List of roller coaster rankings

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Looking along Formula Rossa's launch track where a train is being launched
Formula Rossa, the fastest roller coaster in the world

Roller coasters are amusement rides developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. During the 16th and 17th centuries, rides consisting of wooden sleds that took riders down large slides made from ice were popular in Russia. The first roller coasters, where the train was attached to a wooden track, first appeared in France in the early 1800s.[1] Although wooden roller coasters are still being produced, steel roller coasters are more common and can be found on every continent except Antarctica.[2]

Ranked by height, speed, length, inversions, and steepness, roller coasters are also rated through public opinion polls. Amusement parks often compete to build the tallest, fastest, and longest rides to attract thrill seekers and boost overall park attendance.[3] However, many records do not usually last long. When Magnum XL-200 opened in 1989, it began a new era of roller coasters and increased competition among parks to set new world records. The Magnum XL–200 was the first complete-circuit roller coaster built over 200 feet (61 m).[4][5] Other notable roller coasters include Formula Rossa which reaches a top speed of 149 miles per hour (240 km/h),[6] Kingda Ka which stands at 456 feet (139 m) tall,[7] Steel Dragon 2000 which measures 8,133 feet (2,479 m) in length,[8] and Takabisha which has a beyond-vertical drop angle of 121°.[9]

Key[edit]

Key
Key Meaning
1 Record holder
** Under construction
* Standing but not operating (SBNO)

Height rankings[edit]

Tallest steel roller coasters[edit]

View from the ground up the 456-foot-tall structure of Kingda Ka
Kingda Ka, the tallest roller coaster in the world
Tallest steel roller coasters
Rank Name Park Country Height Manufacturer Record held
1 Kingda Ka Six Flags Great Adventure United States 456 ft (139 m) Intamin May 2005 – present
2 Top Thrill Dragster Cedar Point United States 420 ft (130 m) Intamin May 2003 – May 2005
3 Superman: Escape from Krypton[nb 1] Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 415 ft (126 m) Intamin March 1997 – May 2003
4 Tower of Terror II[nb 1] Dreamworld Australia 377 ft (115 m) Intamin January 1997 – March 1997
5 Steel Dragon 2000 Nagashima Spa Land Japan 318 ft (97 m) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing N/A
6 Millennium Force Cedar Point United States 310 ft (94 m) Intamin N/A
7 Leviathan Canada's Wonderland Canada 306 ft (93 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
8 Intimidator 305 Kings Dominion United States 305 ft (93 m) Intamin N/A
9 Thunder Dolphin Tokyo Dome City Attractions Japan 262 ft (80 m) Intamin N/A
10 Fujiyama Fuji-Q Highland Japan 259 ft (79 m) TOGO July 1996 – January 1997

Source:[10]

Longest steel roller coaster drops[edit]

Longest steel roller coaster drops
Rank Name Park Country Drop length Manufacturer Record held
1 Kingda Ka Six Flags Great Adventure United States 418 ft (127 m) Intamin May 2005 – present
2 Top Thrill Dragster Cedar Point United States 400 ft (120 m) Intamin May 2003 – May 2005
3 Superman: Escape from Krypton[nb 1] Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 328 ft (100 m) Intamin March 1997 – May 2003
Tower of Terror II[nb 1] Dreamworld Australia 328 ft (100 m) Intamin January 1997 – May 2003
4 Steel Dragon 2000 Nagashima Spa Land Japan 307 ft (94 m) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing N/A
5 Leviathan Canada's Wonderland Canada 306 ft (93 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
6 Intimidator 305 Kings Dominion United States 300 ft (91 m) Intamin N/A
Millennium Force Cedar Point United States 300 ft (91 m) Intamin N/A
7 Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya PortAventura Spain 256 ft (78 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
8 Goliath Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 255 ft (78 m) Giovanola N/A
Titan Six Flags Over Texas United States 255 ft (78 m) Giovanola N/A
9 Fujiyama Fuji-Q Highland Japan 230 ft (70 m) TOGO July 1996 – January 1997
10 Phantom's Revenge Kennywood United States 228 ft (69 m) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing May 1991 – July 1996

Sources:[11][12]

Longest wooden roller coaster drops[edit]

Longest wooden roller coaster drops[nb 2]
Rank Name Park Country Drop length Manufacturer Record held
** Goliath Six Flags Great America United States 180 ft (55 m) Rocky Mountain Construction
1 El Toro Six Flags Great Adventure United States 176 ft (54 m) Intamin June 2009 – present
2 Outlaw Run Silver Dollar City United States 162 ft (49 m) Rocky Mountain Construction N/A
3 Colossos Heide Park Germany 159 ft (48 m) Intamin N/A
4 Mean Streak Cedar Point United States 155 ft (47 m) Dinn Corporation May 1991 – May 2000
5 The Voyage Holiday World & Splashin' Safari United States 154 ft (47 m) The Gravity Group N/A
6 T Express Everland South Korea 151 ft (46 m) Intamin N/A
7 The Boss Six Flags St. Louis United States 150 ft (46 m) Custom Coasters International N/A
8 American Eagle Six Flags Great America United States 147 ft (45 m) Intamin May 1981 – May 1991
** Viper Wanda City Theme Park China 142.5 ft (43.4 m) Great Coasters International
9 The Beast Kings Island United States 141 ft (43 m) Charles Dinn / Al Collins April 1979 – May 1981
10 Hades 360 Mt. Olympus Water & Theme Park United States 140 ft (43 m) The Gravity Group N/A

Source:[14]

Speed rankings[edit]

Fastest steel roller coasters[edit]

Fastest steel roller coasters
Rank Name Park Country Speed Manufacturer Record held
1 Formula Rossa Ferrari World United Arab Emirates 149 mph (240 km/h) Intamin November 2010 – present
2 Kingda Ka Six Flags Great Adventure United States 128 mph (206 km/h) Intamin May 2005 – November 2010
3 Top Thrill Dragster Cedar Point United States 120 mph (190 km/h) Intamin May 2003 – May 2005
4 Dodonpa Fuji-Q Highland Japan 107 mph (172 km/h) S&S Worldwide December 2001 – May 2003
5 Superman: Escape from Krypton[nb 1] Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 104 mph (167 km/h) Intamin March 1997 – December 2001
Tower of Terror II[nb 1] Dreamworld Australia 104 mph (167 km/h) Intamin January 1997 – December 2001
6 ring°racer Nürburgring Germany 99.4 mph (160.0 km/h) S&S Worldwide N/A
7 Steel Dragon 2000 Nagashima Spa Land Japan 95 mph (153 km/h) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing N/A
8 Millennium Force Cedar Point United States 93 mph (150 km/h) Intamin N/A
9 Leviathan Canada's Wonderland Canada 92 mph (148 km/h) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
10 Intimidator 305 Kings Dominion United States 90 mph (140 km/h) Intamin N/A

Source:[15]

Fastest wooden roller coasters[edit]

An overview of El Toro at Six Flags Great Adventure
El Toro, the fastest wooden roller coaster in the world
A train ascending American Eagle's lift hill
American Eagle opened as the fastest wooden roller coaster in the world in 1981.
Fastest wooden roller coasters[nb 2]
Rank Name Park Country Speed Manufacturer Record held
** Goliath Six Flags Great America United States 72 mph (116 km/h) Rocky Mountain Construction
1 El Toro Six Flags Great Adventure United States 70 mph (110 km/h) Intamin June 2009 – present
2 Colossos Heide Park Germany 68 mph (109 km/h) Intamin N/A
Outlaw Run Silver Dollar City United States 68 mph (109 km/h) Rocky Mountain Construction N/A
3 The Voyage Holiday World & Splashin' Safari United States 67.4 mph (108.5 km/h) The Gravity Group N/A
4 The Boss Six Flags St. Louis United States 66.3 mph (106.7 km/h) Custom Coasters International April 2000 – May 2000
5 American Eagle Six Flags Great America United States 66 mph (106 km/h) Intamin May 1981 – April 2000
6 Mean Streak Cedar Point United States 65 mph (105 km/h) Dinn Corporation N/A
7 The Beast Kings Island United States 64.8 mph (104.3 km/h) Charles Dinn / Al Collins April 1979 – May 1981
8 T Express Everland South Korea 64.6 mph (104.0 km/h) Intamin N/A
9 Montezum Hopi Hari Brazil 64 mph (103 km/h) Roller Coaster Corporation of America N/A
10 White Cyclone Nagashima Spa Land Japan 63.4 mph (102.0 km/h) Intamin N/A

Source:[16]

Length rankings[edit]

Longest steel roller coasters[edit]

Steel Dragon 2000 from outside Nagashima Spa Land's boundary
Steel Dragon 2000, the longest roller coaster in the world
California Screamin' in 2009 showing the two main hills and the vertical loop
California Screamin', the sixth longest steel roller coaster in the world
Longest steel roller coasters
Rank Name Park Country Length Manufacturer Record held
1 Steel Dragon 2000 Nagashima Spa Land Japan 8,133 ft (2,479 m) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing August 2000 – present
2 The Ultimate Lightwater Valley United Kingdom 7,442 ft (2,268 m) Big Country Motioning July 1991 – August 2000
3 Fujiyama Fuji-Q Highland Japan 6,709 ft (2,045 m) TOGO N/A
4 Millennium Force Cedar Point United States 6,595 ft (2,010 m) Intamin N/A
5 Formula Rossa Ferrari World United Arab Emirates 6,562 ft (2,000 m) Intamin N/A
6 California Screamin' Disney California Adventure United States 6,072 ft (1,851 m) Intamin N/A
7 Desperado Buffalo Bill's United States 5,843 ft (1,781 m) Arrow Dynamics N/A
8 Gao Mitsui Greenland Japan 5,692 ft (1,735 m) Meisho Amusement Machines N/A
9 Mamba Worlds of Fun United States 5,600 ft (1,700 m) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing N/A
Steel Force Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom United States 5,600 ft (1,700 m) D. H. Morgan Manufacturing N/A

Source:[17]

Longest wooden roller coasters[edit]

Longest wooden roller coasters
Rank Name Park Country Length Manufacturer Record held
1 The Beast Kings Island United States 7,359 ft (2,243 m) Charles Dinn / Al Collins April 1979 – present
2 The Voyage Holiday World & Splashin' Safari United States 6,442 ft (1,964 m) The Gravity Group N/A
3 White Cyclone Nagashima Spa Land Japan 5,577 ft (1,700 m) Intamin N/A
4 Mean Streak Cedar Point United States 5,427 ft (1,654 m) Dinn Corporation N/A
5 T Express Everland South Korea 5,383.8 ft (1,641.0 m) Intamin N/A
6 Shivering Timbers Michigan's Adventure United States 5,383 ft (1,641 m) Custom Coasters International N/A
7 Jupiter Kijima Amusement Park Japan 5,249 ft (1,600 m) Intamin N/A
** Viper Wanda City Theme Park China 5,111 ft (1,558 m) Great Coasters International
8 The Boss Six Flags St. Louis United States 5,051 ft (1,540 m) Custom Coasters International N/A
9 Wood Coaster Knight Valley China 4,817 ft (1,468 m) Great Coasters International N/A
10 Hades 360 Mt. Olympus Water & Theme Park United States 4,726 ft (1,440 m) The Gravity Group N/A

Source:[18]

Steepness rankings[edit]

Diagram of steel structure with measurements
A diagram showing how roller coaster drop angles are measured. Saw – The Ride is pictured with its 100° drop.

Steepest steel roller coasters[edit]

Steepest steel roller coasters
Rank Name Park Country Maximum vertical angle Manufacturer Record held Ref.
1 Takabisha Fuji-Q Highland Japan 121° Gerstlauer July 16, 2011 – present [9]
2 Green Lantern Coaster Warner Bros. Movie World Australia 120.5° S&S Worldwide N/A [19]
3 Crazy Bird Happy Valley Tianjin China 120° S&S Worldwide N/A [20]
4 Timber Drop Fraispertuis City France 113° S&S Worldwide July 2, 2011 – July 15, 2011 [21]
5 Mumbo Jumbo Flamingoland United Kingdom 112° S&S Worldwide July 4, 2009 – July 1, 2011 [22]
6 Steel Hawg Indiana Beach United States 111° S&S Worldwide July 5, 2008 – July 3, 2009 [23]
7 Abyss Adventure World Australia 100° Gerstlauer N/A [24]
Saw – The Ride Thorpe Park United Kingdom 100° Gerstlauer N/A [25]
8 Fahrenheit Hersheypark United States 97° Intamin May 24, 2008 – July 4, 2008 [26]
Falcon Duinrell Netherlands 97° Gerstlauer N/A [27]
Fluch von Novgorod Hansa Park Germany 97° Gerstlauer N/A [28]
Huracan Belantis Germany 97° Gerstlauer N/A [29]
Rage Adventure Island United Kingdom 97° Gerstlauer February 10, 2007 – July 4, 2008 [30]
Speed: No Limits Oakwood Theme Park United Kingdom 97° Gerstlauer April 13, 2006 – July 4, 2008 [31]
SpongeBob SquarePants Rock Bottom Plunge Nickelodeon Universe United States 97° Gerstlauer March 15, 2008 – July 4, 2008 [32]
Typhoon Bobbejaanland Belgium 97° Gerstlauer April 10, 2004 – July 4, 2008 [33]
Untamed Canobie Lake Park United States 97° Gerstlauer N/A [34]
Vild-Svinet BonBon-Land Denmark 97° Gerstlauer May 16, 2003 – July 4, 2008 [35]
9 Iron Shark Galveston Island Historic Pleasure Pier United States 95° Gerstlauer N/A
Dare Devil Dive Six Flags Over Georgia United States 95° Gerstlauer N/A [36]
Maverick Cedar Point United States 95° Intamin N/A [37]
Mystery Mine Dollywood United States 95° Gerstlauer N/A [38]

Steepest wooden roller coasters[edit]

Steepest wooden roller coasters
Rank Name Park Country Maximum vertical angle Manufacturer Record held Ref.
** Goliath Six Flags Great America United States 85° Rocky Mountain Construction [39]
1 Outlaw Run Silver Dollar City United States 81° Rocky Mountain Construction March 2013 – present [40]
2 T Express Everland South Korea 77° Intamin March 2008 – March 2013 [41]
3 El Toro Six Flags Great Adventure United States 76° Intamin June 2006 – March 2008 [42]
4 Balder Liseberg Sweden 70° Intamin April 2003 – June 2006 [43]
5 The Voyage Holiday World & Splashin' Safari United States 66° The Gravity Group N/A [44]
6 Hades 360 Mt. Olympus Water & Theme Park United States 65° The Gravity Group N/A [45]

Inversion rankings[edit]

Tallest roller coaster inversions[edit]

'Tallest roller coaster inversion' is taken to mean the maximum height above the ground that the coaster is inverted, and contains all types of roller coaster inversions including vertical loops.

Tallest roller coasters inversions
Rank Name Park Country Height Inversion type Manufacturer Record held Ref.
1 GateKeeper Cedar Point United States 170 ft (52 m) Dive drop Bolliger & Mabillard May 11, 2013 – present [46]
2 Full Throttle Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 160 ft (49 m) Vertical loop Premier Rides N/A [46]
3 Volcano, The Blast Coaster Kings Dominion United States 155 ft (47 m) Roll out Intamin August 3, 1998 – May 10, 2013 [47]
4 Abismo Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Spain 152 ft (46 m) SkyLoop Maurer Söhne N/A [48]
BuzzSaw Dreamworld Australia 152 ft (46 m) SkyLoop Maurer Söhne N/A [48]
Clouds in Fairyland World Joyland China 152 ft (46 m) SkyLoop Maurer Söhne N/A [48]
Hidden Anaconda Happy Valley Wuhan China 152 ft (46 m) SkyLoop Maurer Söhne N/A [48]
Sky Wheel Skyline Park Germany 152 ft (46 m) SkyLoop Maurer Söhne N/A [48]
Ukko Linnanmäki Finland 152 ft (46 m) SkyLoop Maurer Söhne N/A [48]
5 Mr. Freeze: Reverse Blast[nb 1] Six Flags Over Texas United States 150 ft (46 m) Inside top hat Premier Rides N/A [49]
Mr. Freeze: Reverse Blast[nb 1] Six Flags St. Louis United States 150 ft (46 m) Inside top hat Premier Rides N/A [50]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Six Flags Discovery Kingdom United States 150 ft (46 m) Heartline roll Premier Rides N/A [51]
6 Griffon Busch Gardens Williamsburg United States 146 ft (45 m) Immelmann Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [52]
7 Diving Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai China 145 ft (44 m) Immelmann Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [53][54]
SheiKra Busch Gardens Tampa Bay United States 145 ft (44 m) Immelmann Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [54]
Superman: Krypton Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas United States 145 ft (44 m) Vertical loop Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [46]
8 Viper Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 144 ft (44 m) Vertical loop Arrow Dynamics April 7, 1990 – August 2, 1998 [46]
9 Dominator Kings Dominion United States 135 ft (41 m) Vertical loop Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [55]
Storm Runner Hersheypark United States 135 ft (41 m) Cobra loop Intamin N/A [56]
10 Medusa Six Flags Discovery Kingdom United States 128 ft (39 m) Vertical loop Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [57]
Scream! Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 128 ft (39 m) Vertical loop Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [58]

Tallest vertical loops[edit]

This listing contains only those roller coasters which feature vertical loops and not other types of roller coaster inversions. 'Tallest vertical loop' is taken to mean the total height of the loop from entry point to exit point of the loop.

Tallest vertical loops
Rank Name Park Country Height Manufacturer Record held Ref.
1 Full Throttle Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 160 ft (49 m) Premier Rides June 2013 – present [46]
2 Superman: Krypton Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas United States 145 ft (44 m) Bolliger & Mabillard March 2000 – June 2013 [46]
3 Viper Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 144 ft (44 m) Arrow Dynamics N/A [46]
4 Dominator Kings Dominion United States 135 ft (41 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [55]
5 Medusa Six Flags Discovery Kingdom United States 128 ft (39 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [57]
Scream! Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 128 ft (39 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [58]
6 Jubilee Odyssey Fantasy Island England 124 ft (38 m) Vekoma N/A [59]
Riddler's Revenge Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 124 ft (38 m) Bolliger & Mabillard April 1998 – March 2000 [60]
7 Green Lantern Six Flags Great Adventure United States 121 ft (37 m) Bolliger & Mabillard April 1997 – April 1998[nb 3] [61]
* The Time Machine Freestyle Music Park United States 120 ft (37 m) Bolliger & Mabillard [62]
8 Kraken SeaWorld Orlando United States 119 ft (36 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [63]
Mantis Cedar Point United States 119 ft (36 m) Bolliger & Mabillard May 1996 – April 1997 [64]
9 Dragon Khan PortAventura Spain 118 ft (36 m) Bolliger & Mabillard May 1995 – May 1996 [65]
10 Bizarro Six Flags Great Adventure United States 114 ft (35 m) Bolliger & Mabillard N/A [66]
Kumba Busch Gardens Tampa Bay United States 114 ft (35 m) Bolliger & Mabillard April 1993 – May 1995 [67]

Most inversions[edit]

This listing contains all types of roller coaster inversions.

Steel roller coasters[edit]

Most inversions on a steel roller coaster
Rank Name Park Country Inversions Manufacturer Record held
1 The Smiler Alton Towers United Kingdom 14 Gerstlauer May 2013 – present
** Journey to the Stars Jinling Happy World China 11 Hebei Zhongye Metallurgical Equipment Manufacturing Co
2 Colossus Thorpe Park United Kingdom 10 Intamin March 2002 – May 2013
10 Inversion Roller Coaster Chime-Long Paradise China 10 Intamin February 2006 – May 2013
Crazy Coaster Locajoy Holiday China 10 Intamin N/A
** Unknown Cinecittà World Italy 10 Intamin
** Unknown Hopi Hari Brazil 10 Intamin
3 Avalancha Xetulul Guatemala 8 Intamin N/A
Dragon Khan PortAventura Spain 8 Bolliger & Mabillard May 1995 – March 2002
Flight of the Phoenix Harborland China 8 Intamin N/A
4 Bizarro Six Flags Great Adventure United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Goudurix Parc Astérix France 7 Vekoma April 1989 – May 1995
Hydra the Revenge Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
The Incredible Hulk Islands of Adventure United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Kraken SeaWorld Orlando United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Kumba Busch Gardens Tampa Bay United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard April 1993 – May 1995
Medusa Six Flags Discovery Kingdom United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Montu Busch Gardens Tampa Bay United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Scream! Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Superman: La Atracción de Acero Parque Warner Madrid Spain 7 Bolliger & Mabillard N/A
Takabisha Fuji-Q Highland Japan 7 Gerstlauer N/A
Viper Six Flags Magic Mountain United States 7 Arrow Dynamics April 1990 – May 1995
** Banshee Kings Island United States 7 Bolliger & Mabillard

Sources:[68]

Wooden roller coasters[edit]

Most inversions on a wooden roller coaster[nb 4]
Rank Name Park Country Inversions Manufacturer Record held
1 Outlaw Run Silver Dollar City United States 3 Rocky Mountain Construction March 2013 – present
** Goliath Six Flags Great America United States 2 Rocky Mountain Construction
2 Hades 360 Mt. Olympus Water & Theme Park United States 1 The Gravity Group N/A

Source:[69]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h A shuttle roller coaster, not complete-circuit
  2. ^ a b Record was held by Son of Beast from May 2000 – June 2009. Its height was 218 feet (66 m), its drop distance was 214 feet (65 m) and its speed was 78 miles per hour (126 km/h).[13]
  3. ^ Record was held when the ride opened as Chang at Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom.
  4. ^ Record was held by Son of Beast from 2000 to 2006.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harris, Tom. "How Roller Coasters Work". Discovery Communications. Retrieved December 26, 2012. 
  2. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster Census Report". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
  3. ^ Martín, Hugo (March 13, 2012). "Thrill ride designers compete to push the limits". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved November 11, 2012. 
  4. ^ "It's opening weekend for Cedar Point". Associated Press. May 15, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Magnum XL–200 20th anniversary ceremomy". PointBuzz. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 
  6. ^ Marden, Duane. "Formula Rossa  (Ferrari World Abu Dhabi)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
  7. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kingda Ka  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Dragon 2000  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Takabisha  (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  10. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Record Holders – Height". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 20, 2010. 
  11. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Record Holders – Drop". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  12. ^ Hunter, Paul (April 27, 2012). "Canada's Wonderland's new roller coaster, Leviathan, tallest, fastest in Canada". Toronto Star. Retrieved August 9, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c Marden, Duane. "Son of Beast  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved December 26, 2012. 
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wood Record Holders – Drop". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Record Holders – Steel – Speed". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wood Record Holders – Speed". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Record Holders – Steel – Length". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2010. 
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wood Record Holders – Length". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern Coaster  (Warner Bros. Movie World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved December 16, 2011. 
  20. ^ Marden, Duane. "Crazy Bird  (Happy Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved December 29, 2013. 
  21. ^ Marden, Duane. "Timber Drop  (Fraispertuis City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  22. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mumbo Jumbo  (Flamingo Land Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  23. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Hawg  (Indiana Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  24. ^ Marden, Duane. "Abyss  (Adventure World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 24, 2013. 
  25. ^ Marden, Duane. "Saw – The Ride  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  26. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fahrenheit  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  27. ^ Marden, Duane. "Falcon  (Duinrell)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fluch von Novgorod  (Hansa Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Huracan  (Belantis)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rage  (Adventure Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speed: No Limits  (Oakwood Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  32. ^ Marden, Duane. "SpongeBob SquarePants Rock Bottom Plunge  (Nickelodeon Universe)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Typhoon  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Untamed  (Canobie Lake Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vild-Svinet  (BonBon-Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dare Devil Dive  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Maverick  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mystery Mine  (Dollywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 16, 2011. 
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Outlaw Run  (Silver Dollar City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "T Express  (Everland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "El Toro  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Balder  (Liseberg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Voyage  (Holiday World & Splashin' Safari)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  45. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hades 360  (Mt. Olympus Water & Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  46. ^ a b c d e f g MacDonald, Brady (August 30, 2012). "Six Flags Magic Mountain adding Full Throttle coaster in 2013". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Volcano, The Blast Coaster  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved January 11, 2012. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f "Maurer Sohne SkyLoop". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). June 4, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  49. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mr. Freeze: Reverse Blast  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  50. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mr. Freeze: Reverse Blast  (Six Flags St. Louis)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Six Flags Discovery Kingdom Announces New Thrill Coaster in 2012 — Superman Ultimate Flight" (Press release). Six Flags Discovery Kingdom. September 1, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
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  53. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diving Coaster  (Happy Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
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  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jubilee Odyssey  (Fantasy Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "Riddler's Revenge  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Time Machine  (Freestyle Music Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kraken  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  64. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mantis  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  65. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon Khan  (PortAventura)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  66. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bizarro  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved January 20, 2013. 
  67. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kumba  (Busch Gardens Tampa Bay)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 7, 2012. 
  68. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Record Holders – Most Inversions". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 11, 2012. 
  69. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wood Record Holders – Most Inversions". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 11, 2012. 

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