||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (February 2011)|
Local food or the local food movement is a "collaborative effort to build more locally based, self-reliant food economies - one in which sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption is integrated to enhance the economic, environmental and social health of a particular place."
It is not solely a geographical concept. A United States Department of Agriculture publication explains local food as "related to the distance between food producers and consumers," as well as "defined in terms of social and supply chain characteristics."
- 1 Local food systems
- 2 Definitions of "local"
- 3 Contemporary local food market
- 4 Locavore and invasivore
- 5 Local food campaigns
- 6 Benefits of eating local
- 7 Criticism
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Local food systems
Food system refers to how food is produced and reaches consumers, and consumer food choices. It subsumes the terms ‘food chain’ and ‘food economy’, which are both too narrowly linear and/or economic. The food system can be broken down to three basic components: biological, economic/political, and social/cultural. The biological refers to the organic processes of food production; the economic/political refers to institutional moderation of different group's participation in and control of the system, and the social/cultural refers to the "personal relations, community values, and cultural relations which affect peoples use of food."
Local food systems are an alternative to the global corporate models where producers and consumers are separated through a chain of processors/manufacturers, shippers and retailers. They "are complex networks of relationships between actors including producers, distributors, retailers and consumers grounded in a particular place. These systems are the unit of measure by which participants in local food movements are working to increase food security and ensure the economic, ecological and social sustainability of communities."
Definitions of "local"
There is no single definition of "'local' or 'local food systems' in terms of the geographic distance between production and consumption. But defining 'local' based on marketing arrangements, such as farmers selling directly to consumers at regional farmers’ markets or to schools, is well recognized. There are "a number of different definitions for local [that] have been used or recorded by researchers assessing local food systems [and] most [are] informed by political or geographic boundaries. Among the more widely circulated and popular defining parameters is the concept of food miles, which has been suggested for policy recommendations." In 2008 Congress passed H.R.2419, which amended the "Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act". In the amendment "locally" and "regionally" are grouped together and are defined as
‘‘(I) the locality or region in which the final product is marketed, so that the total distance that the product is transported is less than 400 miles from the origin of the product; or ‘‘(II) the State in which the product is produced.
In May 2010 the USDA acknowledged this definition in an informational leaflet.
The concept of "local" is also seen in terms of ecology, where food production is considered from the perspective of a basic ecological unit defined by its climate, soil, watershed, species and local agrisystems, a unit also called an ecoregion or a foodshed. The concept of the foodshed is similar to that of a watershed; it is an area where food is grown and eaten.
Contemporary local food market
The USDA included statistics about the growing local food market in the leaflet released in May 2010. The statistics are as follows; "Direct-to-consumer marketing amounted to $1.2 billion in current dollar sales in 2007, according to the 2007 Census of Agriculture, compared with $551 million in 1997. Direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.4 percent of total agricultural sales in 2007, up from 0.3 percent in 1997. If nonedible products are excluded from total agricultural sales, direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.8 percent of agricultural sales in 2007. The number of farmers’ markets rose to 5,274 in 2009, up from 2,756 in 1998 and 1,755 in 1994, according to USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service. In 2005, there were 1,144 community-supported agriculture organiza- tions (CSAs) in operation, up from 400 in 2001 and 2 in 1986, according to a study by the nonprofit, nongovernmental organization National Center for Appropriate Technology. In early 2010, estimates exceeded 1,400, but the number could be much larger. The number of farm to school programs, which use local farms as food suppliers for school meals programs, increased to 2,095 in 2009, up from 400 in 2004 and 2 in the 1996-97 school year, according to the National Farm to School Network. Data from the 2005 School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment Survey, sponsored by USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service, showed that 14 percent of school districts participated in Farm to School programs, and 16 percent reported having guidelines for purchasing locally grown produce."
Networks of local farmers and producers are now collaborating together in the UK, in Europe as well as in Canada and in the US to provide on-line farmers markets to customers. In this way, more consumers can now buy locally on-line, when they cannot attend a local farmers market. This also provides local farmers and producers another route to market, harvest only what has been ordered, provide the consumer the absolute freshest produce, and keep overheads low as website costs are shared. Consumers have access to a huge inventory of farmers and their products, without having to be locked into buying whatever a CSA provides.
Supermarkets are beginning to tap into the local foods market as well. Walmart announced plans in 2008 to spend $400 million during that year on locally grown produce Wegman's, a 71-store chain across the northeast, has purchased local foods for over 20 years as well. In their case, the produce manager in each store controls the influx of local foods-the relationships with the local farms are not centrally controlled. A recent study led by Miguel Gomez, a professor of Applied Economics and Management at Cornell University and supported by the Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future found that in many instances, the supermarket supply chain did much better in terms of food miles and fuel consumption for each pound compared to farmers markets. It suggests that selling local foods through supermarkets may be more economically viable and sustainable than through farmers markets.
Locavore and invasivore
Those who prefer to eat locally grown/produced food sometimes call themselves locavores or localvores. This term began circulation around August 2005 in the San Francisco area, when a number of "foodies" launched a website, Locavores.com, after being inspired by the book "Coming Home to Eat" by ecologist Gary Paul Nabhan.
More recently, an "invasivore" movement has emerged as a subset of the locavore movement, which encourages the consumption of nonindigenous invasive species with the intent of controlling harmful populations.
Local food campaigns
In the city of Graz (Austria) several restaurants display a sign with a "Genuss Region" logo, which refers to the restaurant using ingredients from local sources and a commitment to the traditions of cultivating regional foods.
North Carolina 10% campaign
Launched in late 2009, North Carolina’s 10% campaign is aimed at stimulating economic development, creating jobs and promoting North Carolina’s agricultural offerings. The campaign is a partnership between The Center for Environmental Farming Systems, (CEFS) with support from N.C. Cooperative Extension and the Golden LEAF Foundation. More than 4,600 individuals and 543 businesses, including 76 restaurants, have signed on to the campaign through the website http://www.nc10percent.com as they have pledged to spend 10 percent of their food budget on locally-sourced foods. Participants receive weekly emails prompting them to record how much they have spent on local food that week. Currently the campaign reports that more than $14 million has been recorded by participants. "The $10 million mark is a true testament to the commitment of our agricultural community and the quality of North Carolina-grown products."
The North Carolina Center for Environmental farming estimates that if all North Carolinians allocated 10% of their food expenditures on locally produced food then $3.5 billion would be generated for the state’s economy. Brunswick, Cabarrus, Chatham, Guilford, Forsyth, Onslow and Rockingham counties have adopted resolutions in support of the campaign. Stores are advertising local products with buy-local food labels. CEFS co-director, Nancy Creamer explains the following: “North Carolina is uniquely positioned to capitalize on the increased consumer demand for locally produced foods …Agriculture is the backbone of our economy. The state’s climate, soils and coastal resources support production of a wide variety of produce, meats, fish and seafood.”
Benefits of eating local
A community supported agriculture system is extremely beneficial to a community because it “enables consumers to support local farmers, obtain food that might be fresher than store-bought food, and learn more information from farmers about how the food is grown." Furthermore, local eating can support public objectives. Local eating can promote community interaction by fostering relationships between farmers and consumers. Even shopping experiences and interaction at local farmers’ markets have public benefits such as “bonus-incentive or gleaning programs, the hosting of health sessions and dissemination of informational materials, and establishment of an organized central location that facilitates community engagement." In fact, farmers’ markets inspire more sociable behavior. Studies show that 75% of shoppers at farmers’ markets arrived in groups while only 16% of shoppers at supermarkets arrive in groups. Only 9% of customers in chain supermarkets had a social interaction with another customer and 14% had an interaction with an employee, but at farmers’ markets, 63% had an interaction with a fellow shopper and 42% had an interaction with an employee or farmer report. Local food builds community vibrancy and retains local traditions while establishing a local identity through a unique sense of community.
As stated in the New York Times "Foods that are minimally processed, in season and locally grown, like those available at farmers’ markets and backyard gardens, are generally the most climate-friendly." They are the most climate friendly because the energy needed to store and transport the meat is removed from the equation. There is a decrease in greenhouse gasses emitted because locally grown goods do not need to be transported across the country, or constantly cooled in large refrigerators. Besides the benefit of not having to transport food, locally grown foods are also better because of their smaller sizes. According to the USDA, more than 335 million tons of manure are produced annually in American farms. In factory farms, this waste is extremely concentrated, and without proper regulation and disposal, the waste pollutes the surrounding areas. The Natural Resource Defense Council even remarks that factory farms have reached a point in which the farms threaten public health. Pollutants from the manure and urine of overcrowded factory farms lead to water and air pollutions. Some pollutants include hydrogen sulfide and various nitrates, all of which are dangerous, even at low levels. Factory farms are also considered unsanitary because they place animals in overcrowded conditions in fully enclosed rooms. Resultantly, these rooms often become the perfect breeding grounds for diseases. Locally grown foods support free-range or pasture-grazing farming methods, decreasing the need for large factory farms. With fewer factory farms, waste will not be so concentrated and will thus not have such profound effects on the immediate surrounding areas.
A critical objective for any community is to promote investments that serve to increase the economic and social opportunities available for residents. If the United States wishes to sustain current agricultural production in the future, there must be a market for emerging farmers to counter the effects of a collectively aging farmer population. The introduction of farmer’s markets into the local economy can have a direct positive impact on the lives of all citizens within the community. In a study conducted in the state of Iowa (Hood 2010), it was concluded that the introduction of 152 farmers markets into the state economy led to the creation of 576 jobs, a $59.4 million increase in output, and a $17.8 million increase in income UCSUSA report. While this is just one state, other studies conducted in different regions have produced similar results on the positive economic impact of more local farming on a specific community. Otto’s study further reported that each individual farmer’s market produced 3.8 new jobs per market. However, these economic developments are not limited to local food markets. Surveys of towns in Oregon, Lev, Brewer, and Stephenson (2003), found that farmer’s markets were the primary reasons that tourists visited local towns on the weekends. This gross economic impact can be calculated, as in the case of the Crescent City Farmer’s Market in New Orleans, where this single market contributed over $10 million to the local economy. The potential reauthorization of the Federal Farmers Market Promotion Program lead to the creation of thousands of jobs within local economies, and further collective economic growth. The logical conclusion is that with the increase in economic benefits due to local farming, room is created in this ever expanding industry.
Critics of the local foods movement question the fundamental principles behind the push to eat locally. For example, the concept that fewer “food miles” translates to a more sustainable meal has not been supported by major scientific studies. According to a study conducted at Lincoln University in New Zealand: “As a concept, food miles has gained some traction with the popular press and certain groups overseas. However, this debate which only includes the distance food travels is spurious as it does not consider total energy use especially in the production of the product.”
The only study to date that directly focuses on whether or not a local diet is more helpful in reducing greenhouse gases was conducted by Christopher L. Weber and H. Scott Matthews at Carnegie-Mellon. They concluded that “dietary shift can be a more effective means of lowering an average household’s food-related climate footprint than ‘buying local’”.
However, numerous studies have shown that locally and sustainably grown foods actually release more greenhouse gases than food made in factory farms. The "Land Degradation" section of the United Nations report Livestock's Long Shadow concludes that "Intensification - in terms of increased productivity both in livestock production and in feed crop agriculture - can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation". Furthermore, Nathan Pelletier of Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia found that cattle raised on open pastures release 50% more greenhouse gas emissions than cattle raised in factory farms. Additionally, Adrian Williams of Cranfield University in England found that free range and organic raised chickens have a 20% greater impact on global warming than chickens raised in factory farm conditions, and organic egg production had a 14% higher impact on the climate than factory farm egg production. Furthermore, studies such as Christopher Weber's report on Food Miles have shown that the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions in production far outweighs those in transportation: which implies that locally grown food is actually worse for the environment than food made in factory farms. However, the fertilizer used for growing organic vegetables has less of an impact on the environment than conventional fertilizer.
Efficiency and feasibility
While locavorism has been promoted as a feasible alternative to modern food production, some believe it might negatively effect the efficiency of production. As technological advances have influenced the amount of output of farms, the productivity of farmers has skyrocketed in the last 70 years. Locavorism requires more land to be turned over to agriculture, leading to more global deforestation, which in turn could affect CO2 levels and reduce biodiversity. The modern food industry and its methods are criticised regarding their environmental effects, but there might also be some adverse consequences of locavorism.
- Community-based economics
- Community-supported agriculture (CSA Farms)
- The Declaration for Healthy Food and Agriculture
- Farm to fork
- Food cooperative
- Keep Austin Weird
- List of food cooperatives
- Localism (politics)
- Low carbon diet
- Organic Farming
- Small farm
- Slow Food
- Slow Money
- Sustainable agriculture
- Sustainable Table
- Terra Madre
- The 100-Mile Diet
- The Omnivore's Dilemma
- Vertical farming
- Wild farming
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- Dunne, Jonnie B.; Chambers, Kimberlee J., Giombolini, Katlyn J., Schlegel, Sheridan A. (March 2011). "What does ‘local’ mean in the grocery store? Multiplicity in food retailers' perspectives on sourcing and marketing local foods". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (Cambridge University Press) 26 (1): 46–59. doi:10.1017/S1742170510000402.
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- Dunne, Jonnie B.; Chambers, Kimberlee J., Giombolini, Katlyn J., Schlegel, Sheridan A. "What does ‘local’ mean in the grocery store? Multiplicity in food retailers' perspectives on sourcing and marketing local foods". Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. pp. 46–59. doi:10.1017/S1742170510000402.
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- A Diet for an Invaded Planet. New York Times January 2, 2011.
- Salameh, Ramy (July 30, 2012). "Graz Serves Up a Grand Design". The Epoch Times. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- "North Carolina campaign promoting locally grown food." Southeast Farm Press [Online Exclusive] 22 Nov. 2011. General OneFile. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
- 10% campaign off to a strong start. (2011, January). NC Farm Bureau Magazine, Retrieved from http://www.ncfbmagazine.org/2011/01/10-campaign-off-to-strong-start/
- Caroline Saunders, Andrew Barber, and Greg Taylor, “Food Miles – Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry” Research Report No. 285 Lincoln University, New Zealand, July 2007. 93.
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- Number of People Fed Annually By One Farmer. N.d. Photograph. American Farm Bureau Federation, Washington D.C.
- McWilliams, James. Just Food: Where Locavores Get It Wrong and How We Can Truly Eat Responsibly. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010.
- Wilk, Richard, ed. Fast Food/Slow Food: The Cultural Economy of the Global Food System. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press, 2006.
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- Global List of Local Food Systems related Organizations on WiserEarth
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- The Ontario Table is a local culinary guide, character study of a soil, a region, a terrain, a people, a cuisine, even of a place in time.
- Why eat fresh, local food? MyFreshlocal.com, retrieved February 25, 2012
- LTPYL United States Local Food Map | Visual.ly
- The Role of Local Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy Congressional Research Service