Northeast Coast Campaign (1746)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Northeast Coast Campaign.
Northeast Coast Campaign (1746)
Part of King George's War
Brigadier General Samuel Waldo.jpg
Commander Samuel Waldo
Date April - September, 1746
Location Berwick, Maine to St. Georges (Thomaston, Maine)
Result French and Wabanaki Confederacy victory
Belligerents
 English colonists  French colonists
 Wabanaki Confederacy
Commanders and leaders
Commander Samuel Waldo (Falmouth)[1]
Captain Jonathan Williamson
Strength
625
unknown
Casualties and losses
approximately 30 persons killed or captured unknown

The Northeast Coast Campaign (1746) was conducted by the Wabanaki Confederacy of Acadia against the New England settlements along the coast of present-day Maine below the Kennebec River, the former border of Acadia. during King George's War from July until September 1746. They attacked English settlements on the coast of present-day Maine between Berwick and St. Georges (Thomaston, Maine), within two months there were 9 raids - every town on the frontier had been attacked.[2] Casco (also known as Falmouth and Portland) was the principal settlement.

Background[edit]

Main article: King George's War

After the two attacks on Annapolis Royal in 1744, Governor William Shirley put a bounty on the Passamaquoddy, Mi’kmaq and Maliseet on Oct 20.[3] The following year, during the Campaign, on August 23, 1745, Shirley declared war against the rest of the Wabanaki Confederacy – the Penobscot and Kennebec tribes.[4] In response to the New England expedition against Louisbourg which finished in June 1745, the Wabanaki retaliated by attacking the New England border.[5] New England braced itself for such an attack by appointing a provisional force of 450 to defend the frontier. After the attacks began they increased the number of soldiers by 175 men.[6] Massachusetts established forts along the border with Acadia: Fort George at Brunswick (1715),[7] St. George's Fort at Thomaston (1720), and Fort Richmond (1721) at Richmond.[8] Fort Frederick was established at Pemaquid (Bristol, Maine).

After the Northeast Coast Campaign (1745), another 200 British troops were sent to the New England/ Acadia border in January and 460 more in the spring.[9]

The campaign[edit]

Part of a series on the
Military history of
Nova Scotia
Citadel hill.jpg
Events
Battle of Port Royal 1690
Conquest of Acadia 1710
Battle of Jeddore Harbour 1722
Northeast Coast Campaign 1745
Battle of Grand Pré 1747
Dartmouth Massacre 1751
Bay of Fundy Campaign 1755
Fall of Louisbourg 1758
Headquarters established for Royal Navy's North American Station 1758
Burying the Hatchet ceremony 1761
Battle of Fort Cumberland 1776
Raid on Lunenburg 1782
Halifax Impressment Riot 1805
Establishment of New Ireland 1812
Capture of USS Chesapeake 1813
Battle at the Great Redan 1855
Siege of Lucknow 1857
CSS Tallahassee Escape 1861
Departing Halifax for Northwest Rebellion 1885
Departing Halifax for the Boer War 1899
Imprisonment of Leon Trotsky 1917
Jewish Legion formed 1917
Sinking of HMHS Llandovery Castle 1918
Battle of the St. Lawrence 1942–44
Sinking of SS Point Pleasant Park 1945
Halifax VE-Day Riot 1945
Walter Callow Wheelchair Bus established 1947
Notable military regiments
Mi'kmaq militias 1677-1779
Acadian militias 1689-1761
40th Regiment 1717-57
Troupes de la marine 1717-58
Gorham's Rangers 1744-62
Danks' Rangers 1756-62
84th Regiment of Foot 1775-84
Royal Fencible American 1775-83
Royal Nova Scotia Volunteers 1775-83
King's Orange Rangers 1776-83
1st Field Artillery 1791-present
Royal Nova Scotia 1793-1802
Nova Scotia Fencibles 1803-16
The Halifax Rifles (RCAC) 1860-present
The Princess Louise Fusiliers 1867-present
78th Highlanders 1869-71
Cape Breton Highlanders 1871-present
Nova Scotia Rifles 1914-19
No. 2 Construction Battalion 1916-19
West Nova Scotia 1916-present
The Nova Scotia Highlanders 1954-present
Other

Portal icon Nova Scotia portal

Portal icon History of Canada portal

Portal icon Canadian Armed Forces portal

The 1746 campaign started on April 19 when a militia of 10 natives raided Gorhamtown. Gorham had a blockhouse and four families. The natives divided into five parties of two. They then attacked the four families at the same time. Killing a father and four children killed, while taking the mother captive. They took two other fathers prisoner. The men in the blockhouse charged after the natives and one of the militia men was taken captive.

The Confederacy next raided present-day Waldoboro, Maine, burning the village and killing some while taking others into captivity. Some of the villagers fled to Pemaquid and others to St. Georges. People did not return until after the war.[10]

The Confederacy raided Pemaquid, killing cattle.[11]

A militia of 15 native men ambushed 5 people at Sheepscot (present-day Newcastle, Maine), killing one of them. A villager killed one of the natives.[12]

At Wiscasset, Maine, natives killed 19 cattle and took Captain Jonathan Williamson[13] captive for 6 months.[14]

There was a battle near Fort St. Georges at Thomaston where one native was killed and one wounded.[15]

A militia of 30 natives were at Falmouth and North Yarmouth, Maine. They killed two near Long-creek (Stroudwater). The soldiers from New Casco Fort approached, the natives retreated to attack Frost’s garrisoned house at Stroudwater but it was heavily defended. Another blockhouse was built.[16]

At Scarborough, Maine the natives killed a soldier and several others.[17]

Last attack happened on 26 August in the vicinity of Pemaquid, Fort Frederick. A settlers destroyied his cattle and entire habitation, wounding the owner and his son.

In response St. Georges was garrisoned with 30 men; 370 put between Berwick and Damariscotta. 150 were detailed as minute-men. Scalp bounties were increased to 250 pounds for scalps taken west of Passamquoddy, 100 for anywhere else.[18]

Aftermath[edit]

In response to these events, Shirley sent more troops and munitions to the Maine frontier over the winter, anticipating the Wabanaki Campaign in the spring of 1747. In response St. Georges was garrisoned with 30 men; 370 put between Berwick and Damariscotta. 150 were detailed as minute-men. Scalp bounties were increased to 250 pounds for scalps taken west of Passamquoddy, 100 for anywhere else.[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Folsom, p. 242
  2. ^ Williamson, p. 240
  3. ^ Williamson, p. 217-218
  4. ^ Williamson, p. 240
  5. ^ Williamson, p. 239
  6. ^ Williamson, p. 239
  7. ^ Fort George replaced Fort Andros which was built during King William's War (1688).
  8. ^ The history of the state of Maine: from its first discovery, A.D ..., Volume 2, by William Durkee Williamson. 1832. p.88, 97.
  9. ^ Williamson, p.243
  10. ^ Williamson, p.245
  11. ^ Williamson, p.245
  12. ^ Williamson, p.245
  13. ^ 1752 - Georgetown region – Charles Cushing is commandant – Capt. Jonathan Williamson of Wiscasst and Capt Nichols from Sheepscot (Newcastle) served under him. (See Sewall, p. 282)
  14. ^ Williamson, p.245
  15. ^ Williamson, p.245
  16. ^ Williamson, p.245
  17. ^ Williamson, p.245
  18. ^ Williamson, p.251
  19. ^ Williamson, p.251

References[edit]

See also[edit]