Principality of Serbia
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|Principality of Serbia|
Principality of Serbia in 1878
|-||1817–39||Miloš Obrenović I (first)|
|-||1868–82||Milan Obrenović IV (last)|
|-||Recognized by Porte||1815|
|-||Statehood Day||February 15, 1835c|
|-||Recognized||July 13, 1878d|
|a: Moved to Belgrade in 1838.
b: de jure in the 1830 Hatt-i Sharif.
c: Outbreak of Serbian Revolution, First Constitution adopted.
d: De facto independent since 1867, de jure by the Treaty of Berlin.
The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif.
Despite oppression by the Ottoman authorities, the Serbian revolutionary leaders — first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović — succeeded in their goal of liberating Serbia from the centuries-long Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state in 1830 by the charter known as the Hatt-i Sharif, and Miloš Obrenović became a hereditary prince (knjaz) of the Serbian Principality.
At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–33 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1867 the Ottoman army and all Muslims was expelled from the Principality, securing its de facto independence. A new Constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the south-east in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin. The Principality would last until 1882 when it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.
The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović each reigned twice.
List of princes of the principality:
- Miloš Obrenović I (1817–1839) first reign
- Milan Obrenović II (1839) reigned for only 26 days and died
- Mihailo Obrenović III (1839–1842) first reign
- Aleksandar Karađorđević (1842–1858)
- Miloš Obrenović I (1858–1860) second reign
- Mihailo Obrenović III (1860–1868) second reign
- Milan Obrenović IV (1868–1882)
List of Princes of Serbia
|Miloš Obrenović I||March 17th 1780||September 26th 1860||November 6th 1817||June 25th 1839|
|Milan Obrenović II||October 21st 1819||July 8th 1839||June 25th 1839||July 8th 1839|
|Mihailo Obrenović III||September 16th 1823||June 10th 1868||July 8th 1839||September 14th 1842|
|Aleksandar Karadjordjevic||October 11th 1806||May 3rd 1885||September 14, 1842||December 23rd 1858|
|Miloš Obrenović I||March 17th 1780||September 1860||December 23rd 1858||September 26th 1860|
|Mihailo Obrenović III||September 16 1823||June 10th 1868||September 26th 1860||June 10th 1868|
|Milan Obrenović IV||August 22nd 1854||February 11th 1901||June 10th 1868||March 6th 1882|
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