Religious violence in India
Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting. Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims, although incidents of violence have also involved Christians, Jews, and Sikhs. There is also history of Muslim – Parsee riots (List of riots in Mumbai).
Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India, broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities, and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organisations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India.
Along with domestic organisations, international human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch publish reports on acts of religious violence in India. Over 2005 to 2009 period, an average of 130 people died every year from communal violence, or about 0.01 deaths per 100,000 population. The state of Maharashtra reported the highest total number of religious violence related fatalities over that 5 year period, while Madhya Pradesh experienced the highest fatality rate per year per 100,000 population between 2005 and 2009. Over 2012, a total of 97 people died across India from various riots related to religious violence. The world's average annual death rate from intentional violence, in recent years, has been 7.9 per 100,000 people.
- 1 Ancient India
- 2 Medieval India
- 2.1 Muhammad bin Qasim (8th century)
- 2.2 Mahmud of Ghazni (11th century)
- 2.3 Ulugh Khan’s expedition and the sack of Srirangam (14th century)
- 2.4 Malik Kafur's raid of South India (14th century)
- 2.5 Timur's massacre of Delhi (1398)
- 2.6 Sikh rule
- 2.7 Dogra Rule
- 2.8 Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor (1658–1707)
- 2.9 Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore (1782–1799)
- 3 Colonial Era
- 4 Modern India
- 5 Statistics
- 6 International human rights reports
- 7 In film and literature
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Ancient India has no history of large scale religious violence. However, the Buddhist king Ashoka (304-232 BCE) is said to have ordered killings of 18,000 Jains after someone drew a picture of Buddha bowing at the feet of Mahavira. King Pushyamitra of Sunga Empire is linked in legend with the persecution of Buddhists, though evidences are not sufficient to corroborate this claim. There is some doubt as to whether he did or did not persecute Buddhists actively.
The Divyavadana ascribes to him the razing of stupas and viharas built by Ashoka. This account has however been described as "exaggerated". Archaeological evidence is scarce and uncertain. However to many scholars, Sunga kings were seen as more amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.
With the possible exception of reign of King Pushyamitra, Buddhism and Hinduism seem to have co-existed peacefully with almost all Buddhist temples, including the ones at Ajanta Caves, being built under the rule and patronage of Hindu kings.
Hindus have been historically persecuted during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent and during Portuguese rule of Goa. The total number of deaths of this period, are usually attributed to the figure by Prof. K.S. Lal, who estimated that between the years 1000 AD and 1500 AD the population of Hindus decreased by 80 million. In modern times, Hindus in Pakistan and Bangladesh have also suffered persecution. Most recently, thousands of Hindus from Sindh province in Pakistan have been fleeing to India voicing fear for their safety.
Muhammad bin Qasim (8th century)
Muhammad bin Qasim, during his conquest of Sindh (in present day Pakistan), assaulted the town of Debal and destroyed its great temple. He then built a mosque over the remains of the original temple at Debal and later in towns of Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan) After each battle all fighting men were executed and their wives and children enslaved. One fifth of the booty and slaves were dispatched back to Hajjaj and the Caliph.
After the conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim adopted a controversial policy, asking for acceptance of Islamic Sharia law, in return for non-interference in their religious practice, . No further mass conversions were attempted and the destruction of temples such as the Sun Temple at Multan was forbidden.
Mahmud of Ghazni (11th century)
Mahmud of Ghazni was a Sultan who invaded the Indian subcontinent from present-day Afghanistan during the early 11th century. His campaigns across the Gangetic plains are often cited for their iconoclastic plundering and destruction of Hindu temples such as those at Mathura, Dwarka, and others. In 1024 AD, Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and destroyed the third Somnath temple killing over 50,000 and personally destroying the Shiva lingam after stripping it of its gold.
Mohammed Ghori (11th century)
Another ruler of the sultanate, Mohammed Ghori, conquered and subjugated the Hindu pilgrimage site Varanasi in the 11th century and he continued the destruction of Hindu temples and idols that had begun during the first attack in 1194.
Qutb-ud-din Aibak (13th century)
Historical records compiled by Muslim historian Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai attest to the iconoclasm of Qutb-ud-din Aybak. The first mosque built in Delhi, the "Quwwat al-Islam" was built after the demolition of the Hindu temple built previously by Prithvi Raj and certain parts of the temple were left outside the mosque proper. This pattern of iconoclasm was common during his reign.
Firuz Shah Tughlaq (14th century)
Firuz Shah Tughluq was the third ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The "Tarikh-i-Firuz Shah" is a historical record written during his reign that attests to the systematic persecution of Hindus under his rule. In particular, it records atrocities committed against Hindu Brahmin priests who refused to convert to Islam:
|“||An order was accordingly given to the Brahman and was brought before Sultan. The true faith was declared to the Brahman and the right course pointed out. but he refused to accept it. A pile was risen on which the Kaffir with his hands and legs tied was thrown into and the wooden tablet on the top. The pile was lit at two places his head and his feet. The fire first reached him in the feet and drew from him a cry and then fire completely enveloped him. Behold Sultan for his strict adherence to law and rectitude.||”|
Under his rule, Hindus who were forced to pay the mandatory Jizya tax were recorded as infidels, their communities monitored and, if they violated Imperial ordinances and built temples, they were destroyed. In particular, an incident in the village of Gohana in Haryana was recorded in the "Insha-i-Mahry" (another historical record written by Amud Din Abdullah bin Mahru) where Hindus had erected a deity and were arrested, brought to the palace and executed en-masse.
Ulugh Khan’s expedition and the sack of Srirangam (14th century)
In 1323 Ulugh Khan began his invasions of the Hindu kingdoms of South India. At Srirangam the invading army desecrated the shrine and killed 12,000 unarmed ascetics. The illustrious Vaishnava philosopher Sri Vedanta Desika, hid himself amongst the corpses together with the sole manuscript of the Srutaprakasika, the magnum opus of Sri Sudarsana Suri whose eyes were put out, and also the latter’s two sons. When the massacre was over, Sri Vedanta Desika and his followers fled to Satyamangalam in Mysore, where Sri Vedanta Desika published the Srutaprakasika.
Malik Kafur's raid of South India (14th century)
The Muslim army led by Malik Kafur, a slave turned general of Allauddin Khilji attacked the beautiful temples of Hoysalas in the 14th century. The temple of Belur was protected and saved as soon as the attack started, so it didn't incur too much of damage. However, Halebid was destroyed to a great extent and is in a pretty dilapidated state.
In 1311, Malik Kafur entered the Srirangam temple, massacred the Brahmin priests of the temple who resisted the invasion for three days, plundered the temple treasury and the storehouse and desecrated and destroyed numerous religious icons.
Timur's massacre of Delhi (1398)
The Turkic ruler Timur's campaigns in India were marked by systematic slaughter and other atrocities on a truly massive scale inflicted mainly on the subcontinent's Hindu population. Leaving the Muslim populated areas aside, his army looted rest of the habits. Journalist and author John Keay in his book India: A History: From the Earliest Civilisations to the Boom of the Twenty-First Century notes that the Hindu population was massacred or enslaved. In his memoir, Timur writes about his acts, "Although I was desirous of sparing them, I could not succeed, for it was the will of God that this calamity should befall the city." Before the battle of 1398 where Timur took control of Delhi, he had many Hindus as prisoners. One hundred thousand Hindus prisoners were killed before he attacked Delhi and many more were killed afterwards.
After ceasing control of Jammu and Kashmir, Maharaja Ranjit Singh appointed the first Hindu governor since 1354 AD. Gulab Dogra, the Hindu Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, raised the tax on Muslims, demolished the Jama Masjid of Srinagar and prohibited the cow slaughter. The punishment for cow slaughter was the death penalty without any exception.
In 1837, Raja Gulab Dogra of Jammu and Kashmir suppressed the revolt of the Yousafzai Tribe, which forms the biggest proportion of Pashtun tribes. He offered 1 Rupee for the head of every Yousafzai men brought to his feet. He made Katuha is headquarters, hunted Muslim Pashtun tribes like wild beasts, although he had some of the women spared. The most beautiful of these women were kept for Raja Gulab Singh's harem and rest were sold as slaves in Lahore and Jammu. It was reported that this expedition resulted in loss of tens of thousands of Pashtun rebels, civilians and thousands of women were sold into slavery.
After acquiring Jammu and Kashmir through the Treaty of Lahore and Treaty of Kashmir, Dogra rulers continued their anti-Muslim policies. The worst atrocities perpetrated against Muslims in the state came in 1863 when the Dogra ruler, Maharaja Ranbir Dogra, ordered a major invasion of the frontier areas of Yasin and Hunza to punish Muslim rebels. 3,000 troops were commanded by General Hooshiara Singh who invaded the frontier. The Dogras took all men as prisoner, and many Dogra soldiers entered the back portion of the Mandoori Hill which was full of Yasini and Hunza women and their children. Dogra soldiers drew their swords and cut the women and children into pieces. Those women who were injured but not dead were burnt alive and approximately 2000 Yasin villagers were killed overall. About 5,000 Yasinis were taken back to Srinagar for forced labour and all their women were included into the harems of Dogra Soldiers.
Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor (1658–1707)
The Mughal Empire was marked by periods of tolerance of non-Muslims, such as Hindus and Sikhs, as well as periods of violent oppression and persecution of those people. The reign of Aurangzeb is frequently cited — and controversial — for his numerous desecrations and even destruction of Hindu temples. Aurangzeb banned Diwali, placed a jizya (tax) on non-Muslims and sentenced the ninth Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur to death after charging him with rebellion.
Aurangzeb destroyed a number of temples with figures varying from 80 to 60,000. Indian historian Harbans Mukhia wrote that "In the end, as recently recorded in Richard Eaton's careful tabulation, some 80 temples were demolished between 1192 and 1760 (15 in Aurangzeb's reign) and he compares this figure with the claim of 60,000 demolitions, advanced rather nonchalantly by 'Hindu nationalist' propagandists,' although even in that camp professional historians are slightly more moderate." Some temples were destroyed entirely; in other cases mosques were built on their foundations, sometimes using the same stones. Among the temples Aurangzeb destroyed were two that are most sacred to Hindus, in Varanasi and Mathura. In both cases, he had large mosques built on the sites.
The Kesava Deo temple in Mathura, marked the place that Hindus believe was the birthplace of Shri Krishna. In 1661 Aurangzeb ordered the demolition of the temple, and constructed the Katra Masjid mosque. Traces of the ancient Hindu temple can be seen from the back of the mosque. Aurangzeb also destroyed what was the most famous temple in Varanasi- the Vishwanath Temple. The temple had changed its location over the years, but in 1585 Akbar had authorised its location at Gyan Vapi. Aurangzeb ordered its demolition in 1669 and constructed a mosque on the site, whose minarets stand 71 metres above the Ganges. Traces of the old temple can be seen behind the mosque. Centuries later, emotional debate about these wanton acts of cultural desecration continues. Aurangzeb also destroyed the Somnath temple in 1706.
Tipu Sultan, ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore (1782–1799)
The ruler of Mysore, Tipu Sultan is regarded to be anti-Christian by many historians. The captivity of Mangalorean Catholics at Seringapatam, which began on 24 February 1784 and ended on 4 May 1799, remains the most disconsolate memory in their history.
The Bakur Manuscript reports him as having said: "All Musalmans should unite together, and considering the annihilation of infidels as a sacred duty, labor to the utmost of their power, to accomplish that subject." Soon after the Treaty of Mangalore in 1784, Tipu gained control of Canara. He issued orders to seize the Christians in Canara, confiscate their estates, and deport them to Seringapatam, the capital of his empire, through the Jamalabad fort route. However, there were no priests among the captives. Together with Father Miranda, all the 21 arrested priests were issued orders of expulsion to Goa, fined Rupees 200,000, and threatened death by hanging if they ever returned.
Tipu ordered the destruction of 27 Catholic churches, all beautifully carved with statues depicting various saints. Among them included the Church of Nossa Senhora de Rosario Milagres at Mangalore, Fr Miranda's Seminary at Monte Mariano, Church of Jesu Marie Jose at Omzoor, Chapel at Bolar, Church of Merces at Ullal, Imaculata Conceiciao at Mulki, San Jose at Perar, Nossa Senhora dos Remedios at Kirem, Sao Lawrence at Karkal, Rosario at Barkur, Immaculata Conceciao at Baidnur. All were razed to the ground, with the exception of The Church of Holy Cross at Hospet, owing to the friendly offices of the Chauta Raja of Moodbidri.
Capture of the Mangalorean Catholic community
According to Thomas Munro, a Scottish soldier and the first collector of Canara, around 60,000 people, nearly 92 percent of the entire Mangalorean Catholic community, were captured; only 7,000 escaped. Francis Buchanan gives the numbers as 70,000 captured, from a population of 80,000, with 10,000 escaping. They were forced to climb nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 m) through the jungles of the Western Ghat mountain ranges. It was 210 miles (340 km) from Mangalore to Seringapatam, and the journey took six weeks.
According to British Government records, 20,000 of them died on the march to Seringapatam. According to James Scurry, a British officer, who was held captive along with Mangalorean Catholics, 30,000 of them were forcibly converted to Islam. The young women and girls were forcibly made wives of the Muslims living there. The young men who offered resistance were disfigured by cutting their noses, upper lips, and ears. According to Mr. Silva of Gangolim, a survivor of the captivity, if a person who had escaped from Seringapatam was found, the punishment under the orders of Tipu was the cutting off of the ears, nose, the feet and one hand.
The Archbishop of Goa wrote in 1800, "It is notoriously known in all Asia and all other parts of the globe of the oppression and sufferings experienced by the Christians in the Dominion of the King of Kanara, during the usurpation of that country by Tipu Sultan from an implacable hatred he had against them who professed Christianity."
Tipu Sultan's rule of the Malabar coast had an adverse impact on the Syrian Malabar Nasrani community. Many churches in the Malabar and Cochin were damaged. The old Syrian Nasrani seminary at Angamaly which had been the centre of Catholic religious education for several centuries was razed to the ground by Tipu's soldiers. A lot of centuries old religious manuscripts were lost forever. The church was later relocated to Kottayam where it still exists. The Mor Sabor church at Akaparambu and the Martha Mariam Church attached to the seminary were destroyed as well. Tipu's army set fire to the church at Palayoor and attacked the Ollur Church in 1790. Furthernmore, the Arthat church and the Ambazhakkad seminary was also destroyed. Over the course of this invasion, many Syrian Malabar Nasrani were killed or forcibly converted to Islam. Most of the coconut, arecanut, pepper and cashew plantations held by the Syrian Malabar farmers were also indiscriminately destroyed by the invading army. As a result, when Tipu's army invaded Guruvayur and adjacent areas, the Syrian Christian community fled Calicut and small towns like Arthat to new centres like Kunnamkulam, Chalakudi, Ennakadu, Cheppadu, Kannankode, Mavelikkara, etc. where there were already Christians. They were given refuge by Sakthan Tamburan, the ruler of Cochin and Karthika Thirunal, the ruler of Travancore, who gave them lands, plantations and encouraged their businesses. Colonel Macqulay, the British resident of Travancore also helped them.
Captured British soldiers
Tipu's persecution of Christians extended to captured British soldiers. For instance, there were a significant number of forced conversions of British captives between 1780 and 1784. Following their disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Pollilur, 7,000 British men along with an unknown number of women were held captive by Tipu in the fortress of Seringapatnam.
Of these, over 300 were circumcised and given Muslim names and clothes and several British regimental drummer boys were made to wear ghagra cholis and entertain the court as nautch girls or dancing girls. After the 10-year-long captivity ended, James Scurry, one of those prisoners, recounted that he had forgotten how to sit in a chair and use a knife and fork. His English was broken and stilted, having lost all his vernacular idiom. His skin had darkened to the swarthy complexion of negroes, and moreover, he had developed an aversion to wearing European clothes.
During the surrender of the Mangalore fort which was delivered in an armistice by the British and their subsequent withdrawal, all the Mestizos and remaining non-British foreigners were killed, together with 5,600 Mangalorean Catholics. Those condemned by Tipu Sultan for treachery were hanged instantly, the gibbets being weighed down by the number of bodies they carried. The Netravati River was so putrid with the stench of dying bodies, that the local residents were forced to leave their riverside homes.
Persecution of Hindus
Hindus, particularly the Nair and Kodava communities were also persecuted by Tipu Sultan. They were subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture. The Nairs were treated with extreme brutality by the Muslims due to their strong adherence to the Hindu faith and martial tradition. The captivity ended when Nair troops from Travancore, with the help of the East India Company defeated Tippu Sultan in the Third Anglo-Mysore War. It is estimated that out of the 30,000 Nairs put to captivity (including women and children), only a few hundred returned to Malabar alive.
In 1783, the Kodavas erupted in revolt against Tippu Sultan and threw their forces out of Kodagu. In 1785, Tippu falsely called the Kodavas guilty of polyandry and threatened to convert them into Islam. He threatened the Kodavas that he would not revile or molest a single individual among them and instead make Ahmadis (Muslims) out of the whole of them, transplanting them from their homeland in the Coorg to Seringapatam. In response the angered Kodavas rose in rebellion again.
Tippu gave the task of implementing the orders to Runmust Khan, the Nawab of Kurool. This task was accomplished when in a surprise attack, the Kodavas were besieged by the invading Muslim army. 500 were killed and over 40,000 Kodavas fled to the woods and concealed themselves in the mountains. Thousands of Kodava Hindus were seized along with the Raja, Dodda Vira-Rajendra, and held them captive at Seringapatam. They were also subjected to forcible conversions to Islam, death, and torture.
In Seringapatam, the young men who were forcibly circumcised were incorporated into the Ahmedy Corps, and they formed eight Risalas or regiments. The actual number of Kodavas that were captured in the operation is unclear. The British administrator Mark Wilks gives it as 70,000, Historian Lewis Rice arrives at the figure of 85,000, while Mir Kirmani's score for the Coorg campaign is 80,000 men, women and child prisoners. In a letter to Runmust Khan, Tipu himself stated:
"We proceeded with the utmost speed, and, at once, made prisoners of 40,000 occasion-seeking and sedition-exciting Coorgis, who alarmed at the approach of our victorious army, had slunk into woods, and concealed themselves in lofty mountains, inaccessible even to birds. Then carrying them away from their native country (the native place of sedition) we raised them to the honour of Islam, and incorporated them into our Ahmedy corps."
In 1788, Tipu ordered his governor in Calicut Sher Khan to begin the process of converting Hindus to Islam, and in July of that year, 200 Brahmins were forcibly converted and made to eat beef. Tipu sent a letter on 19 January 1790 to the Governor of Bekal, Budruz Zuman Khan. It says:
"Don't you know I have achieved a great victory recently in Malabar and over four lakh Hindus were converted to Islam? I am determined to march against that cursed Raman Nair (Rajah of Travancore) very soon. Since I am overjoyed at the prospect of converting him and his subjects to Islam, I have happily abandoned the idea of going back to Srirangapatanam now."
Historian Hayavadana C. Rao wrote about Tippu in his encyclopaedic work on the History of Mysore. He asserted that Tippu's "religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration". He further asserts that the acts of Tippu that were constructive towards Hindus were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance. C. K. Kareem also notes that Tippu Sultan issued an edict for the destruction of Hindu temples in Kerala.
The following is a translation of an inscription on the stone found at Seringapatam, which was situated in a conspicuous place in the fort:
"Oh Almighty God! dispose the whole body of infidels! Scatter their tribe, cause their feet to stagger! Overthrow their councils, change their state, destroy their very root! Cause death to be near them, cut off from them the means of sustenance! Shorten their days! Be their bodies the constant object of their cares (i.e., infest them with diseases), deprive their eyes of sight, make black their faces (i.e., bring shame)."
Goa Inquisition (1560–1774)
The first inquisitors, Aleixo Dias Falcão and Francisco Marques, established themselves in what was formerly the king of Goa's palace, forcing the Portuguese viceroy to relocate to a smaller residence. The inquisitor's first act was forbidding Hindus from the public practice of their faith through fear of death. Sephardic Jews living in Goa, many of whom had fled the Iberian Peninsula to escape the excesses of the Spanish Inquisition to begin with, were also persecuted. During the Goa Inquisition, described as "contrary to humanity" by Voltaire, conversions to Catholicism occurred by force and 57 Goans were executed by the Portuguese between 1561 and 1774.
The adverse effects of the inquisition were tempered somewhat by the fact that Hindus were able to escape Portuguese hegemony by migrating to other parts of the subcontinent. Though officially repressed in 1774, it was reinstated by Queen Maria I in 1778. The last vestiges of the Goa Inquisition were finally swept away when the British occupied the city in 1812.
Indian Rebellion of 1857
In 1813, the East India Company charter was amended to allow for government sponsored missionary activity across British India. The missionaries soon spread almost everywhere and started denigrating Hinduism and Islam, besides promoting Christianity, to seek converts. Many officers of the British East India Company, such as Herbert Edwardes and Colonel S.G. Wheeler, openly preached to the Sepoys. Such activities caused a great deal of resentment and fear of forced conversions among Indian soldiers of the Company and civilians alike.
The perception that the company was trying to convert Hindus and Muslims to Christianity is often cited as one of the causes of the revolt. The revolt is considered by some historians as a semi-national and religious war seeking independence from British rule though Saul David questions this interpretation. The revolt started, among the Indian soldiers of British East India Company, when the British introduced new rifle cartridges, rumoured to be greased with pig and cow fat — an abhorrent concept to Muslim and Hindu soldiers, respectively, for religious reasons. However, in the aftermath of the revolt, British reprisals were particularly severe with hundreds of thousands being killed. While the death toll is often debated by historians with figures ranging between one hundred thousand and one million, it is usually agreed that several hundred thousands were killed.
Moplah Rebellion (1921)
Moplah Rebellion was an Anti Hindu rebellion conducted by the Muslim Mappila community (Moplah is a British spelling) of Kerala in 1921. Inspired by the Khilafat movement and the Karachi resolution; Moplahs murdered, pillaged, and forcibly converted thousands of Hindus. 100,000 Hindus were driven away from their homes forcing to leave their property behind, which were later took over by Mappilas. This greatly changed the demographics of the area, being the major cause behind today's Malappuram district being a Muslim majority district in Kerala.
According to one view, the reasons for the Moplah rebellion was religious revivalism among the Muslim Mappilas, and hostility towards the landlord Hindu Nair, Nambudiri Jenmi community and the British administration that supported the latter. Adhering to view, British records call it a British-Muslim revolt. The initial focus was on the government, but when the limited presence of the government was eliminated, Moplahs turned their full attention on attacking Hindus. Mohommed Haji was proclaimed the Caliph of the Moplah Khilafat and flags of Islamic Caliphate were flown. Ernad and Walluvanad were declared Khilafat kingdoms.
Annie Besant wrote about the riots: "They Moplahs murdered and plundered abundantly, and killed or drove away all Hindus who would not apostatise. Somewhere about a lakh (100,000) of people were driven from their homes with nothing but their clothes they had on, stripped of everything. Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means, and we do not want to see another specimen of the Khilafat Raj in India."
Partition of British India (1947)
After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British followed a divide-and-rule policy, exploiting differences between communities, to prevent similar revolts from taking place. In that respect, Indian Muslims were encouraged to forge a cultural and political identity separate from the Hindus. In the years leading up to Independence, Mohammad Ali Jinnah became increasingly concerned about minority position of Islam in an independent India largely composed of a Hindu majority.
Although a partition plan was accepted, no large population movements were contemplated. As India and Pakistan become independent, 14.5 million people crossed borders to ensure their safety in an increasingly lawless and communal environment. With British authority gone, the newly formed governments were completely unequipped to deal with migrations of such staggering magnitude, and massive violence and slaughter occurred on both sides of the border along communal lines. Estimates of the number of deaths range around roughly 500,000, with low estimates at 200,000 and high estimates at 1,000,000.
Constitutionally India is a secular state,  but large-scale violence has periodically occurred in India since independence. In recent decades, communal tensions and religion-based politics have become more prominent.
For several decades after Partitions, Sikhs in Punjab had complained about domination by the Hindu majority. In a 1975 court case, Indira Gandhi was found guilty of electoral malpractice which barred her from government offices for six years and opposition parties staged protests to demand her resignation. In response, she declared a State of Emergency during which she jailed thousands of opposition members, censored the press, postponed elections, and changed the constitutional law she was convicted of violating. During the Indian Emergency, thousands of Sikhs campaigning for autonomous government and against the "fascist tendency" of the Central Government were imprisoned. As a result of their "Campaign to Save Democracy", out of 140,000 people arrested without trial during the Indian Emergency, 40,000 were Sikhs.
In later elections she supported the politics Jarnail Bhindranwale, a religious conservative, in an effort to undermine the Akali Dal, the largest Sikh political party. However, Bhindranwale began to oppose the central government and moved his political base to the environs of the Darbar Sahib in Amritsar, Punjab. While there he gained considerable political power and disrupted the local state machinery. In June 1984, under orders from Indira Gandhi, the Indian army attacked the Darbar Sahib with tanks and armoured vehicles. Although the operation was militarily successful, it aroused tremendous controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are highly debated. In response, some Sikhs and some Punjabi Hindus began a separatist campaign to free Punjab from the Indian Government.
Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by two of her bodyguards in retaliation for the storming of the Golden temple. After the assassination the 1984 anti-Sikh pogroms took place in Delhi, where government and police officials aided Indian National Congress party worker gangs in "methodically and systematically" targeting Sikhs and Sikh homes. As a result of the pogroms 10,000–17,000 were burned alive or otherwise killed, Sikh people suffered massive property damage, and "at least 50,000" Sikhs became displaced persons. To date, the Government of India has not prosecuted any of the assailants. The attack on the Harmandir Sahib and the 1984 Anti-Sikh pogroms led to the increasing popularity of the Khalistan movement. From 1987 until 1992, the Indian government dismissed the elected government of the state, banned elections and imposed direct rule. Rajiv Gandhi made a famous controversial speech which incited communal hatred: "When a big tree falls (Indira Gandhi), the earth shakes (the people)."
In the peak years of the insurgency, religious violence by separatists, government-sponsored groups, and the paramilitary arms of the government was endemic on all sides. Human Rights Watch reports that separatists were responsible for "massacre of civilians, attacks upon Hindu minorities in the state, indiscriminate bomb attacks in crowded places, and the assassination of a number of political leaders". According to Human Rights Watch, the Indian Government's response "led to the arbitrary detention, torture, extrajudicial execution, and enforced disappearance of thousands of Sikhs". The government generally targeted "young Sikh men on suspicion that they were involved in the militancy" but would later deny having them in custody, as a result, many of the victims of enforced disappearances are believed to have been killed. The insurgency resulted in the paralyzation of Punjab's economy until normalisation in 1993.
After the assassination of Indira Gandhi by two of her Sikh Body Guards following Operation Blue Star, many Indian National Congress workers including Jagdish Tytler, Sajjan Kumar and Kamal Nath were accused of inciting and participating in riots targeting the Sikh population of the capitol. There are allegations that the government destroyed evidence and shielded the guilty. The Asian Age front-page story called the government actions "the Mother of all Cover-ups" There are allegations that the violence was led and often perpetrated by Indian National Congress activists and sympathisers during the riots. The government, then led by the Congress, was widely criticised for doing very little at the time, possibly acting as a conspirator. The theory is supported by the fact that voting lists were used to identify Sikh families.
Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus
In the Kashmir region, approximately 300 Kashmiri Pandits were killed between September 1989 to 1990 in various incidents. In early 1990, local Urdu newspapers Aftab and Al Safa called upon Kashmiris to wage jihad against India and ordered the expulsion of all Hindus choosing to remain in Kashmir. In the following days masked men ran in the streets with AK-47 shooting to kill Hindus who would not leave. Notices were placed on the houses of all Hindus, telling them to leave within 24 hours or die.
Since March 1990, estimates of between 300,000 to 500,000 pandits have migrated outside Kashmir due to persecution by Islamic fundamentalists in the largest case of ethnic cleansing since the partition of India. The proportion of Kashmiri Pandits in the Kashmir valley has declined from about 15% in 1947 to, by some estimates, less than 0.1% since the insurgency in Kashmir took on a religious and sectarian flavour.
Many Kashmiri Pandits have been killed by Islamist militants in incidents such as the Wandhama massacre and the 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre. The incidents of massacring and forced eviction have been termed ethnic cleansing by some observers.
Religious involvement in North-East India Militancy
The separatist group National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) seeks to convert all tribals in the state of Tripura, who are mostly Hindu or Buddhist, to Christianity. It has proclaimed bans on Hindu worship and has attacked animist Reangs and Hindu Jamatia tribesmen who resisted. Some resisting tribal leaders have been killed and their womenfolk raped. The RSS has attempted to counter Christian separatist groups by backing Reang and Jamatia tribals, and has called for the central government to help arm and fund them.
Hindu nationalists, upset with the rapid spread of Christianity in the region, link the overt Christian religiosity of the groups and the local churches' liberation theology-based doctrine to allege church support for ethnic separatism. Vatsala Vedantam identifies statements from the American Baptist Churches USA as endorsing the Naga separatist cause.
According to The Government of Tripura, the Baptist Church of Tripura is involved in supporting the NLFT and arrested two church officials in 2000, one of them for possessing explosives. In late 2004, the National Liberation Front of Tripura banned all Hindu celebrations of Durga Puja and Saraswati Puja. The Naga insurgency, ethnic separtism reinforced in their identity by Christianity, has been repeatedly involved in violence against Hindus in the region.
The United States does not designate as terrorist organisations most of those groups that continue violent separatist struggles in India’s northeastern states.
The history of modern India has many incidents of communal violence. Tensions between Hindus and Muslims started coming to light a few years before the independence of the Indian subcontinent. This thought contrasts with the more widely held Two Nation Theory as the main reason. These riots were supposedly provoked by colonizers and politicians for personal gains and vested interests. After India became independent, tensions have led to several major incidences of religious violence such as the 1987 Hashimpura massacre, the 1992-93 Bombay Riots, the 1993 Bombay bombings, and the 2002 Gujarat violence.
On 6 December 1992, members of the Vishva Hindu Parishad and the Bajrang Dal destroyed the 430-year-old Babri Mosque in Ayodhya - it was claimed by the Hindus that the mosque was built over the birthplace of the ancient deity Rama (and a 2010 Allahabad court ruled that the site was indeed a Hindu monument before the mosque was built there, based on evidence submitted by the Archaeological Survey of India). This action allegedly caused humiliation to the Muslim community. The resulting religious riots caused at least 1200 deaths. Since then the Government of India has blocked off or heavily increased security at these disputed sites while encouraging attempts to resolve these disputes through court cases and negotiations.
In the aftermatch of the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu nationalists on 6 December 1992, riots took place between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Mumbai. Four people died in a fire in the Asalpha timber mart at Ghatkopar, five were killed in the burning of Bainganwadi; shacks along the harbour line track between Sewri and Cotton Green stations were gutted; and a couple was pulled out of a rickshaw in Asalpha village and burnt to death. The riots changed the demographics of Mumbai greatly, as Hindus moved to Hindu-majority areas and Muslims moved to Muslim-majority areas.
The Godhra train burning incident in which Hindus were burned alive allegedly by Muslims by closing door of train, led to the 2002 Gujarat riots in which mostly Muslims were killed in an act of retaliation. According to the death toll given to the parliament on 11 May 2005 by the government, 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, and another 2,548 injured. 223 people are missing. The report placed the number of riot widows at 919 and 606 children were declared orphaned. According to hone advocacy group, the death tolls were up to 2000. According to the Congressional Research Service, up to 2000 people were killed in the violence.
Tens of thousands were displaced from their homes because of the violence. According to New York Times reporter Celia Williams Dugger, witnesses were dismayed by the lack of intervention from local police, who often watched the events taking place and took no action against the attacks on Muslims and their property. Sangh leaders as well as the Gujarat government maintain that the violence was rioting or inter-communal clashes — spontaneous and uncontrollable reaction to the Godhra train burning.
In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in violent attacks on Christians in India, often perpetrated by Hindu Nationalists. Between 1964 and 1996, thirty-eight incidents of violence against Christians were reported. In 1997, twenty-four such incidents were reported. In 1998, it went up to ninety. Between January 1998 and February 1999 alone, one hundred and sixteen attacks against Christians in India were reported by church. Between 1 January and 30 July 2000, more than fifty-seven attacks on Christians were reported. These acts of violence include forcible reconversion of converted Christians to Hinduism, distribution of threatening literature and destruction of Christian cemeteries.
In some cases, anti-Christian violence has been co-ordinated, involving multiple attacks. In Orissa, starting December 2007, Christians have been attacked in Kandhamal and other districts, resulting in the deaths of two Hindus and one Christian, and the destruction of houses and churches. Hindu Extremists claim that, Christians first killed a Hindu saint Laxmananand. So the attacks on Christians supposedly were in retaliation. However there was no conclusive proof to support this claim. Twenty people were arrested following the attacks on churches. Similarly, starting 14 September 2008, there were numerous incidents of violence against the Christian community in Karnataka.
Foreign Christian missionaries have mostly been targets of attacks. In a well-publicised case Graham Staines, an Australian missionary, was burnt to death while he was sleeping with his two sons Timothy (aged 9) and Philip (aged 7) in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar district in Orissa in January 1999. In 2003, Dara Singh was convicted of leading the gang responsible.
In its annual human rights reports for 1999, the United States Department of State criticised India for "increasing societal violence against Christians." The report listed over 90 incidents of anti-Christian violence, ranging from damage of religious property to violence against Christian pilgrims.
In 2007 and 2008 there was a further flare up of tensions in Orissa. Another church was attacked in BJP-ruled Madhya Pradesh, where unidentified persons set two Statues inside St Peter and Paul Church in Jabalpur on fire, and more attacks in Karnataka, . The archbishop, Bernard Moras, met the BJP CM BS Yeddyurappa after he had taken a decision to invoke the provisions of Goonda Act against those nabbed for vandalising churches as part of its strategy to salvage its image and to instill confidence. The Bajrang Dal convenor was arrested after the incidents of church burning in Mangalore.
There have been a number of more recent attacks on Hindu temples and Hindus by Muslim militants. Prominent among them are the 1998 Chamba massacre, the 2002 fidayeen attacks on Raghunath temple, the 2002 Akshardham Temple attack allegedly perpetrated by Islamic terrorist outfit Lashkar-e-Toiba and the 2006 Varanasi bombings (supposedly perpetrated by Lashkar-e-Toiba), resulting in many deaths and injuries. Recent attacks on Hindus by Muslim mobs include Marad massacre, Godhra train burning etc.
In August 2000, Swami Shanti Kali, a popular Hindu priest, was shot to death inside his ashram in the Indian state of Tripura. Police reports regarding the incident identified ten members of the Christian militant organisation, NLFT, as being responsible for the murder. On 4 Dec 2000, nearly three months after his death, an ashram set up by Shanti Kali at Chachu Bazar near the Sidhai police station was raided by Christian militants belonging to the NLFT. Eleven of the priest's ashrams, schools, and orphanages around the state were closed down by the NLFT.
In September 2008, Swami Laxmanananda, a popular regional Hindu Guru was murdered along with four of his disciples by unknown assailants (though a Maoist organisation later claimed responsibility for that), allegedly due to the Guru's provocative opposition of Christians' conversion activities and Missionary propaganda. Later the police arrested three Christians in connection with the murder. Congress MP Radhakant Nayak has also been named as a suspected person in the murder, with some Hindu leaders calling for his arrest.
Lesser incidents of religious violence happen in many towns and villages in India. In October 2005, five people were killed in Mau in Uttar Pradesh during Hindu-Muslim rioting, which was triggered by the proposed celebration of a Hindu festival.
On 3 and 4 January 2002, three Hindus and two Muslims were killed in Marad, near Kozhikode due to scuffles between two groups that began after a dispute over drinking water. On 2001 three Muslims were killed by Rashtreeys Sevak Sangam. in response of this incident on 2 May 2003, eight Hindus were killed by a Muslim mob, in what is believed to be a sequel to the earlier incident. One of the attackers, Mohammed Ashker was killed during the chaos. The National Development Front (NDF), a right-wing militant Islamist organisation, was suspected as the perpetrator of the Marad Massacre.
In the 2010 Deganga riots after hundreds of Hindu business establishments and residences were looted, destroyed and burnt, dozens of Hindus were severely injured and several Hindu temples desecrated and vandalised by the Islamist mobs led by Trinamul Congress MP Haji Nurul Islam. Three years later, during the 2013 Canning riots, several hundred Hindu businesses were targeted and destroyed by Islamist mobs in the Indian state of West Bengal.
275 Hindus were killed in 1992 Bombay riots
Hindus were attacked in Canning in 2013.
Over 2005 to 2009 period, an average of 130 people died every year from communal riots, and 2,200 were injured. In pre-partitioned India, over the 1920–1940 period, numerous communal violence incidents were recorded, an average of 381 people died per year during religious violence, and thousands were injured.
According to PRS India, 24 out of 35 states and union territories of India reported instances of religious riots over the 5 year 2005–2009 period. However, most religious riots resulted in property damage but no injuries or fatalities. The highest incidences of communal violence in the 5-year period were reported from Maharashtra (700). The other three states with high counts of communal violence over the same 5 year period were Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. Together, these four states accounted for 64% of all deaths from communal violence. Adjusted for widely different population per state, the highest rate of communal violence fatalities were reported by Madhya Pradesh, at 0.14 death per 100,000 people over 5 years, or 0.03 deaths per 100,000 people per year. There was a wide regional variation in rate of death caused by communal violence per 100,000 people. The India-wide average communal violence fatality rate per year was 0.01 person per 100,000 people per year. The world's average annual death rate from intentional violence, in recent years, has been 7.9 per 100,000 people.
For 2012, there were 93 deaths in India from many incidences of communal violence (or 0.007 fatalities per 100,000 people). Of these, 48 were Muslims, 44 Hindus and one police official. The riots also injured 2,067 people, of which 1,010 were Hindus, 787 Muslims, 222 police officials and 48 others. Over 2013, 107 people were killed during religious riots (or 0.008 total fatalities per 100,000 people), of which 66 were Muslims, 41 were Hindus. The various riots in 2013 also injured 1,647 people including 794 Hindus, 703 Muslims and 200 policemen.
International human rights reports
- The 2007 United States Department of State International Religious Freedom Report noted The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the National Government generally respected this right in practice. However, some state and local governments limited this freedom in practice.
- The 2008 Human Rights Watch report notes: India claims an abiding commitment to human rights, but its record is marred by continuing violations by security forces in counterinsurgency operations and by government failure to rigorously implement laws and policies to protect marginalised communities. A vibrant media and civil society continue to press for improvements, but without tangible signs of success in 2007.
- The 2007 Amnesty International report listed several issues concern in India and noted Justice and rehabilitation continued to evade most victims of the 2002 Gujarat communal violence.
- The 2007 United States Department of State Human Rights Report noted that the government generally respected the rights of its citizens; however, numerous serious problems remained. The report which has received a lot of controversy internationally, as it does not include human rights violations of United States and its allies, has generally been rejected by political parties in India as interference in internal affairs, including in the Lower House of Parliament.
In film and literature
Religious violence in India have been a topic of various films and novels.
- Firaaq a film set in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat riots.
- Garam Hawa a film by M. S. Sathyu based on a story on partition written by Ismat Chugtai.
- Gandhi – a 1982 film which included portrayal of the Direct Action Day and Partition riots.
- Tamas A film on partition based on a book by Bhisham Sahni
- Bombay – a 1995 film centred on events during the period of December 1992 to January 1993 in India, and the controversy surrounding the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya.
- Maachis a film by Gulzar about Punjab terrorism
- Earth – a 1998 film portraying Partition violence in Lahore.
- Fiza – a 2000 film, plot setup amidst Bombay Riots.
- Hey Ram – a 2002 film with a semi-fictional plot centres around Partition of India and related religious violence.
- Mr. and Mrs. Iyer – a 2002 film. The story revolves around the relationship between two lead characters Meenakshi Iyer and Raja amidst Hindu-Muslim riots in India.
- Final Solution – a 2003 documentary film about the 2002 Gujarat violence, banned in India.
- Hawayein – a 2003 film about the struggles of Sikhs during the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
- Black Friday – a Hindi film on the 1993 serial bomb blasts in Mumbai, directed by Anurag Kashyap.
- Amu – An award-winning film about a girl orphaned during the 1984 Anti-Sikh riots.
- Parzania – a 2007 film about the riots in Gujarat in 2002. The film was purposely not released in Gujarat. Cinema owners and distributors in Gujarat refused to screen the film out of fear of retaliation by Hindu activists. Hindutva groups in Gujarat threatened to attack theatres that showed the film.
- Train to Pakistan, a novel by Khushwant Singh set during the Partition of India and a movie based on the book-Train to Pakistan
- Toba Tek Singh, a satire by the writer Saadat Hasan Manto set during the Partition of India.
- Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act, 1983
- Caste-related violence in India
- Communalism (South Asia)
- List of massacres in India
- List of riots in Mumbai
- Persecution of Hindus
- Persecution of Muslims
- Religion in India
- Saffron Terror
- Terrorism in India
- Religious harmony in India
- 1925 Indian riots
- List of riots in India
- "Census of India: Population by religious communities". 2001.
- (A) Violette Graff and Juliette Galonnier (2013), Hindu-Muslim Communal Riots in India II (1986-2011) Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, SciencesPo, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, France; (B) Violette Graff and Juliette Galonnier (2013), Hindu-Muslim Communal Riots in India I (1947-1986) Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, SciencesPo, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, France
- Rao, Prabhakar (December 2007). "Should religions try to convert others?".
- "Teachings of religious tolerance and intolerance in world religions".
- Subrahmaniam, Vidya (6 November 2003). "Ayodhya: India's endless curse".
- "A new breed of missionary". The Christian Science Monitor. 2005-04-01.
- "India:Events of 2007".
- Vital Stats - Communal Violence in India PRS India, Centre for Policy Research (CPR), New Delhi
- Bharti Jain, Government releases data of riot victims identifying religion The Times of India (September 2013); Note: Indian government calendar reporting period ends in June every year.
- Global Burden of Armed Violence Chapter 2, Geneva Declaration, Switzerland (2011)
- Goel, Madan (14 August 2007). "Pluralism, Dissent and Democracy in India" (DOC). University of West Florida. Retrieved 4 April 2008.[dead link]
- Thomas Block (1 September 2012), A Fatal Addiction: War in the Name of God, Algora Publishing, p. 116, ISBN 978-0-87586-932-2, retrieved 16 August 2013
- James Jones (14 March 2008), Blood That Cries Out From the Earth : The Psychology of Religious Terrorism: The Psychology of Religious Terrorism, Oxford University Press, p. 82, ISBN 978-0-19-804431-4, retrieved 16 August 2013
- Sarvastivada pg 38–39
- Ashok, pg 91–93
- "Article on Deokothar Stupas possibly being targeted by Pushyamitra". Archaeology.org. 4 April 2001. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Akira Hirakawa, Paul Groner, A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayan, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1996, ISBN 81-208-0955-6, p. 223
- O'Neill, Tom (January 2008). India's Ancient Art. Benoy K. Behl. National Geographic Magazine. "The flow between faiths was such that for hundreds of years, almost all Buddhist temples, including the ones at Ajanta, were built under the rule and patronage of Hindu kings."
- Durant, Will. The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage. p. 459. "The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within. The Hindus had allowed their strength to be wasted in internal division and war; they had adopted religions like Buddhism and Jainism, which unnerved them for the tasks of life; they had failed to organize their forces for the protection of their frontiers and their capitals, their wealth and their freedom, from the hordes of Scythians, Huns, Afghans and Turks hovering about India's boundaries and waiting for national weakness to let them in. For four hundred years (600–1000 A.D.) India invited conquest; and at last it came."
- Lal, K. S. (1979). Bias in Indian Historiography.
- Lal, K. S. (1999). Theory and Practice of Muslim State in India.
- Gilbert Pollet (1995). Indian Epic Values: Rāmāyaṇa and Its Impact. Peeters Publishers.
- Wink (2004) pg 201–205
- Keay pg. 184
- Appleby. pg. 291–292
- Keay, J. India a History, HarperCollinsPublishers London, pg. 209
- Elliot, Henry Miers (1953). The History of India: as told by its own historians; the Muhammadan period (Excerpt from Jamiu'l-Hikayat). University of Michigan.
- Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai "Hindustan Islami Ahad Mein" (Hindustan under Islamic rule), Eng Trans by Maulana Abdul Hasan Nadwi
- Banerjee, Jamini (1967). History of Firuz Shah Tughluq. Munshiram Manoharlal.
- L. Renganathan (26 January 2013). "Regal glorification for Lord Ranganatha at Srirangam". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Prema Nandakumar (4 January 2012). "Koil Ozhugu, authentic documentation of history". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- V. N. Hari Rao, V. M. Reddi (1976). History of the Śrīrangam Temple. Sri Venkateswara University. p. 101.
- "Sri Venkateswara University Oriental Journal" 10. 1967. pp. 48–50.
- Crimes Against India. Indiana: iUniverse. p. 50. ISBN 9781440111594.
- Kalidos, Raju (1976). History and Culture of the Tamils: From Prehistoric Times to the President's Rule. the University of Michigan. p. 210.
- Journal of South Asian Literature (Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University). 23–24: 102. 1988.
- Narasimhachary, M. (2004). Śrī Vedānta Deśika (1st ed. ed.). New Delhi: Sahitya Academi. pp. 25–28. ISBN 8126018909.
- Encyclopaedia of Indian Events and Dates. Gardners Books. 2009. p. A-36. ISBN 8120740742.
- Longman. History and Civic 7. Pearson Education India. p. 14. ISBN 9788131709313.
- Aiyangar, S. Krishnaswami (1991). South India and her Muhammadan invaders ([1st ed., repr.] ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. pp. 112–113. ISBN 8120605365.
- John Keay (2011). India: A History: From the Earliest Civilisations to the Boom of the Twenty-First Century. Grove Press. ISBN 0802195504. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Burgan, Michael (2009). Empire of the Mongols. Infobase Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1604131632. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir – Chitralekha Zutshi – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Marriage among Muslims: preference and choice in Northern Pakistan – Hastings Donnan – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Gilgit Agency 1877-1935Second Reprint – Amar Singh Chohan – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Kashmir: Valley and Its Culture – S.R. Bakshi – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- The South Asian Aurangzeb profile
- Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States". p. 297.
- Mukhia, Harbans. The Mughals of India. pp. 25–26.
- Rajiv Varma Destruction of Hindu Temples by Aurangzeb
- Stephen Conway, The British Isles and the War of American Independence, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-820659-3, M1 Google Print, p. 342.
- N. Shyam Bhat, South Kanara, 1799–1860: a study in colonial administration and regional response, Mittal Publications, 1998, ISBN 81-7099-586-8, M1 Google Print, p. 2.
- J. B. Prashant More, Religion and society in South India: Hindus, Muslims, and Christians, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of MESHAR, 2006, ISBN 81-88432-12-1, M1 Google Print, p. 117.
- "Deportation & The Konkani Christian Captivity at Srirangapatna (1784 Feb. 24th Ash Wednesday)". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Sarasvati's Children, Joe Lobo
- Forrest 1887, pp. 314–316
- The Gentleman's Magazine 1833, p. 388
- "Christianity in Mangalore". Diocese of Mangalore. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2008.
- John B. Monteiro. "Monti Fest Originated at Farangipet – 240 Years Ago!". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Bowring, Lewin (1893). Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan and the struggle with the Musalman powers of the south (1974 ed.). Delhi: ADABIYAT-I DELLI. p. 126.
- Scurry & Whiteway 1824, p. 103
- Scurry & Whiteway 1824, p. 104
- Account of a Surviving Captive, A Mr. Silva of Gangolim (Letter of a Mr. L.R. Silva to his sister, a copy of which was given by an advocate, M.M. Shanbhag, to the author, Severino da Silva, and reproduced as Appendix No. 74: History of Christianity in Canara (1965))
- K.L. Bernard, Kerala History , pp.78–79
- William Dalrymple White Mughals (2006) p.28
- Storm over Seringapatam: the incredible story of Hyder Ali & Tippu Sultan, Praxy Fernandes. Chapter 14
- The English Cyclopćdia: A New Dictionary of Universal Knowledge – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- The real Tipu: a brief history of Tipu Sultan, Hari Dev Sharma. p.34-35
- Memoirs of Hyder and Tippoo: Rulers of Seringapatam, Written in the Mahratta ... – Ram Chandra Rao Punganuri – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Tipu Sultan, R. D. Palsokar. p.75-79
- George Lillie Craik; Charles MacFarlane. Pictorial History of England. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- The Penny Cyclopćdia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge – Google Books. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Prabhu, Alan Machado (1999). Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians. I.J.A. Publications. p. 250. ISBN 978-81-86778-25-8.
- Cariappa 1981, p. 48
- Prabhu 1999, p. 223
- Sen 1930, p. 157
- Mappila Muslims of Kerala: a study in Islamic trends (1992), Roland E. Miller, Orient Longman, p. 93
- K.M. Panicker, Bhasha Poshini, August 1923
- Rao, Hayavadana C.. History of Mysore 1399–1799: Incorporating the latest Epigraphical, Literary and Historical Researches Vol. 3 pgs 1047–53. Bangalore Government Press.
- Kareem, C.K (1973) . Kerala Under Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan P187. Kerala History Association : distributors, Paico Pub. House. p. 322.
- Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao (rao sahib), Benjamin Lewis Rice (1930). Mysore gazetteer, Volume 2, Issue 4,. Government Press. p. 2697.
- Voltaire, Lettres sur l'origine des sciences et sur celle des peuples de l'Asie (first published Paris, 1777), letter of 15 December 1775
- Salomon, H. P. and Sassoon, I. S. D., in Saraiva, Antonio Jose. The Marrano Factory. The Portuguese Inquisition and Its New Christians, 1536–1765 (Brill, 2001), pp. 345–7.
- Hunter, William W, The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Trubner & Co, 1886
- Shirodhkar, P. P., Socio-Cultural life in Goa during the 16th century, p. 123
- Seth, Vijay. "Secular Enlightenment and Christian Conversion: Missionaries and Education in Colonial India" (PDF). p. 28.
- Mahajan, V D. Modern Indian History. p. 188. ISBN 81-219-0935-X.
- A. N. Wilson (2003). The Victorians. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 202. ISBN 0-393-04974-4.
- Hukum Chand. History of Medieval India. Anmol Publications PVT LTD. p. 424,433. ISBN 81-261-2313-3. ""It was a semi-national and a religious war which had for its object freedom from English bondage and establishment of Mughal Empire with Empror Bahadur Shah as the head although the latter objective was not so common as the former."
- Stephen Neill (2002). A history of Christianity in India. Cambridge University Press. p. 471. ISBN 0-521-89332-1. ""What began as a fight for religion ended as a war of independence"
- The Indian Mutiny, Saul David, Viking 2002, page398
- Ramesh, Randeep (27 August 2007). "Millions died in Indian Mutiny of 1857".
- Hindu culture during and after Muslim rule: survival and subsequent challenges. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "Moplah Rebellion, Part II: Hindus killed in Kerala". Rediff.com. 9 May 2003. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Besant, Annie. The Future of Indian Politics: A Contribution To The Understanding Of Present-Day Problems P252. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4286-2605-0.
- O P Ralhan (1996). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh : National, Regional, Local. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. p. 297.
- Stanley Wolpert, Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195393941
- Wavell to Pethick Lawrence, 21 August 1946, Mansergh, Transfer of Power, Vol. VIII, P.274
- Lal, Vinay. "The Partition of India".
- "Death toll in the partition". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Two killed in Shimoga as newspaper sparks Muslim riots Reuters (March 2, 2010)
- "Constitution of India as of 29 July 2008". The Constitution of India. Ministry of Law & Justice. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Charny, Israel W. (1999). Encyclopedia of genocide. ABC-CLIO. pp. 516–517. ISBN 978-0-87436-928-1. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- J.S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990) 213
- J.S. Grewal, The Sikhs of the Punjab, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990) 214; Inder Malhotra, Indira Gandhi: A Personal and Political Biography, (London/Toronto, Hodder and Stoughton, 1989) 178
- Ahmad, Ishtiaq (1996). State, Nation, and Ethnicity in the Contemporary South Asia. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 1-85567-578-1.
- Praagh, David Van (2003). The Greater game: India's Race With Destiny and China. India: McGill-Queen's University Press (MQUP). ISBN 0-7735-1639-5.
- Review: Punjab Terrorism: Truth Still Uncovered by Pritam Singh, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 36, No. 40 (6–12 Oct. 2001), pp. 3829–3831
- Kaur, Jaskaran; Crossette, Barbara (2006). Twenty years of impunity: the November 1984 pogroms of Sikhs in India (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Ensaaf. pp. 3–5. ISBN 0-9787073-0-3.
- Mukhoty, Gobinda; Kothari, Rajni (1984). "Who are the Guilty ?". People's Union for Civil Liberties
- US State Department, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 1992: India", p. 1133.
- Buncombe, Andrew (14 April 2013). "Indira Gandhi: The earth is still shaking after the killing of India's 'mighty oak'". The Independent. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Baweja, Harinder (25 April 2009). "When A Big Tree Falls, The Earth Shakes". Tehelka.com. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Protecting the Killers: A Policy of Impunity in Punjab, India. Volume 19, No. 14(C). Human Right Watch. 17 October 2007. pp. 1â2.
- Mustafa, Seema (9 August 2005). "1984 Sikhs Massacres: Mother of All Cover-ups". The Asian Age. p. 1.
- Agal, Renu (11 August 2005). "Justice delayed, justice denied". BBC News.
- "Leaders 'incited' anti-Sikh riots". BBC News. 8 August 2005. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- KAUR, JASKARAN (October 2006). TWENTY YEARS OF IMPUNITY. Ensaaf. p. 4. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Bartrop, Paul R. (30 Jul 2012). A Biographical Encyclopedia of Contemporary Genocide. ABC-CLIO. p. 318. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Kaur, Ravinder (5 Nov 2005). Religion, Violence and Political Mobilisation in South Asia. SAGE. p. 33. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "When Kashmiri pandits fled Islamic Terror". Rediff.com. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Kashmir's Pandits accuse Election Commission of discrimination against them OneIndia – 4 May 2009
- "Kashmiri Pandits in Nandimarg decide to leave Valley". Outlook. 30 March 2003. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- Kashmir: The scarred and the beautiful. New York Review of Books, 1 May 2008, p. 14.
- "'I heard the cries of my mother and sisters'". Rediff. 27 January 1998. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- "Migrant Pandits voted for end of terror in valley". The Tribune. 27 April 2004. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- "At least 58 dead in 2 attacks in Kashmir". CNN. 2 August 2000. Retrieved 30 November 2007.[dead link]
- "City shocked at killing of Kashmiri Pandits". The Times of India. 25 March 2003. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- Phil Reeves (25 March 2003). "Islamic militants kill 24 Hindus in Kashmir massacre". The Independent. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- Fernandes, Edna (2006). "Part II: The Crusaders, Chapter 11: 'Nagaland for Christ'". Holy Warriors: A Journey Into the Heart of Indian Fundamentalism. Penguin Global. ISBN 978-0-670-05870-9.
- Subir Bhaumik (May 2004). "Ethnicity, Ideology and Religion: Separatist Movements in India’s Northeast". "Religious Radicalism and Security in South Asia". Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.
- "Anatomy of an Insurgency Ethnicity & Identity in Nagaland". Satp.org. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Vatsala Vedantam (14 April 1999). "Privilege and resentment: Religious conflict in India". Christian Century.
- "Church backing Tripura rebels". BBC. 18 April 2000. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- 'Church backing Tripura rebels' BBC News – 18 April 2000
- Parratt (2003). "Christianity, ethnicity and structural violence: The north-east India case". Kangla Online. Retrieved 10 March 2008. "... it is clear that the Naga insurgency movements in India ... have to a degree a Christian ideological base... It is significant the Rev Michael Scott, one of the members of the earlier abortive Peace Mission, was widely perceived as being the Nagas' spokesman. Phizo (the first Naga independence leader) was a convinced Baptist. In the earlier period a substantial number of pastors joined the underground. The insurgents did not fight on Sundays unless attacked (Horam 1988:76–77). The slogan "Nagaland for Christ" was a recognised rallying cry, and to some extent still is. Overtly Christian elements have appeared in official statements. The Constitution of the Federal Government of Nagaland, while it guaranteed free profession and practice of any religion, declared that Christianity would be the religion of the Naga state (Horam 1988:61). It was not averse to using religion as propaganda tool either, when it claimed that the "Hindu government" of India had adopted a policy of stopping Nagas eating meat. In the earlier days of the movement (Phanjoubam 1993:125) volunteer gospel teams preached under armed guard (one might almost say gun in one hand Bible in the other), and the conduct of the jungle camps was (and to some extent remains, like those in Myanmar) ordered by Christian spiritual activities. As with the non-Christian Meitei movements, the NSCN tended towards puritannical life style, banning alcohol and drugs, and discouraging sexual immorality. Provision of social amenities, like schools and clinics, goes hand in hand with religious teaching."
- Horam, B (1988) Naga Insurgency (New Delhi)
- Horam, B (1977) Social and cultural life of the Nagas (New Delhi)
- Phanjoubam, Tarapot (1993) Insurgency Movement in North Eastern India (New Delhi 1993)
- http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl32259.pdf This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "The Context of Anti-Christian Violence". Hrw.org. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Tully, Mark (5 December 2002). "Tearing down the Babri Masjid". BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "Issues For Briefing" (PDF). Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- Gargan, Edward A. (16 December 1992). "India, Acting on Militants, Ousts Local Rulers". New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2007.
- Serrill, Michael S. (21 December 1992). "The Unholy War". New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2007.
- "Ayodhya excavation: Digging for trouble". 13 March 2003.
- Bombay Riots (1993),The Times Group
- Gujarat riot death toll revealed,BBC
- BJP cites govt statistics to defend Modi,Indian Express
- 254 Hindus, 790 Muslims killed in post-Godhra riots,Indiainfo.com
- Human Rights Watch 2006, p. 265.
- Why is Narendra Modi in Wembley?,The Guardian
- "India's Calculated Ethnic Violence". Digitalnpq.org. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "Communal violence and nuclear stand-off". Csudh.edu. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Dargis, Manohla. "India in crisis". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "India-U.S. Relations" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- Dugger, Celia W. Hindu Rioters Kill 60 Muslims in India New York Times. New York, N.Y.:1 March 2002. 
- "People Wanted Revenge And Got It". Outlook. 18 March 2002.
- "Muslim forum flays RSS resolution". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 19 March 2002.
- "Sectarian violence in India". The Economist. 1 May 2002.
- "NGO says Gujarat riots were planned". BBC News Online. 19 March 2002. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "Implementation of Sachar Committee recommendations". http://pib.nic.in/newsite/mainpage.aspx. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Sachar Committee Report". http://www.minorityaffairs.gov.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- "Anti-Christian Violence on the Rise in India".
- "Anti-Christian Violence in India".
- Ram Puniyani (2003). Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths. SAGE. pp. p167. ISBN 0-7619-9667-2.
- Indian Christians are victims of a 'concerted campaign'
- Violence against Christians continues
- "Orissa carnage: Christian group demands CBI probe". The Times of India. 30 December 2007.
- "India: Stop Hindu-Christian Violence in Orissa".
- "Stop the hate crime".
- "Fresh violence in Orissa, curfew continues".
- "Church Attack: Indefinite curfew in Orissa".
- Hindu Extremists Attack Indian Churches, Torch Home of Prominent Christian
- Catholic priest killed in Mathura
- The Staines case verdict V. Venkatesan, Frontline Magazine, 11–23 Oct 2003
- "Foreign News: Ex-Butterfly". Time. 6 June 1932. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- "His faith, our faith - Hindustan Times". hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "US rights report slams India for anti-Christian violence". 27 February 1999. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- "150-yr-old church set afire in Madhya Pradesh". The Times of India. 20 September 2008.
- "Protest in Delhi over violence against Christians - Thaindian News". thaindian.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Karnataka Bajrang Dal head gets bail, refuses it
- Bajrang Dal launches campaign,The Tribune
- "We killed Swami, Maoists say again" (Press release). The Times of India. 6 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- 'Majority of Maoist supporters in Orissa are Christians' The Hindu – 5 October 2008
- 3 arrested in Laxmanananda murder case Indian Express – 7 October 2008
- Net closes in on Cong MP for Orissa swami’s murder Indian Express – 27 December 2008
- Human Rights Watch World Report 2006
- "Kerala Communal Clashes: 62 get life for killing 8". The Tribune. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
- Marad can yet be retrieved
- IMC India – 8 Hindus hacked to death by muslim mob in kerala
- NDF behind Marad massacre?
- Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi (14 September 2010). "Riot-scarred Deganga says Trinamool MP 'main villain'". Indian Express (Kolkata). Retrieved 14 September 2010.
- Caesar Mandal (20 February 2013). "Violence after villager murder". Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "West Bengal: 200 homes torched, shops ransacked in riots". Oneindia News. 21 February 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Govt releases data of riot victims identifying religion - Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Government releases data of riot victims identifying religion - Hindustan Times". hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Government releases data of riot victims identifying religion - The Times of India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Who killed 254 Hindus in Gujarat? - Sify.com". sify.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "790 Muslims, 254 Hindus perished in post-Godhra - The Times of India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Post-Godhra riots: DNA test nails 4 killers - Indian Express". archive.indianexpress.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Docs told to stay off minority areas - The Times of India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- ""WE HAVE NO ORDERS TO SAVE YOU"". hrw.org. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Guj riots probe: 'Muslims spread fear in Vatva'". rediff.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Gujarat riots probe: 'Muslims attacked Hindus'". ia.rediff.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Riots hit all classes, all faiths - The Times of India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "India Today". indiatoday.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "Special: Mumbai riots a planned, perfected pogrom? - IBNLive". ibnlive.in.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- B.R. Ambedkar, PAKISTAN OR THE PARTITION OF INDIA Chapter 7, Archived by Columbia University
- 107 killed in riots this year; 66 Muslims, 41 Hindus The Hindustan Times (24 September 2013)
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – India". 2007.
- "http://thereport.amnesty.org/document/15". 2007.
- "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". "The government generally respected the rights of its citizens; however, numerous serious problems remained"
- "ANNUAL U.S. HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT GARNERS CRITICISM/PRAISE, EXPOSES U.S. 'DOUBLE STANDARD'". "US Office of Research & Media Reaction. 5 March 1999.
- ANDRES OPPENHEIMER (13 March 2006). "U.S. Rights Report Should Include U.S. Abuses". Salt Lake Tribune.
- "US human rights report spares allies". Melbourne: The Age. 10 March 2006.
- "U.S. rights report shows double standards: Russia". Reuters. 12 March 2008.
- "CPI(M) terms US report on West Bengal 'interference' in India".
- "India not bound by Bush administration: Lok Sabha". ExpressIndia. 14 March 2008. "Responding to the point made by Dasgupta, Speaker Somnath Chatterjee observed the report should be 'ignored with contempt it deserves'. "We are not bound by the Bush administration," he said."
- Bumbai (1995) IMDB
- Earth (1998) IMDB
- Fiza (2000) IMDB
- Hey Ram (2000) IMDB
- Mr. and Mrs. Iyer (2002) IMDB
- Final Solution (2003) IMDB
- Black Friday (2004) IMDB
- Parzania (2005) IMDB
- Parzania not screened in Gujarat
- Cinema at its very best... and then some not quite so at all
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2007:India".
- "Violence Against Women | Domestic Violence Information Cell | Support | Advise | Shelter". domesticviolences.com. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Violence against Christians continues
- Next Stop Orissa
- Sangh Parivar makes it a bloodthirsty Sunday for Muslims and Christians
- Vandals in Orissa
- Communal Violence and the Denial of Justice
- The Danger of Hindutva to Secular India
- UK charities scam linked to Sangh Parivar
- Varshney-Wilkinson Dataset on Hindu-Muslim Violence in India, 1950–1995, Version 2
- Religion based violence and communalism, People's Union for Civil Liberties
- Communal History of India, From 1947 to 2013
- Varshney-Wilkinson Dataset on Hindu-Muslim Violence in India, 1950-1995, Version 2 (ICPSR 4342)