 1982
 Mexico 1952 1983 2008
 Federated States of Micronesia 1995 1995 1995
 Moldova 1993 1993 1993 2008
 Monaco 1950 2000 2000 2007 2007
 Mongolia 1958 1995 1995 1995
 Montenegro 2006 2006 2006 2007
 Morocco 1956 2011 2011
 Mozambique 1983 1983 2002
 Myanmar 1992
 Namibia 1991 1994 1994 1994 The United Nations Council for Namibia acceded to Conventions I-IV and Protocols I-II in 1983.[18] Nambia succeeded to Conventions I-IV in 1991,[19] and Protocols I-II in 1994.[20]
 Nauru 2006 2006 2006 2012
   Nepal 1964 S
 Netherlands 1954 1987 1987 2006 1987 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–III have been extended to Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Caribbean Netherlands.[21][22][23][Note 3]
 New Zealand 1959 1988 1988 2013 1988  Niue is considered bound by New Zealand's ratification of Conventions I–IV in 1959 by the International Committee of the Red Cross[24][25] on the basis of Niue's enactment of its own Geneva Conventions Act 1958.[26]

New Zealand declared that its ratification of Protocols I–II does not extend to the  Cook Islands (which subsequently independently ratified the Protocols),  Niue and  Tokelau.[27]

 Nicaragua 1953 1999 1999 2009
 Niger 1964 1979 1979
 Nigeria 1961 1988 1988
 Norway 1951 1981 1981 2006 1981
 Oman 1974 1984 1984
 Pakistan 1951 S S
 Palau 1996 1996 1996
 State of Palestine 2014 2014 The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) unilaterally declared itself bound by Conventions I-IV and Protocol I in 1982.[28]
In 1989, the PLO submitted a letter to the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs which stated in part that the State of Palestine had decided to "adhere to the Four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and the two Protocols additional thereto."[29] However, the Swiss Government, which acts as the depositary for the Conventions, responded by stating that it was "not in a position to decide whether this communication can be considered as an instrument of accession" due to "the incertainty [sic] within the international community as to the existence or non-existence of a State of Palestine."[28][29]
Following the United Nations General Assembly passing a resolution granting non-member observer state status to Palestine in November 2012, the PLO submitted an instrument of accession to Conventions I-IV and Protocol I in April 2014.[30][31]
 Panama 1956 1995 1995 2012 1999
 Papua New Guinea 1976
 Paraguay 1961 1990 1990 2008 1998
 Peru 1956 1989 1989 S
 Philippines 1951 (I)
1952 (II-IV)
2012 1986 2006
 Poland 1954 1991 1991 2009 1992
 Portugal 1961 1992 1992 2014 1994
 Qatar 1975 1988 2005 1991
 Romania 1954 1990 1990 S 1995
 Russia 1960 1989 1989 S 1989 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I and II ratified as the  Soviet Union.
 Rwanda 1964 1984 1984 1993
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1986 1986 1986 2014
 Saint Lucia 1981 1982 1982
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1981 1983 1983 2013
 Samoa 1984 1984 1984
 San Marino 1953 1994 1994 2007
 Sao Tome and Principe 1976 1996 1996
 Saudi Arabia 1963 1987 2001
 Senegal 1963 1985 1985
 Serbia 2001 2001 2001 2010 2001 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II ratified as the  Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
 Seychelles 1984 1984 1984 1992
 Sierra Leone 1965 1986 1986 S
 Singapore 1973 2008
 Slovakia 1993 1993 1993 2007 1995
 Slovenia 1992 1992 1992 2008 1992
 Solomon Islands 1981 1988 1988
 Somalia 1962
 South Africa 1952 1995 1995
 South Sudan 2013 2013 2013 2013
 Spain 1952 1989 1989 2010 1989
 Sri Lanka 1959
 Sudan 1957 2006 2006
 Suriname 1976 1985 1985 2013
 Swaziland 1973 1995 1995
 Sweden 1953 1979 1979 2014 1979
  Switzerland 1950 1982 1982 2006 1982
 Syria 1953 1983
 Tajikistan 1993 1993 1993 1997
 Tanzania 1962 1983 1983 S Conventions I–IV ratified as  Tanganyika.
 Thailand 1954
 Timor-Leste 2003 2005 2005 2011
 Togo 1962 1984 1984 S 1991
 Tonga 1978 2003 2003 2003
 Trinidad and Tobago 1963 2001 2001 2001
 Tunisia 1957 1979 1979
 Turkey 1954 S
 Turkmenistan 1992 1992 1992
 Tuvalu 1981
 Uganda 1964 1991 1991 2008
 Ukraine 1954 1990 1990 2010 1990 Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–II ratified as the  Ukrainian SSR.
 United Arab Emirates 1972 1983 1983 1992
 United Kingdom 1957 1998 1998 2009 1999 Protocols I–III have been extended to all three Crown dependencies and to 13 of the 14 British Overseas Territories (excluding Gibraltar).[32][33][34]
 United States 1955 S S 2007
 Uruguay 1969 1985 1985 2012 1990
 Uzbekistan 1993 1993 1993
 Vanuatu 1982 1985 1985
 Venezuela 1956 1998 1998
 Vietnam 1957 1981
 Yemen 1970 1990 1990 Conventions I–IV ratified as  North Yemen.
 Zambia 1966 1995 1995
 Zimbabwe 1983 1992 1992
Totals
Ratified 196 174 167 68 76
Signed only 0 3 3 27 N/A
Notes
  1. ^ "S" indicates that the state has signed but has not ratified.
    "—" indicates that the state has taken no action.
  2. ^ Denmark informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 2003 that "Denmark's ratifications normally include the entire Kingdom of Denmark including the Faroe Islands and Greenland.”[17] No declaration excluding either of their dependent territories was made by Denmark upon ratification of any of the seven treaties.
  3. ^ The Conventions I–IV and Protocols I–III were originally extended to the Netherlands Antilles prior to its dissolution into Aruba in 1986, and Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and the Caribbean Netherlands in 2010.
Former states parties

The following states were party to the Geneva Conventions I–IV, but their ratifications have not been recognised as applying to any succeeding state under international law:

Parties to the 1864 Geneva Convention[edit]

The first ten articles of the First Geneva Convention were concluded in 1864. This was the original Geneva Convention. The following states were parties to the 1864 Geneva Convention.

State[35] GC 1864[Note 1] Notes
 Argentina 1879
 Austrian Empire 1866
Grand Duchy of Baden Grand Duchy of Baden 1864 Original signatory.
 Kingdom of Bavaria 1866
 Belgium 1864 Original signatory.
 Bolivia 1879
 Brazil 1906
Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria 1884
 British Cape Colony 1896 The Union of South Africa was recognized as the successor state of this ratification.
 Chile 1879
 Qing Dynasty of China 1904
 Colombia 1906
 Congo Free State 1888
 Cuba 1907
 Denmark 1864 Original signatory.
 Dominican Republic 1907
 Ecuador 1907
 El Salvador 1874
 Second French Empire 1864 Original signatory.
 German Empire 1906
 Kingdom of Greece 1865
 Guatemala 1903
 Haiti 1907
 Grand Duchy of Hesse 1866 Original signatory.
Papal States Holy See 1868
 Honduras 1898
Iran Qajar dynasty of Iran 1874 Ratified as "Persia".
 Kingdom of Italy 1864 Original signatory.
Japan Empire of Japan 1886
 Korean Empire 1903
 Luxembourg 1888
Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1895
 Mexico 1905
 Principality of Montenegro 1875
 Netherlands 1864 Original signatory.
 Nicaragua 1898
 Orange Free State 1897
 Ottoman Empire 1865
 Panama 1907
 Paraguay 1907
 Peru 1880
 Kingdom of Portugal 1866 Original signatory.
 Kingdom of Prussia 1865 Original signatory.
Romania Romania 1874
 Russian Empire 1867
 Kingdom of Saxony 1866
Serbia Principality of Serbia 1876
Spain Spanish Empire 1864
  Switzerland 1864 Original signatory.
 Thailand 1895 Ratified as "Siam".
 United Kingdom 1865
 United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway 1864
 United States 1882
 Uruguay 1900
 Venezuela 1894
Kingdom of Württemberg Kingdom of Württemberg 1864 Original signatory.
Notes
  1. ^ Year the state ratified or acceded to the 1864 version of the First Geneva Convention.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  2. ^ "Protection des victimes de la guerre". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  3. ^ "1949 Conventions and Additional Protocols, and their Commentaries". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  4. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention pour l'amélioration du sort des blessés et des malades dans les forces armées en campagne" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  5. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention pour l'amélioration du sort des blessés, des malades et des naufragés des forces armées sur mer" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  6. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention relative au traitement des prisonniers de guerre" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  7. ^ "Conventions de Genève pour la protection des victimes de la guerre: Convention relative à la protection des personnes civiles en temps de guerre" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  8. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à la protection des victimes des conflits armés internationaux (Protocole I)" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  9. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à la protection des victimes des conflits armés non internationaux (Protocole II)" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  10. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à l’adoption d’un signe distinctif additionnel (Protocole III)" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  11. ^ "Protocole additionnel aux Conventions de Genève du 12 août 1949 relatif à la protection des victimes des conflits armés internationaux (Protocole I) - Etats ayant fait la déclaration prévue à l'article 90" (in French). Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. Retrieved 2013-07-22. 
  12. ^ a b "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2000-07-07. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  13. ^ "Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 - China". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  14. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1999-06-28. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  15. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  16. ^ "Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 - United Kingdom". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  17. ^ "Historical Information". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  18. ^ "Accession of the United Nations Council for Namibia to the four Conventions and the two Protocols Additional". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1983-11-30. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  19. ^ "Succession by Namibia to the Conventions". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1991-10-25. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  20. ^ "Declaration by Namibia". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1994-07-27. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  21. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1987-07-10. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  22. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2006-12-15. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  23. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2011-10-17. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  24. ^ "Niue". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-17. 
  25. ^ "State Parties to the Following International Humanitarian Law and Other Related Treaties as of 11-Jul-2013". International Committee of the Red Cross. 2013-07-11. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  26. ^ "Niue Laws". Government of Niue. 2006. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  27. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1988-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  28. ^ a b "Note of information". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 1989-09-13. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  29. ^ a b "Area under Palestinian Authority". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16. 
  30. ^ "Q&A: Palestine’s Accession to International Treaties". Palestine Liberation Organization Negotiations Affairs Department. 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2014-04-02. 
  31. ^ "Notes to correspondents". United Nations. 2014-04-02. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  32. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2002-11-01. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  33. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  34. ^ "Notification to the Governments of the States Parties to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protoection of War Victims". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs of Switzerland. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-08-14. 
  35. ^ "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2013-07-16.