Mixed state (psychiatry)
- This article is an expansion of a section titled Mixed state from the main article: Bipolar disorder
|Mixed state (psychiatry)|
|Classification and external resources|
In the context of mental disorder, a mixed state, also known as dysphoric mania, agitated depression, or a mixed episode, is a condition during which features of mania and depression—such as agitation, anxiety, fatigue, guilt, impulsiveness, irritability, morbid or suicidal ideation, panic, paranoia, pressured speech and rage—occur simultaneously or in very short succession.
Typical examples include tearfulness during a manic episode or racing thoughts during a depressive episode. One may also feel incredibly frustrated or be prone to fits of rage in this state, since one may feel like a failure and at the same time have a flight of ideas. Mixed states are often the most problematic period of mood disorders (particularly bipolar spectrum disorders), during which susceptibility to substance abuse, panic disorder, commission of violence, suicide attempts, and other complications increase greatly.
As affirmed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), a mixed state must meet the criteria for a major depressive episode and a manic episode nearly every day for at least one week. However, mixed episodes rarely conform to these qualifications; they may be described more practically as any combination of depressive and manic symptoms.
The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (MMDT) splits the DSM-IV diagnosis into two distinct states: dysphoric mania, which consists of a manic episode with depressive symptoms; and agitated depression, which is a "major depressive [episode] with superimposed hypomanic symptoms".
According to the MMDT, increased energy and some form of anger, from irritability to full blown rage, are the most common symptoms of dysphoric mania. Symptoms may also include auditory hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, persecutory delusions, racing thoughts, restlessness, and suicidal ideation. Alcohol, drug abuse, and some antidepressant drugs may trigger dysphoric mania in susceptible individuals. A study by Goodwin and Ghaemi (2003) reported manic symptoms in two-thirds of patients with agitated depression, which they suggest calling "mixed-state agitated depression".
Treatment of mixed states is typically based upon administration of mood stabilizing medication, which may include anticonvulsants such as valproic acid; atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine, aripiprazole, and ziprasidone; or first-generation antipsychotics such as haloperidol. There is question of lithium's efficacy for treatment of mixed states due to conflicting conclusions drawn from various trials and research. Mood stabilizers work to reduce the manic symptoms associated with the mixed state, but they are not considered particularly effective for improving concurrent depressive symptoms.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1994.
- Akiskal, H.S. Pinto, O. (1999). The evolving bipolar spectrum. Prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 22(3):517–34.
- Goldman, E. (1999). Severe Anxiety, Agitation are Warning Signals of Suicide in Bipolar Patients. Clin Psychiatr News. pg 25.
- Perugi, G. Toni, C. Akiskal, H.S. (1999). Anxious-bipolar comorbidity. Diagnostic and treatment therefore challenges. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 22(3):565–83.
- Benazzi, F. (2000). Depressive mixed states: unipolar and bipolar II [Abstract]. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 250(5):249–53.
- Goodwin FK, Ghaemi SN (December 2003). "The course of bipolar disorder and the nature of agitated depression". Am J Psychiatry 160 (12): 2077–9. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.12.2077. PMID 14638572.
- Pharmacotherapy of manic-depressive mixed States
- Muzina, D. J. (2009), Pharmacologic treatment of rapid cycling and mixed states in bipolar disorder: an argument for the use of lithium. Bipolar Disorders, 11: 84–91. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00713.x
- Thase ME, Sachs GS. Bipolar depression: pharmacotherapy and related therapeutic strategies. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Sep 15;48(6):558-572.