|Date||18 February 1983|
|Deportation, mass murder|
|Violence against Muslims in India|
|1969 Gujarat riots|
|1983 Nellie massacre|
|1987 Hashimpura massacre|
|1992 Bombay Riots|
|2002 Gujarat riots|
|2006 Vadodara riots|
|2014 Assam Violence|
The Nellie massacre took place in central Assam during a six-hour period in the morning of 18 February 1983. Although the involvement of members of indigenous communities and lower castes in carrying out the massacre is commonly evoked, the identities of the rioters are debated by scholars. The massacre claimed the lives of 2,191 people (unofficial figures run at more than 5,000) from 14 villages—Alisingha, Khulapathar, Basundhari, Bugduba Beel, Bugduba Habi, Borjola, Butuni, Indurmari, Mati Parbat, Muladhari, Mati Parbat no. 8, Silbheta, Borburi and Nellie—of Nagaon district. The victims were Muslims originally from East Bengal (present Bangladesh) before independence. Three media personnel Hemendra Narayan of Indian Express, Bedabrata Lahkar of Assam Tribune and Sharma of ABC passing by the region were witnesses to the massacre.
The violence that took place in Nellie was seen as a fallout of the decision to hold the controversial state elections in 1983 in the midst of the Assam Agitation. It has been described as one of the worst pogroms since World War II.
In 1978 the member of the Lok Sabha, Hiralal Patwari, died necessitating a by-election in the Mangaldoi Lok Sabha Constituency. During the process of the election it was noticed that the electorate had grown phenomenally (allegedly due to illegal immigration). The All Assam Students Union (AASU) demanded that the elections be postponed till the names of "foreign nationals" were deleted from the electoral rolls. The AASU subsequently launched an agitation to compel the government to identify and expel immigrants.
The ethnic clash that took place in Nellie was seen as a fallout of the decision to hold the controversial Assembly elections in 1983 (boycotted by the AASU) despite stiff opposition from several elements in the state. Police officials had suggested to hold the polls in phases in order to avoid violence. According to then Assam Inspector General of Police, KPS Gill, there were 63 constituencies, where elections could have been held without any trouble. Among the rest, the Assam police had declared there were 23 constituencies where it was "impossible to hold any election." Nellie was cited as one of the "troubled" spots before the elections.
The official Tiwari Commission report on the Nellie massacre is still a closely guarded secret (only three copies exist). The 600-page report was submitted to the Assam Government in 1984 and the Congress Government (headed by Hiteswar Saikia) decided not to make it public, and subsequent Governments followed suit. Assam United Democratic Front and others are making legal efforts to make Tiwari Commission report public, so that reasonable justice is delivered to victims, at least after 25 years after the incident.
Police filed 688 criminal cases, of which 378 cases were closed due to "lack of evidence" and 310 cases were charge sheeted, and all these cases were dropped by Government as a part of Assam Accord and as a result not a single person got punishment.
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