Lucy the Elephant
Lucy, the Margate Elephant
Lucy the Elephant, National Historic Landmark, November 20, 2011
Location within Atlantic County. Inset: Location of Atlantic County within New Jersey.
|Location||Margate City, New Jersey|
|Architect||James V. Lafferty|
|NRHP Reference #||71000493|
|Added to NRHP||August 12, 1971|
|Designated NHL||May 11, 1976|
|Designated NJRHP||April 7, 1971|
Lucy the Elephant is a six-story elephant-shaped example of novelty architecture, constructed of wood and tin sheeting in 1881 by James V. Lafferty in Margate City, Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, two miles (3.2 km) south of Atlantic City, in an effort to sell real estate and attract tourists.
Today, Lucy is a tourist attraction. Guided tours take visitors into the building through the spiral staircase in the left rear leg up into the interior, then up again into the howdah to see views of Margate, the Atlantic City skyline, and the Atlantic Ocean.
In 1881, the U.S. Patent Office granted Lafferty a patent giving him the exclusive right to make, use or sell animal-shaped buildings for 17 years. Lafferty paid for the building of his first elephant-shaped building at South Atlantic City, now called Margate. He employed Philadelphia architect William Free to design the building and a Philadelphia contractor constructed the structure at a cost of $25,000 - 38,000. Originally named "Elephant Bazaar", the building is 65 feet (19.7 m) high, 60 feet (18.3 m) long, and 18 feet (5.5 m) wide. It weighs about 90 tons, and is made of nearly one million pieces of wood. There are 22 windows and its construction required 200 kegs of nails, 4 tons of bolts and iron bars, and 12,000 square feet of tin to cover the outside. It is topped by a howdah carriage, also known as a hathi howdah.
Lafferty brought real estate customers up a narrow spiral staircase from within the elephant's body to the howdah, where he could point out real estate parcels available for sale. Lucy's head shape identifies the building as an Asian Elephant, and its tusks as a male. In its first few years, the elephant was referred to as a male, but today it is now generally considered to be female.
The structure was sold to Anton Gertzen of Philadelphia in 1887 and remained in the Gertzen family until 1970. Sophia Gertzen, Anton's daughter-in-law, reportedly dubbed the structure "Lucy the Elephant" in 1902.
Lafferty built at least two more elephant-shaped buildings, though neither survives. The Elephantine Colossus or Elephant Hotel, at Coney Island amusement park in Brooklyn, New York, stood 122 feet (37.2 m) tall, with seven floors of rooms, and legs 60 feet in circumference. It held a cigar store in one leg and a dioramic display in another, hotel rooms within the elephant proper, and an observation area at the top with panoramic sea views. It burned down in 1896. Another, officially named the Light of Asia but dubbed Old Dumbo by locals, went up in Cape May in 1884 and was torn down within 15 years.
Over the years, Lucy had served as a restaurant, business office, cottage, and tavern (the last closed by Prohibition). The building was depicted on many souvenir postcards, often as "The Elephant Hotel of Atlantic City." (The hotel was in a nearby building, not in the elephant itself.)
By the 1960s, Lucy had fallen into disrepair and was scheduled for demolition. In 1969, Edwin T. Carpenter and a group of Margate citizens formed the Margate Civic Association, which later became the Save Lucy Committee under Josephine Harron and Sylvia Carpenter. They were given a 30-day deadline to move the edifice or pay for its demolition. Various fund-raising events, the most successful a door-to-door canvass by volunteers, raised money. In 1970, the building was moved about 100 yards to the west-southwest and a bit inward from the shoreline. The building was also completely refurbished. The building's original wooden frame was buttressed by a steel one, and the deteriorated howdah was replaced with a replica. A plug of green glass set into the howdah platform refracts light into Lucy's interior.
In 1976, Lucy was designated a National Historic Landmark.
The building's birthday is celebrated with children's games and much fanfare each July 20 or on the following weekend.
The History Channel television show Weird U.S. featured Lucy.
In 2006, Lucy was struck by lightning, blackening the tips of the tusks. That November, the building was prominently featured in an advertisement for Proformance Insurance.
- Cultural depictions of elephants
- Elephant of the Bastille
- Charles Ribart and his plan for the site of L'Arc de Triomphe
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Atlantic County, New Jersey
- Tillie, another colorful icon of the Jersey Shore
- "New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places - Atlantic County". New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection - Historic Preservation Office. June 2, 2011. p. 5. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2006-03-15.
- "Lucy, The Margate Elephant". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. 2008-06-23.
- McMahon, William (1988). The Story of Lucy the Elephant. Margate, N.J.: Save Lucy Committee, Inc. p. 40.
- Fears, Danika. "Historic landmark 'Lucy the Elephant' survived Sandy". The Today Show. NBC News. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Lucy the Elephant". Monumental Mysteries. The Travel Channel, LLC. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lucy the Elephant.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Video Tour and Historic Documentary of Lucy the Elephant
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- HD Video taken 07 Aug 2009
- "House Built Like Elephant Contains Six Rooms", December 1932, Popular Mechanics
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. NJ-816, "Margate Elephant, Atlantic Avenue & Decatur Street, Margate City, Atlantic County, NJ"