Mains electricity by country

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For further information on each plug and discussion on the different voltages and frequencies used, see AC power plugs and sockets and Mains electricity.

Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they use for providing electrical power to small appliances and some major appliances. Every country has differing rules regarding distribution of electricity for portable appliances and lighting. Voltage, frequency, and plug type vary widely, but large regions may use common standards. Physical compatibility of receptacles may not ensure compatibility of voltage, frequency, or connection to earth ground.

This article lists the plug type, voltage and frequency commonly expected for many territories. In some areas, older standards may still exist. Foreign enclaves or buildings frequented by tourists may support plugs not otherwise used in a country, for the convenience of travellers.

Main reference source—IEC World Plugs[edit]

The IEC publishes a web microsite World Plugs[1][unreliable source?] which provides the main source for this page, except where other sources are indicated. World Plugs includes some history, a description of plug types, and a list of countries giving the type(s) used and the mains voltage and frequency.

Although useful for quick reference, especially for travellers, IEC World Plugs may not be regarded as totally accurate as illustrated by the examples in the plugs section below, and errors such as Indonesia being listed as using both 220 V and 110 V when the Indonesian Standard SPLN 1[2] clearly states the voltage as 230 V.

Plugs[edit]

The lettering system used here is from World Plugs which defines the letter names and gives a (not always correct) list of what plug types are used where. Type A makes specific reference to American and Japanese plugs, as does Type B which is specifically rated at 15 A. Type C is specifically identified as the Europlug (which is defined in EN 50075) and described as a plug which fits into any socket that accepts 4.0–4.8 mm round contacts on 19 mm centres. Type D is specifically rated at 5 A. Type E (grounding pin in socket) and Type F (grounding clips on both sides) are specifically rated at 16 A and defined as having 4.8 mm pins on 19 mm centres. Type G is identified as the fused British plug. The Type H plug is described as unique to Israel. Type I (Australian) is described as having both 10 A and 15 A ratings. Type J (Swiss) is rated at 10 A and is differentiated from Type N. The Type K rating is not shown. The Type L (Italian) description includes both ratings and pin sizes. Type M is described as looking similar to Type D, but with much larger pins. The Type N description is of the two variations of Brazilian plug (Brazilian national standard NBR 14136); however, the original plug and socket is defined in IEC 60906-1 and has been adopted as a South African national Standard (SANS 164-2). The Brazilian version is non-compliant with the IEC standard. Not all plugs are included in the letter system; for example, there is no designation for the plug defined by the Thai National Standard TIS116-2549.

IEC World Plugs is ambiguous in some areas: it does not reference national technical standards that define the dimensions and tolerances of devices. Plugs will usually mate with sockets which are intended to accept plugs classified under the same letter type, but there is no guarantee of this. There is also an issue relating to Type C, the EN 50075 Europlug which has no dedicated socket in the standard and is designed to fit sockets accepting "4.0–4.8 mm round contacts on 19 mm centres", implying that there must be usage of such sockets in the territories listed as using Type C plugs. Despite this, World Plugs lists seven territories as using only Type C (i.e., no mention of specific plug types whose mating sockets also accept Type C) and twenty-one territories using Type C with no compatible types.[3]

The IEC also publishes IEC Technical Report 60083 which lists standards used by IEC member countries.[4]

The United States Department of Commerce published an earlier guide,[5] which is now obsolescent and which has known inaccuracies. (See History of similar guides section below.)

Safety considerations[edit]

Multi-standard sockets are sometimes used in China and some other Asian countries; these are intended to accommodate plugs conforming to various different standards. They do not normally have earthing (grounding) connections for either CEE 7/4 "Schuko" or CEE 7/5 (French). In multi-standard sockets, the aperture size for NEMA plugs is often the same for both Line (Hot) and Neutral, which allows a polarized plug to be inserted in either orientation, thus defeating the safety feature. Also, in a socket designed to accept both NEMA and BS 1363 plugs, the polarization can only be correct for one type of plug, so only appliances which do not require specific polarization should be connected.[6] Multi-standard sockets are illegal in some countries such as the UK, and have been classified as a serious safety risk.[7]

Adapters that allow insertion of otherwise mechanically incompatible plugs into sockets are useful for travellers, but, as with multi-standard sockets, may not provide the grounding and polarization intended by a compatible system of plugs and sockets.

Plugs and power cords have a rated voltage and rated current assigned to them by the manufacturer, and these values are required to be marked on the plug. For a plug, the values are normally those specified in the relevant standard sheet. The international preferred rating for household plugs and sockets is either 130 V or 250 V; these are the values for normal use, and at which they are tested. (Plugs and power cords are also required to be tested at higher voltage for a brief period of 1 minute to test their electrical strength in case of fault conditions.)[8] The NEMA 1–15 U.S. 2 pin (Type A) and NEMA 5–15 U.S. 3 pin (Type B) plugs are rated at 125 V .[9] Travelers from countries which use mains voltages below 130 V, such as North America and Japan etc., should note that in countries which use the higher mains voltages in the range 220–250 V the plugs are rated at 250 V.[10] Travellers should ensure that they always use appliances, plugs and power cords which are appropriate for the territory they are in.

Type I plugs also have differences in characteristics such as pin length. This means that the uninsulated pins of a Chinese plug may become live while there is still a large enough gap between the faces of the plug and socket to allow a finger to touch the pin. Argentinean connectors have the opposite polarity to those of other Type I countries.

Sockets connected to mains voltages above 125 V and which accept Type A or B plugs may be suitable for plug-top chargers and power supplies with Type A pins, providing they have a suitable voltage rating.

Voltages[edit]

Voltages in this article are the nominal single-phase supply voltages. Three-phase and industrial loads will have other voltages.

All voltages are root mean square voltage; the peak AC voltage is greater by a factor of √2, and the peak to peak voltage greater by a factor of 2√2.

History of similar guides[edit]

In 1948 the US Government Printing Office published World electrical current characteristics.[11] This contained information on voltages used in the cities of many countries, but no information on plugs. The guide was republished by the US Department of commerce in 1954 as Electric Current Abroad. This was updated from time to time and the 1967 version includes some information on plugs,[12] however only 3 types were designated: Type A, illustrated by a US style 2 pin plug, Type B, illustrated by a sketch of a BS 546 type, and Type C, illustrated by a sketch of a BS 1363 type. The 1984 edition[13] uses the letters A to G in the same manner as they are used today. The last printed edition (listing plugs from A to H) was that of 1998, reprinted in 2002,[5] it includes brief textual descriptions of each type illustrated by a sketch, only Type F (described as a Schuko) is specifically linked to an a generally recognized type. The International Trade Administration of the US Department of Commerce now publishes a web version: Electric Current Worldwide which still does not include the full list of plug types, it does not describe Type M or type N. There are sketches and photographs of each type, but no textual description or references to actual standards. Examples of errors in the website include the failure to mention that Brazil uses Type N, although that has been the national standard in that country since 1998; stating that the UK uses type C, which is not permitted there; and claiming that China uses Type H (the Israeli plug) when the main Chinese plug is actually type I.

There are many web sites from unofficial sources which also purport to offer lists of voltages and plug types.

Table of mains voltages and frequencies[edit]

Except where other sources are indicated, the plug type, voltage and frequency in this table are sourced from an official web page of the IEC:World Plugs[1][unreliable source?]

Entries in the Plug Standard column refer to the National Standards pertaining to the relevant territory, and unless otherwise stated are sourced from IEC Technical Report 60083.[4]


Note: The table can be sorted using the Sort both.gif icon.

Country
or
Territory
Plug type Plug Standard Residential Voltage Frequency Comments
Afghanistan C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Albania C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Algeria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
American Samoa A, B, F, I 120 V 60 Hz
Andorra C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Angola C ?[3] 220 V 50 Hz
Anguilla A 110 V 60 Hz
Antigua and Barbuda A, B 230 V 60 Hz
Argentina C ?,[3] I 220 V 50 Hz Line/neutral reversed compared to Chinese and Australian/NZ Type I
Armenia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Aruba A, B, F 127 V 60 Hz
Australia I AS/NZS 3112 230 V[14][15] 50 Hz Bathrooms in hotels will often have a type I, C and A socket marked "for shavers only".

Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I

Austria C
F
ÖVE-IG/EN 50075
ÖVEÖNORM E 8620
230 V 50 Hz
Azerbaijan C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Bahamas A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Bahrain G 230 V 50 Hz
Bangladesh C, D, G, K 220 V 50 Hz
Barbados A, B 115 V 50 Hz
Belarus C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Belgium C, E NBN C 61 112-1 230 V 50 Hz
Belize A, B, G 110 V
220 V
60 Hz
Benin C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Bermuda A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Bhutan C, D, F, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Bolivia A, C ?[3] 115 V
230 V
50 Hz
Bosnia and Herzegovina C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Botswana D, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Brazil C, N NBR 14136 127 V
220 V
60 Hz Since Jan 1st 2010 all devices and new buildings must comply with NBR 14136.
British Virgin Islands A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Brunei G 240 V 50 Hz
Bulgaria C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Burkina Faso C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Burundi C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Cambodia A, C ?,[3] G 230 V 50 Hz Power cords with type A plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Cameroon C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Canada A
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
120 V 60 Hz
Cape Verde C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Caribbean Netherlands
[citation needed]
A, B, C 127 V
220 V
50 Hz, 60 Hz No reliable source found. IEC World Plugs lists only the defunct Netherlands Antilles of which these islands were part.
Bonaire 127 V, 50 Hz, Receptacle is combination of A and C; Saba and St. Eustatius 110 V, 60 Hz, A, maybe B
Cayman Islands A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Central African Republic C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Chad C, D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz
Chile L 220 V 50 Hz
China A, I
C
GB 1002
(?)
220 V 50 Hz Most wall outlets simultaneously support Types A and I. Some outlets support Type C as well (the holes in the outlets are flat in the middle and round on the sides) so that either a Type A, a Type C or a Type I (unearthed) plug can be used.[citation needed] (See photo at right.) A second outlet only type I (Earthed) is next to the unearthed multi Type A/C/I outlet. Voltage in China is always 220 V; power cords with type A plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used. Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
Colombia A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Comoros C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Congo, Republic of the C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
[citation needed]
C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Cook Islands I 240 V 50 Hz
Costa Rica A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Côte d'Ivoire C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Croatia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Cuba A, B, C 110 V 60 Hz
Curaçao A, B,[16] C[citation needed] 127 V 50 Hz
Cyprus G 240 V 50 Hz
Czech Republic C, E ČSN 35 4516 230 V 50 Hz
Denmark C
E, F, K
DS/EN 50075
DS 60884-2-D1[17]
230 V 50 Hz
Djibouti C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Dominica D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Dominican Republic A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Ecuador A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Egypt C, F 220 V 50 Hz
El Salvador A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Equatorial Guinea C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Eritrea C, L 230 V 50 Hz
Estonia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Ethiopia C, E, F, L 220 V 50 Hz
Falkland Islands G 240 V 50 Hz
Faroe Islands C, E, F, K 230 V 50 Hz
Fiji I 240 V 50 Hz
Finland C
F
SFS-EN 50075
SFS 5610
230 V 50 Hz
France C
E
NF EN 50075
NF C 61-314
230 V 50 Hz
French Guiana C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
French Polynesia
[citation needed]
A, B, E 110 V
220 V
60 Hz, 50 Hz Marquesas Islands 50 Hz
No reliable source found. IEC World Plugs has no entry.
Gabon C 220 V 50 Hz
Gambia G 230 V 50 Hz
Georgia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Germany C
F
DIN VDE 0620
DIN 49441
230 V 50 Hz
Ghana D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Gibraltar C ?,[3] G 240 V 50 Hz
Greece C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Greenland C, E, F, K 220 V 50 Hz
Grenada G 230 V 50 Hz
Guadeloupe C, D, E 230 V 50 Hz
Guam A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Guatemala A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Guernsey G 230 V 50 Hz
Guinea C, F, K 220 V 50 Hz
Guinea-Bissau C ?[3] 220 V 50 Hz
Guyana A, B, D, G 110 V
220 V[18]
60 Hz
50 Hz[18]
Conversion of 50 Hz distribution to 60 Hz is ongoing[19]
Haiti A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Honduras A, B 110 V 60 Hz
Hong Kong G 220 V 50 Hz
Hungary C
F
MSZ EN 50075
MSZ 9781-2
230 V 50 Hz
Iceland C, F 230 V 50 Hz
India C, D, M IS 1293[20] 230 V 50 Hz Many power outlets are universal and accept many plugs without adapter. A combination receptacle for types C, D and M is usually present.[citation needed]
Indonesia C, F, G 220 V 50 Hz
Iran C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Iraq C ?,[3] D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Ireland G I.S. 401[21] 230 V 50 Hz
Isle of Man G 240 V 50 Hz
Israel C, H, M 230 V 50 Hz Type C, H, M also used in the Palestinian National Authority areas.[citation needed]
Italy C
F, L
CEI 23-34
CEI 23-50
230 V 50 Hz
Jamaica A, B 110 V 50 Hz
Japan A, B JIS C 8303 100 V 50 Hz, 60 Hz East Japan 50 Hz (Tokyo, Kawasaki, Sapporo, Yokohama, and Sendai); West Japan 60 Hz (Okinawa, Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe, Nagoya, Hiroshima).[citation needed] 120 V in military facilities in Okinawa.[citation needed]
Jersey G 230 V 50 Hz
Jordan B, C, D, F, G, J 230 V 50 Hz Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Kazakhstan C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Kenya G 240 V 50 Hz
Kiribati I 240 V 50 Hz
Kosovo
[citation needed]
C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Kuwait C ?[3] G 240 V 50 Hz
Kyrgyzstan C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Laos C, E, F 230 V 50 Hz
Latvia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Lebanon A, B, C ?[3] D, G 220 V 50 Hz Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Lesotho M 220 V 50 Hz
Liberia A, B, C, E, F 120 V
240 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
Now officially 50 Hz[citation needed] Local supplies may vary and may not match the usual voltage for a particular wall socket.[citation needed]
Libya C, D, F, L 127 V 50 Hz Barca, Benghazi, Derna, Sabha & Tobruk 230 V.[citation needed]
Lithuania C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Liechtenstein C, J 230 V 50 Hz
Luxembourg C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Macau D, F, G, M 220 V 50 Hz
Macedonia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Madagascar C, D, E, J, K 127 V
220 V
50 Hz
Malawi G 230 V 50 Hz
Malaysia G[22] MS 589 230 V[23] 50 Hz
Maldives D, G, J, K, L 230 V 50 Hz
Mali C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Malta G 230 V 50 Hz
Martinique C, D, E 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritania C ?[3] 220 V 50 Hz
Mauritius C?[3] G 230 V 50 Hz
Mexico A, B NMX-J-163-ANCE 127 V 60 Hz
Micronesia A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Moldova C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Monaco C, D, E, F 230 V 50 Hz
Mongolia C, E 220 V 50 Hz
Montenegro C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Montserrat A, B 120 V
230 V
60 Hz Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Morocco C, E 127 V
220 V
50 Hz
Mozambique C, F, M 220 V 50 Hz
Myanmar C, D, F, G 230 V 50 Hz
Namibia D, M 220 V 50 Hz
Nauru I 240 V 50 Hz
Nepal C?[3] D, M 230 V 50 Hz
Netherlands C
F
EN 50075
NEN 1020
230 V 50 Hz
New Caledonia C, F 220 V 50 Hz
New Zealand I AS/NZS 3112 230 V 50 Hz Line/neutral reversed compared to Argentinian Type I
Nicaragua A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Niger A, B, C, D, E, F 220 V 50 Hz Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Nigeria D, G 240 V 50 Hz
North Korea A, C, F 110 V
220 V
60 Hz
50 Hz
Norway C
F
NEK EN 50075
NEK 502
230 V
50 Hz
Oman C?[3] G 240 V 50 Hz
Pakistan C, D, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Palau A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Panama A, B 110 V
120 V
60 Hz
Papua New Guinea I 240 V 50 Hz
Paraguay C ?[3] 220 V 50 Hz
Peru A, B, C ?[3] 220 V 60 Hz Talara 110/220 V; some areas 50 Hz[24][unreliable source?]
Philippines A, B 220 V 60 Hz Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Poland C, E BN-88/3064 230 V 50 Hz
Portugal C, F NP 1260 230 V 50 Hz
Puerto Rico A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Qatar D, G 240 V 50 Hz
Réunion E 220 V 50 Hz
Romania C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Russia C, F 230 V[25] 50 Hz USSR (along with much of Eastern Europe) used GOST sockets with 4.0 mm pins similar to Type C plugs and the 4.8 mm standard used by Type E & F.[26]
Rwanda C, J 230 V 50 Hz
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
[citation needed]
G 220-240 V 50 Hz
St. Martin C, F 120 V
220 V
60 Hz Dutch Sint Maarten 120 V, 60 Hz; French Saint-Martin 230 V, 60 Hz;
St. Kitts and Nevis A, B, D, G 110 V
230 V
60 Hz
St. Lucia G 240 V 50 Hz
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
[citation needed]
E 230 V 50 Hz
St. Vincent and the Grenadines C, E, G, I, K 230 V 50 Hz
Samoa I 230 V 50 Hz
San Marino C, F, L 230 V 50 Hz
São Tomé and Príncipe C, F 220 V 50 Hz
Saudi Arabia A, B
F
G
SASO 2204

SASO 2203
127 V
220 V
60 Hz
Senegal C, D, E, K 230 V 50 Hz
Serbia C
F
JUS N.E3.552
JUS N.E3.553
230 V 50 Hz
Seychelles G 240 V 50 Hz
Sierra Leone D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Singapore C ?[3]
G
M
-
SS 145
SS 472
230 V 50 Hz
Slovakia C, E STN 34 4516 230 V 50 Hz
Slovenia C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Solomon Islands I, G 220 V 50 Hz
Somalia C ?[3] 220 V 50 Hz
South Africa C, F, M, N SANS 164 230 V 50 Hz
South Korea C, F KSC 8305 220 V 60 Hz
Spain C, F UNE 20315 230 V 50 Hz
Sri Lanka D, G, M 230 V 50 Hz
Sudan C ?[3] D 230 V 50 Hz
Suriname C, F 127 V 60 Hz
Swaziland M 230 V 50 Hz
Sweden C
F
SS-EN 50075
SS 428 08 34
230 V 50 Hz
Switzerland C, J SN SEV 1011:2009[27][28] 230 V 50 Hz
Syria C, E, L 220 V 50 Hz
Taiwan A, B 110 V 60 Hz Sockets in older buildings are often unearthed and accept only Type A plugs.
Tajikistan C, F, I 220 V 50 Hz
Tanzania D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Thailand A, B
C, F
Thai plug
-
-
TIS 166-2549
220 V 50 Hz Newer buildings and installation use TIS166-2549 sockets.[29][30] Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Timor-Leste (East Timor) C, E, F, I 220 V 50 Hz
Togo C ?[3] 220 V 50 Hz
Tonga I 240 V 50 Hz
Trinidad & Tobago A, B 115 V 60 Hz
Tunisia C, E 230 V 50 Hz
Turkey C, F 230 V 50 Hz
Turkmenistan B, C, F 220 V 50 Hz Power cords with type A or B plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Tuvalu I 220 V 50 Hz
Uganda G 240 V 50 Hz
Ukraine C, F 220 V 50 Hz
United Arab Emirates C ?[3] D, G 220 V 50 Hz
United Kingdom G[31] BS 1363 230 V[32] 50 Hz A "shaver unit"[33] accepting BS 4573, Type C and 2-pin Type I, (sometimes also type A) is often found in bathrooms.
United States A
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
120 V 60 Hz
US Virgin Islands A
B
NEMA 1-15 P
NEMA 5-15 P
110 V 60 Hz
Uruguay C, F, I, L 230 V 50 Hz
Uzbekistan C ?[3] I 220 V 50 Hz
Vanuatu C ?[3] G, I 220 V 50 Hz
Venezuela A, B 120 V 60 Hz
Vietnam A, C ?[3] G 220 V 50 Hz
Yemen A, D, G 230 V 50 Hz Power cords with type A plugs which are rated at only 125 V should not be used.
Zambia C ?[3] D, G 230 V 50 Hz
Zimbabwe D, G 220 V 50 Hz
Type A (NEMA 1–15 U.S. 2 pin)
rated 125 V AC
Type B (NEMA 5–15 U.S. 3 pin)
rated 125 V AC
Standardized by IEC as IEC 60906-2
Type C (CEE 7/16 Europlug)
CEE 7/17 2-pin plug and unidentified 2-pin socket
Type D (BS 546 5 A)
Type E (CEE 7/5 French)
Type F (CEE 7/4 "Schuko")
CEE 7/7 plug, (combines earthing methods of Type E & Type F)
Type G (BS 1363 UK)
Type H (SI 32 Israel)
Type I (Australian AS/NZS 3112).
Type I, plus Chinese multiple socket
Type J (SEV-1011 Switzerland)
Type K (SRAF 1962/DB Denmark)
Type L (CEI 23-16)
Type M (15 A BS 546)
Type N (Brazilian NBR 14136)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b World Plugs Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  2. ^ SPLN 1 : 1995, Standar PLN. "Tegangan-tegangan Standar". Retrieved 1 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "IEC World Plugs" lists the following territories as using Type C only: Angola, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Paraguay, Somalia, Togo. It also lists the following territories as using Type C without compatible socket types: Argentina, Bolivia, Cambodia, China, Gibraltar, India, Iraq, Isle of Man, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Peru, Singapore, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Zambia. |World Plugs
  4. ^ a b IEC/TR 60083 ed6.0: Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC. International Electrotechnical Commission, February 2009. This 384-page technical report describes many national standards for domestic plugs and sockets. The first edition was published in January 1957. The 7th edition was approved in December 2012 and awaits publication as at January 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Electric Current Abroad" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration. 2002. 
  6. ^ "Universal socket-outlets – friend or foe?", SwitchedOn issue 29 (UK: Electrical Safety Council), 2013 
  7. ^ Weekly overview report of RAPEX notifications Report 5, EU: European Commission, 2013 
  8. ^ IEC 60884-1 Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes – Part 1: General requirements (standard), Geneva, Switzerland: IEC 
  9. ^ WD6, Dimensional requirements for plugs and receptacles (standard), USA: NEMA 
  10. ^ IEC/TR 60083 Plugs and socket-outlets for domestic and similar general use standardized in member countries of IEC (standard), Geneva, Switzerland: IEC 
  11. ^ [1]. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  12. ^ [2]. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  13. ^ [3]. Retrieved on 2013-12-14.
  14. ^ AS60038-2000 Standards AustraliaStandard Voltages
  15. ^ When voltage varies. Electrical connection (2012-10-22). Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
  16. ^ "Curaçao Electricity". Curaçao Tourist Board. Retrieved 13 May 2014. 
  17. ^ DS 60884-2-D1:2011
  18. ^ a b History of Guyana Power and Light. Gplinc.com. Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  19. ^ GPL Converting Parts of the City to 60 Hz, retrieved 2009 July 31. Stabroeknews.com (2009-07-10). Retrieved on 2014-01-01.
  20. ^ IS 1293
  21. ^ I.S. 401, "Safety requirements for rewirable and non-rewirable 13A fused plugs for normal and rough use having insulating sleeves on live and neutral pins", NSAI (National Standards Authority of Ireland), (1997), Dublin
  22. ^ [4] Energy Commission of Malaysia.
  23. ^ [5]. Malaysian Energy Commission Notice (Nominal Voltage - undated). Retrieved on 2014-07-14
  24. ^ Dilwyn Jenkins, The Rough Guide to Peru 2003 Rough Guides, ISBN 1-84353-074-0, p. 57
  25. ^ http://docs.cntd.ru/document/gost-29322-92
  26. ^ ГОСТ 7396.1–89. Elec.ru (2013-01-30). Retrieved on 2013-02-05.
  27. ^ "Information SEV 1011 – power socket/plug/connector". http://www.esti.admin.ch/de/dokumentation_formulare.htm (PDF). Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI, Swiss Confederation. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  28. ^ "New standard for plugs in Switzerland starting from 2013" (PDF). Federal Inspectorate for Heavy Current Installations ESTI, Swiss Confederation. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  29. ^ TIS 166-2549 (2006): Plugs and socket-outlets for household and similar purposes : plugs and socket-outlets with rated voltage not exceeding 250 (English translation)
  30. ^ TIS 166-2549 (2006) (Original Thai)
  31. ^ Geoff Cronshaw: The 17th edition: a brief overview
  32. ^ The Electricity Safety, Quality and Continuity Regulations 2002 PART VII Regulation 27, UK: UK Government, 2002 
  33. ^ BS EN 61558-2-5:2010, standard covering shaver supply units

External links[edit]