Vekoma

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Vekoma Rides Manufacturing
Type Private company
Founded 1926[citation needed]
Founder(s) Hendrik op het Veld
Headquarters Vlodrop, Netherlands
Area served Worldwide
Products Amusement rides
Website Official website

Vekoma Rides Manufacturing is a Netherlands-based amusement ride manufacturer.

History[edit]

Vekoma was founded in 1926 by Hendrik op het Veld under the name "Veld Koning Machinefabriek" (Veld Koning machine factory), and at first manufactured agricultural machinery and mining equipment.[citation needed]

In 1967, Vekoma started manufacturing amusement rides such as Ferris wheels and has, since the mid-1970s, specialized in manufacturing rides ranging from massive steel roller coasters to water rides to family-friendly attractions.[citation needed]

Ferris wheel models[edit]

In 2008, Vekoma Rides Manufacturing acquired the Wheels of Excellence range of Ferris wheels from Ronald Bussink, to be handled by a new Vekoma division, Dutch Wheels BV.[1] The Dutch Wheels product range includes the R40, R50, and R60 models, each available in three different types.[2]

Roller coaster models[edit]

Limit at Heide Park, a SLC model
  • Boomerang - A three inversion shuttle coaster. Designed over 20 years ago, it continues to be a successful product. There are currently three variations, Invertigo, Giant Inverted Boomerang and the Family Boomerang. In 1996, Vekoma introduced an inverted upgrade to this ride called an Invertigo. Five years later, in 2001, Vekoma introduced the Giant Inverted Boomerang, which has completely vertical spikes and provides a taller and faster ride. Vekoma also introduced a Family Boomerang in 2010, which is a kiddie boomerang coaster that doesn't feature inversions.
  • Family Custom Coaster - A classical roller coaster, designed to families with small children and custom to a park's layout and needs. The Grover's Vapor Trail at Sesame Place and Muntanya Russa, at Tibidabo, Barcelona are examples of these coasters.
  • Flying Dutchman - A flying roller coaster. Riders are reclined back into a lay-down position and turn around on the first drop of the ride into a prone 'flying' position. There are two models of the Flying Dutchman, the 843m Prototype, and the 1018m. There are three operating Flying Dutchmans around the world, including Nighthawk at Carowinds, Firehawk at Kings Island, and Batwing at Six Flags America.
  • Hammerhead Stall - Also known as the Big Air, this shuttle type ride is designed to replicate the feeling of flying in a plane. This ride has been installed in EDA park in Taiwan.
  • Junior Coaster (also known as a Roller Skater) - A small family sized roller coaster. Most installations are clones with several turns and helixes.
  • Looping coaster - Vekoma provides several models of looping coasters, including custom layouts.
  • Mine Train - A mine train roller coaster.
  • Motorbike Coaster - A coaster that uses motorbike trains. There are two models of Motorbike Coasters, the 600m and the Custom. Three Motorbike Coasters operate around the world, including the Motorbike Coaster at Chimelong Paradise.
  • Suspended Family Coaster (SFC) - A smaller version of the Suspended Looping Coaster. However, it does not have inversions.
  • Suspended Looping Coaster (SLC) - An inverted roller coaster. The standard model has a roll over immediately after the initial drop, followed by a sidewinder, and finally a double inline twist before returning to its station. There are a few variations, including a longer model with an extra helix at the end of the ride. Vekoma also offers custom SLC models. There are five models of SLCs, the 662m Prototype, the 689m Standard, the 787m Extended, the 765m Extended w/ Helix, and the Custom. There are 37 operating SLCs around the world. The SLC coaster model has earned a reputation among critics for being uncomfortable while most recent installations have begun to address the issue with updated wheel assemblies and train designs. Jubilee Odyssey is a custom layout SLC, which holds the record for being the most expensive roller coaster in the UK.
  • Swinging Turns - A roller coaster with vehicles below the track and allowed to swing freely. Vekoma also provided replacement trains for the Arrow Dynamics designed Vampire at Chessington World of Adventures. There are three operating Swinging Turns around the world, including the Hanging Coaster at Dream World.
  • Tilt Coaster - A standard coaster with a vertical drop at the start. Trains enter the vertical drop via an unusual tilt section. After leaving the chain lift, instead of going down a first drop, the rider is held on a horizontal section of track, which then tilts forwards, to become a vertical section. This leads into the drop, then into the rest of the coaster layout. There is one operating Tilt Coaster in the world, the Gravity Max at Discovery World in Taiwan.
  • Wooden Coaster - A coaster that is made of wood. There are three operating Vekoma wooden coasters around the world, including the Thundercoaster at TusenFryd, Robin Hood at Walibi Holland and Loup-Garou in Walibi Belgium.

Other coaster models by Vekoma include Enigma, Hurricane, Illusion, LSM Coaster, and powered coasters.

In 2013, Vekoma signed a deal with Idaho-based Rocky Mountain Construction. The agreement allows Vekoma to sell Rocky Mountain Construction's roller coasters outside the North American market.[3]

Notable installations[edit]

Ferris wheels[edit]

Ferris wheel name Location Opened Status
Giant Wheel Morey's Piers, Wildwood, New Jersey, US
1985
Operating [4]
Navy Pier Ferris Wheel Pier Park, Navy Pier, Chicago, US
1995
Operating [5][6][7]

Roller coasters[edit]

As of 2012, Vekoma has built over 270 roller coasters around the world.[8]

Coaster name Location Model Original opening Status
Apocalypse
Formerly Corkscrew
Formerly Corkscrew
Luna Park
Flamingo Land Theme Park & Zoo
Spanish City Amusement Park
Sitdown 2012 Operating [9]
Aftershock
Formerly Déjà Vu
Silverwood Theme Park
Six Flags Great America
Giant Inverted Boomerang 2001 Operating [10][11]
Arkham Asylum – Shock Therapy Warner Bros. Movie World SLC 765m Extended w/Helix 1995 Operating [12]
Bandit Bomber YAS Waterworld Inverted 515m 2013 Operating [13]
Babylon Happylon Indoor sitdown 2010 Operating [14]
The Barnstormer Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom Junior Coaster 1996 Operating [15]
The Bat Canada's Wonderland Boomerang 1987 Operating [16]
Bat Lagoon Amusement Park SFC 342m 2005 Operating [17]
Batman - The Ride Six Flags Mexico SLC 689m Standard 2000 Operating [18]
Battlestar Galactica: Human or Cylon Universal Studios Singapore Custom Designed Dueling Coaster 2010 Defunct [19]
Ben 10 – Ultimate Mission Drayton Manor Theme Park Junior Boomerang 2011 Operating [20]
Big Air E-DA Theme Park Big Air 2010 Operating [21]
Big Thunder Mountain Railroad Disneyland Park (Paris) Mine Train 1992 Operating [22]
Ben 10 – Ultimate Mission Drayton Manor Theme Park Junior Boomerang 2011 Operating [20]
Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Cars Hong Kong Disneyland Sit Down 2012 Operating [23]
Blue Tornado Gardaland SLC 765m Extended w/Helix 1998 Operating [24]
Boomerang Knott's Berry Farm Boomerang 1990 Operating [25]
Boomerang La Ronde Boomerang 1984 Operating [26]
Boomerang Parc Touristique des Combes Junior Boomerang 2011 Operating [27]
Boomerang Six Flags Mexico Boomerang 1987 Operating [28]
Boomerang
Formerly Flashback
Six Flags St. Louis
Six Flags Over Texas
Boomerang 1989 Operating [29][30]
Boomerang Wild Adventures Boomerang 1998 Operating [31]
Boomerang Worlds of Fun Boomerang 2000 Operating [32]
Boomerang: Coast to Coaster Darien Lake Boomerang 1998 Operating [33]
Boomerang: Coast to Coaster Elitch Gardens Theme Park Boomerang 1999 Operating [34]
Boomerang: Coast to Coaster Great Escape Boomerang 1997 Operating [35]
Boomerang: Coast to Coaster Six Flags Discovery Kingdom Boomerang 1998 Operating [36]
Boomerang: Coast to Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas Boomerang 1999 Operating [37]
Booster Bike Toverland Motorbike 2004 Operating [38]
Calamity Mine Walibi Belgium Mine Train 1992 Operating [39]
Carolina Cobra
Formerly Head Spin
Carowinds
Geauga Lake
Boomerang 1996 Operating [40][41]
Cobra Walibi Belgium Boomerang 2001 Operating [42]
Dream Catcher
Formarly Air Race
Bobbejaanland Suspended Coaster 1987 Operating [43]
Ednör – L'Attaque
Formerly Serial Thriller
La Ronde
Six Flags Astroworld
SLC 689m Standard 1999 Operating [44][45]
El Condor Walibi Holland SLC 662m Prototype 1994 Operating [46]
Escape from Madagascar Dreamworld SFC 342m 2002 Operating [47]
Expedition Everest Disney's Animal Kingdom SLC Custom 2006 Operating [48]
Firehawk
Formerly X-Flight
Kings Island
Geauga Lake
Flying Dutchman 1020m 2001 Operating [49][50]
Flashback
Formerly Vampire
Formerly Boomerang
Six Flags New England
Kentucky Kingdom
Nanhu Amusement Park
Boomerang 1985 Operating [51][52][53]
Flight Deck
Formerly Top Gun
Canada's Wonderland SLC 689m Standard 1995 Operating [54]
Flight of the Hippogriff
Formerly Flying Unicorn
Islands of Adventure
Islands of Adventure
Junior Coaster 2000 Operating [55]
Fly - The Great Nor'easter Morey's Piers SLC Custom 1995 Operating [56]
Flying Ace Aerial Chase Carowinds SFC 342m 2003 Operating [57]
Flying Ace Aerial Chase Kings Island SFC 342m 2001 Operating [58]
Flying School
Formerly Swamp Thing
Legoland Florida
Cypress Gardens
SFC 342m 2004 Operating [59]
Freedom Flyer Fun Spot Action Park SFC 395m 2013 Under Construction [60]
Gadget's Go Coaster Disneyland Resort
Tokyo Disneyland
Junior Coaster 1993
1996
Operating [citation needed]
Goliath
Formerly Déjà Vu
Six Flags New England
Six Flags Magic Mountain
Giant Inverted Boomerang 2001 Operating [61][62]
Infusion Blackpool Pleasure Beach SLC 689m Standard 2007 Operating [63]
Invertigo Kings Island Invertigo 1999 Operating [64]
Jimmy Neutron's Atomic Flyer Movie Park Germany SFC 294m 2007 Operating [65]
Jubilee Odyssey Fantasy Island SLC Custom 2002 Operating [66]
Kong
Formerly Hangman
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
Opryland USA
SLC 689m Standard 1995 Operating [67][68]
Kvasten Gröna Lund SFC Custom 2007 Operating [69]
Magic Mountain Gardaland Double Loop Corkscrew 1984 Operating [70]
Mammut Gardaland Mine Train Custom 2008 Operating [71]
Mountain Peak Jinjiang Action Park Giant Inverted Boomerang 2011 Operating [72]
MP Xpress Movie Park Germany SLC 689m Standard 2001 Operating [73]
Muntanya Russa Tibidabo Amusement Park Steel Sitdown 2008 Operating [74]
Nighthawk
Formerly Stealth
Carowinds
California's Great America
Flying Dutchman 843m Prototype 2000 Operating [75][76]
Oki Doki
Formarly Vekoma Pipo[77]
Formarly Junior Coaster
Bobbejaanland Junior Coaster 2004 Operating [78]
Python Efteling Double Loop Corkscrew 1981 Operating [79]
Revolution Bobbejaanland Illusion 1989 Operating [80]
Rock 'n' Roller Coaster Starring Aerosmith
Rock 'n' Roller Coaster avec Aerosmith
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Disneyland Paris
LSM Coaster 1999
2002
Operating [81][82]
Roller Skater Kentucky Kingdom Junior (207m) 1994 Operating [83]
Sea Serpent Morey's Piers Boomerang 1984 Operating [84]
Shells Shuttle Powerland (Treasure Island Pirate Kingdom) Indoor Junior Coaster 2006 Operating [85]
Silver Streak Canada's Wonderland SFC 342m 2001 Operating [86]
Sky Mountain
Formerly Déjà Vu
Mirabilandia
Six Flags Over Georgia
Giant Inverted Boomerang 2001 In Storage [87][88]
Space Mountain: Mission 2
Formerly Space Mountain - De la terre à la lune
Disneyland Park (Paris) Steel 2005
1995
Operating
Operated
[89]
Space Shuttle Max
Formerly Cobra
Enchanted Kingdom
West Midland Safari Park
Boomerang 1985 Operating [90][91]
Speed of Sound Walibi Holland Boomerang 2000 Operating [92]
Steel Lasso Frontier City SFC 294m 2008 Operating [93]
Stinger
Formerly Invertigo
Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom
California's Great America
Invertigo 1998 Operating [94][95]
Stress Express Fantawild Adventure Sitdown 2012 Operating [96]
Stunt Fall Parque Warner Madrid Giant Inverted Boomerang 2002 Operating [97]
Swamp Thing Wild Adventures SFC 342m 2003 Operating [97]
Kentucky Kingdom SLC 662m Prototype 1995 SBNO [98]
Thunderhawk
Formerly Serial Thriller
Michigan's Adventure
Geauga Lake
SLC 689m Standard 1998 Operating [99][100]
Triops
Formerly Tornado
Formerly unknown
Formerly HangOver
Bagatelle
Sommerland Syd
Allou Fun Park
Liseberg
Invertigo 1997 Under construction [101][102][103][104]
Two Face: The Flip Side Six Flags America Invertigo 1999 Defunct since 2007 [105]
Wipeout
Formerly Missile
Formerly Coca-Cola Roller
Pleasurewood Hills
The American Adventure Theme Park
Glasgow Garden Festival
Boomerang 1988 Operating [106][107][108]
Woodstock Express Cedar Point Junior 335m 1999 Operating [109]
Zoomerang
Formerly The Demon
Formerly Titan
Alabama Adventure
Wonderland Sydney
World Expo Park
Boomerang 1988 Defunct from 2011 [110][111][112]
Zoomerang Lake Compounce Boomerang 1997 Operating [113]
Zydeco Scream
Formerly Boomerang
Six Flags New Orleans
Parc de Montjuic
Boomerang 1990 SBNO since 2005 [114][115]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Giant Wheels go Dutch - Vekoma takes over Bussink range
  2. ^ Dutch Wheels - our product range
  3. ^ "Vekoma rides on". Park World Magazine: 30. November 2013. 
  4. ^ Ride experts call 11-year-old Pleasantville girl's fatal fall from Wildwood's Morey's Pier Ferris wheel a freak occurrence
  5. ^ Navy Pier's new attractions deemed 'critical' to luring variety of patrons.
  6. ^ Historic Navy Pier Attractions - Pier Park
  7. ^ 10 millionth rider goes for spin on Navy Pier ferris wheel
  8. ^ Vekoma - rcdb.com
  9. ^ Marden, Duane. "Apocalypse  (Lunapark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  10. ^ Marden, Duane. "Déjà Vu  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  11. ^ Marden, Duane. "Aftershock  (Silverwood Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Marden, Duane. "Lethal Weapon - The Ride  (Warner Bros. Movie World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  13. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bandit Bomber  (YAS Waterworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Babylon  (Happylon)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Barnstormer  (Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bat  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bat  (Lagoon)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Mexico)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Battlestar Galactica  (Universal Studios Singapore)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Ben 10 - Ultimate Mission  (Drayton Manor)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  21. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Air  (E-DA Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  22. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Thunder Mountain  (Disneyland Paris)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  23. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Cars  (Hong Kong Disneyland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  24. ^ Marden, Duane. "Blue Tornado  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  25. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  26. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  27. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Parc Touristique des Combes)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Six Flags Mexico)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Six Flags St. Louis)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flashback  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Wild Adventures)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  32. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Worlds of Fun)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang Coast to Coaster  (Darien Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Elitch Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang Coast to Coaster  (Great Escape)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang Coast to Coaster  (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Booster Bike  (Toverland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Calamity Mine  (Walibi Belgium)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Carolina Cobra  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Head Spin  (Geauga Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cobra  (Walibi Belgium)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Oki Doki  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ednör - L'Attaque  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  45. ^ Marden, Duane. "Serial Thriller  (Six Flags Astroworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  46. ^ Marden, Duane. "El Condor  (Walibi Holland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Escape from Madagascar  (Dreamworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  48. ^ Marden, Duane. "Expedition Everest  (Disney's Animal Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  49. ^ Marden, Duane. "Firehawk  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  50. ^ Marden, Duane. "X-Flight  (Geauga Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  51. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flashback  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  52. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vampire  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  53. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Nanhu Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  54. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flight Deck  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  55. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flight of the Hippogriff  (Universal Studios Island of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  56. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fly the Great Nor'Easter  (Morey's Piers)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  57. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Ace Aerial Chase  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  58. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Ace Aerial Chase  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying School  (Legoland Florida)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "Freedom Flyer  (Fun Spot Action Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Déjà Vu  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "Infusion  (Blackpool Pleasure Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  64. ^ Marden, Duane. "Invertigo  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  65. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jimmy Neutron's Atomic Flyer  (Movie Park Germany)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  66. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jubilee Odyssey  (Fantasy Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  67. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kong  (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  68. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hangman  (Opryland USA)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  69. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kvasten  (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  70. ^ Marden, Duane. "Magic-Mountain  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  71. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mammut  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  72. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mountain Peak  (Jinjiang Action Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  73. ^ Marden, Duane. "MP-Xpress  (Movie Park Germany)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  74. ^ Marden, Duane. "Muntanya Russa  (Tibidabo Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  75. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nighthawk  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  76. ^ Marden, Duane. "Stealth  (California's Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  77. ^ Oki Doki
  78. ^ Marden, Duane. "Oki Doki  (Bobbejaanland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  79. ^ Marden, Duane. "Python  (Efteling)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  80. ^ Marden, Duane. "Revolution". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  81. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rock 'n' Roller Coaster  (Disney's Hollywood Studios)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  82. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rock 'n' Roller Coaster  (Disneyland Paris - Walt Disney Studios Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  83. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Skater  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  84. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sea Serpet  (Morey's Piers)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  85. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shells Shuttle  (Powerland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  86. ^ Marden, Duane. "Silver Streak  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  87. ^ Marden, Duane. "Déjà Vu  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  88. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sky Mountain  (Mirabilandia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  89. ^ Marden, Duane. "Space Mountain: Mission 2  (Disneyland Park (Paris))". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 15 February 2013. 
  90. ^ Marden, Duane. "Space Shuttle  (Enchanted Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  91. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cobra  (West Midland Safari Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  92. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speed of Sound  (Walibi Holland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  93. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Lasso  (Frontier City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  94. ^ Marden, Duane. "Stinger  (Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  95. ^ Marden, Duane. "Invertigo  (California's Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  96. ^ Marden, Duane. "Stress Express  (Fantawild Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2013. 
  97. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Stunt Fall  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 20 August 2011. 
  98. ^ Marden, Duane. "T2  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  99. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderhawk  (Michigan's Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  100. ^ Marden, Duane. "Serial Thriller  (Geauga Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 14 December 2010. 
  101. ^ Marden, Duane. "Triops  (Bagatelle)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  102. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tornado  (Sommerland Syd)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  103. ^ Marden, Duane. "unknown  (Allou Fun Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  104. ^ Marden, Duane. "HangOver  (Liseberg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  105. ^ Marden, Duane. "Two-Face: The Flip Side  (Six Flags America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  106. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wipeout  (Pleasurewood Hills)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  107. ^ Marden, Duane. "Missile  (American Adventure Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  108. ^ Marden, Duane. "Coca-Cola Roller  (Glasgow Garden Festival)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  109. ^ Marden, Duane. "Woodstock Express  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 February 2012. 
  110. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zoomerang  (Alabama Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  111. ^ Marden, Duane. "Demon  (Wonderland Sydney)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  112. ^ Marden, Duane. "Titan  (World Expo Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  113. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zoomerang  (Lake Compounce)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  114. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zydeco Scream  (Six Flags New Orleans)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 
  115. ^ Marden, Duane. "Boomerang  (Parc de Montjuic)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 19 February 2012. 

External links[edit]