Livestock guardian dog
Livestock guardian dogs stay with the group of animals they protect as a full-time member of the flock or herd. Their ability to guard their herd is mainly instinctive, as the dog is bonded to the herd from an early age. Unlike the often smaller herding dogs that control the movement of the livestock, LGDs blend in with them, watching for intruders within the flock. The mere presence of a guardian dog is usually enough to ward off some predators, and LGDs will confront predators by vocal intimidation, barking, and displaying very aggressive behavior. The dog may attack or fight with a predator to protect the flock, if they are not able to drive predators off otherwise. Livestock guardians may actively look for predators within protected territory to catch and destroy them, and there are known cases of dogs luring coyotes to the source of food to hunt them.
The use of dogs in protecting livestock originated over 2000 years ago, with their use being recorded as early as 150 BC in Rome. Both Aristotle's History of Animals and Virgil's Georgics mention the use of livestock guardian dogs by the Molossians in the ancient region of Epirus. Many of the modern day livestock guardian dogs are thought to descend from the extinct Molossus breed used by the Molossians.
The dogs are introduced to livestock as puppies so they "imprint" on the animals. This imprinting is thought to be largely olfactory and occurs between 3 and 16 weeks of age. There are many myths in the west regarding the training of livestock guardian dogs, particularly the very incorrect idea that human contact should be kept to a minimum. Training requires regular, daily handling & management, preferably from birth. Livestock guardian dog breeders which do not handle their dogs should be avoided. A guardian dog is not considered reliable until it is at least 2 years of age as it is still a puppy. Up until that time, supervision, guidance, & correction is needed to teach the dog the skill & rules it needs to do its job. Having older dogs that assist in training younger dogs streamlines this process considerably.
In Namibia in Southwest Africa, Anatolians are used to guard goat herds from cheetahs, and are typically imprinted between seven and eight weeks of age. Impoverished Namibian farmers often came into conflict with predatory cheetahs; now, Anatolians usually are able to drive off cheetahs with their barking and displays of aggression.
LGDs are generally large and protective, which can make them less than ideal for urban or even suburban living. Nonetheless, despite their size, they can be gentle, make good companion dogs, and are often protective towards children. If introduced to a family as a pup, most LGDs are as protective of their family as a working guard dog is of its flock. In fact, in some communities where LGDs are a tradition, the runt of a litter would often be kept or given as a household pet or simply kept as a village dog without a single owner.
At least 2 dogs may be placed with a flock or herd depending on its size, the type of predators, their number, and the intensity of predation. If predators are scarce, one dog may be adequate though most operations usually require at least two dogs. Large operations (particularly range operations) and heavy predator loads will require more dogs. Both male and female LGDs have proved to be equally effective in protecting of livestock. Like most mammals, and all dogs, male Sarplaninacs are larger, stronger, more aggressive, and have higher levels of circulating testosterone than female Sarplaninacs. This makes Male Sarplaninacs more likely to prevail in a violent confrontation.
The three qualities most sought after in LGDs are trustworthiness, attentiveness and protectiveness—trustworthy in that they do not roam off and are not aggressive with the livestock, attentive in that they are situationally aware of threats by predators, and protective in that they will attempt to drive off predators. Dogs, being social creatures with differing personalities, will take on different roles with the herd and among themselves: most sticking close to the livestock, others tending to follow the shepherd or rancher when one is present, and some drifting farther from the livestock. These differing roles are often complementary in terms of protecting livestock, and experienced ranchers and shepherds sometimes encourage these differences by adjustments in socialization technique so as to increase the effectiveness of their group of dogs in meeting specific predator threats. LGDs that follow the livestock closest assure that a guard dog is on hand if a predator attacks, while LGDs that patrol at the edges of a flock or herd are in a position to keep would-be attackers at a safe distance from livestock. Those dogs that are more attentive tend to alert those that are more passive but perhaps also more trustworthy or less aggressive with the livestock.
While LGDs have been known to fight to the death with predators, in most cases predator attacks are prevented by a display of aggressiveness. LGDs are known to drive off predators that physically they would be no match for, such as bears and even lions. With the reintroduction of predators into natural habitats in Europe and North America, environmentalists have come to appreciate LGDs because they allow sheep and cattle farming to coexist with predators in the same or nearby habitats. Unlike trapping and poisoning, LGDs seldom kill predators; instead, their aggressive behaviors tend to condition predators to seek unguarded (thus, non-farm animal) prey. For instance, in Italy's Gran Sasso National Park, where LGDs and wolves have coexisted for centuries, older, more experienced wolves seem to "know" the LGDs and leave their flocks alone.
List of breeds
There are many breeds of LGDs, many of which are little known outside of the regions in which they are still worked. Although some breeds are known to display traits advantageous to guarding livestock, any breed of dog, crossbreed or "mongrel" dog (so long as it is large enough and healthy enough to keep up with the livestock) can guard livestock so long as it is trained effectively to protect the herd. Some specialist livestock guarding dog breeds include:
- Abruzzese Mastiff
- Akbash Dog
- Anatolian Shepherd Dog
- Armenian Gampr dog
- Bucovina Shepherd Dog
- Carpathian Shepherd Dog
- Cão de Castro Laboreiro
- Caucasian Shepherd Dog
- Central Asian Shepherd Dog
- Cão de Gado Transmontano
- Cão da Serra da Estrela
- Georgian shepherd dog
- Great Pyrenees
- Greek Shepherd Dog
- Himalayan Sheepdog or Tibetan Mastiff
- Kangal Dog
- Karakachan Dog
- Karst Shepherd (Kraški Ovčar)
- Maremma Sheepdog (Cane da pastore Maremmano-Abruzzese)
- Perro Majorero
- Polish Tatra Mountain Sheepdog (Polski Owczarek Podhalański)
- Pyrenean Mastiff
- Rafeiro do Alentejo
- Sage Koochee
- Slovak cuvac (Slovenský čuvač)
- South Russian Ovcharka
- Spanish Mastiff
- Tibetan Mastiff
- Tornjak (Bosnian and Herzegovinian - Croatian Shepherd Dog)
For a more complete list see Jean-Marc Landry: The use of guard dogs in the Swiss Alps: A first analysis. p. 6
- Barnes, Elizabeth (1998), "Working like a dog", Mother Earth News (168): 30
- Green, Jeffrey S.; Woodruff, Roger A. (1993). Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Sheep From Predators (Rev. Oct. 1993 ed.). U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. p. 26. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
- Hansen, Inger; Staaland, Theresia; Ringsø, Aud (2002). "Patrolling with Livestock Guard Dogs: A Potential Method to Reduce Predation on Sheep". Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica: Section A, Animal Science 52 (1): 43–48. doi:10.1080/09064700252806416.
- Gehring, Thomas M.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; Landry, Jean-Marc (2010). "Livestock Protection Dogs in the 21st Century: Is an Ancient Tool Relevant to Modern Conservation Challenges?". BioScience 60 (4): 299–308. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.4.8.
- Virgil, The Georgics, Book III line 404-413
- Aristotle, History of Animals
- Warrnambool City Council - Penguin numbers up after world-first maremma trial
- [dead link]
- About the cheetah
- Jean-Marc Landry: The use of guard dogs in the Swiss Alps: A first analysis.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Livestock guardian dogs.|
- Livestock Guardian Dog Association
- Guarding Dogs: from the Transhumance to Pre-Zygotic Selection by Raymond Coppinger and Lorna Coppinger
- Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide by Robin Rigg, a comprehensive review of current livestock guarding dog use
- Livestock Guarding Dogs: Protecting Sheep from Predators, a USDA publication
- Attention, Sheep Grazing in this Area: Livestock Protection Dogs in Use, a USDA warning sign
- in-depth video about LGD use by shepherds from OPB
- Guardian Dogs: Best Practice Manual for the use of Livestock Guardian Dogs from Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre of Australia