List of French forts in North America

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The Citadelle of Quebec is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[1] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[2]

This is a list of all forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]

Canada[edit]

The French forts in Canada were located west from Alberta to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location Province
Fort Anne 1636 Annapolis Royal Nova Scotia
Fort Bas de la Rivière 1750 Fort Alexander Manitoba
Fort Boishébert 1749 Grand Bay New Brunswick
Fort Beauséjour 1751 Aulac New Brunswick
Fort Bourbon (West) 1741 Grand Rapids Manitoba
Fort Bourbon (North) 1697 York Factory Manitoba
Fort Charlesbourg Royal 1541-1543 Cap-Rouge Quebec
Fort Chambly 1665 Chambly Quebec
Citadelle of Quebec 1693 Quebec City Quebec
Citadelle of Montreal 1690-1821 Montreal Quebec
Fort Dauphin 1741 Winnipegosis Manitoba
Fort de la Corne 1753 Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest Saskatchewan
Fort de la Montagne 1685 Montreal Quebec
Fort Espérance 1787 near Rocanville Saskatchewan
Fort Frontenac 1673 Kingston Ontario
Fort Gaspareaux 1751 Port Elgin New Brunswick
Fort Kaministiquia 1717 Thunder Bay Ontario
Fort Laprairie 1687 Laprairie Quebec
Fort La Reine 1738 Portage la Prairie Manitoba
Fort Le Jonquiere 1751 Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert) Saskatchewan
Fortress of Louisbourg 1719 Louisbourg Nova Scotia
Fort Maurepas 1733 Selkirk Manitoba
Fort Menagoueche 1751 Saint John New Brunswick
Fort Paskoya 1741 The Pas (on Cedar Lake) Manitoba
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles 1670 Pointe-aux-Trembles Quebec
Fort Richelieu 1641 near Sorel-Tracy Quebec
Fort Rouge 1738 Winnipeg Manitoba
Fort Rouillé 1750 Toronto Ontario
Fort Royal (Plaisance) 1687 Placentia Newfoundland
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay) 1670 (1686) Fort Albany Ontario
Fort Sainte Anne 1629-1641 Englishtown Nova Scotia
Fort Saint Jacques 1686-1693 and 1697-1713 Waskaganish, Quebec (Fort Rupert) Quebec
Fort Saint-Jean 1746 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Quebec
Fort St. Louis 1670s (1686) Moose Factory Ontario
Fort St. Pierre 1731 Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake) Ontario
Fort Sainte Thérèse 1665 Carignan Quebec
Fort Senneville 1671 Montreal Quebec
Fort Témiscamingue 1679 Ville Marie Quebec
Fort Ville-Marie 1642-1688 Montreal Quebec
Port-la-Joye 1720 Charlottetown Prince Edward Island

Saint Pierre and Miquelon[edit]

Name Date constructed ca. Location Commune
Pointe aux Cannon Battery[6] 1690 Saint Pierre Island Saint-Pierre

United States[edit]

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far West as the Dakotas, and as far East as Maine.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location State
Fort des Alibamons 1717 Wetumpka Alabama
Fort Assumption 1739 Memphis Tennessee
Fort Beauharnois 1727 Goodhue County Minnesota
Fort de Buade 1683 St. Ignace Michigan
Fort Carillon 1754-57 Ticonderoga New York
Fort Caroline 1564 Jacksonville Florida
Fort de Cavagnal 1744 Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth Kansas
Fort Charles 1562 Beaufort South Carolina
Fort de Chartres 1720 Randolph County Illinois
Fort Condé 1723 Mobile Alabama
Fort Conti 1679 Youngstown New York
Fort Crèvecoeur 1680 Creve Coeur Illinois
Fort Denonville 1687 Youngstown New York
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit 1701 Detroit Michigan
Fort Duquesne 1754 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania
Fort de La Présentation 1671 Ogdensburg New York
Fort de la Rivière au Bœuf 1753 Waterford Pennsylvania
Fort Lévis 1759 Ogdensburg New York
Fort Louis de la Louisiane 1702 Le Moyne Alabama
Fort Machault 1754 Franklin Pennsylvania
Fort Massac 1757 Massac County Illinois
Fort Maurepas 1699 Ocean Springs Mississippi
Fort Miami (Indiana) 1715 Fort Wayne Indiana
Fort Miami (Michigan) 1679 St. Joseph Michigan
Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Mackinaw City Michigan
Fort des Natchitoches 1714 Natchitoches Louisiana
Fort Niagara 1678 Youngstown New York
Fort Orleans 1723 Brunswick Missouri
Fort Ouiatenon 1717 West Lafayette Indiana
Fort Pentagouet 1638 Castine Maine
Fort Pimiteoui 1691 Peoria Illinois
Fort Presque Isle 1753 Erie Pennsylvania
Fort Rosalie 1716 Natchez Mississippi
Fort Ste. Anne 1666 Isle La Motte Vermont
Fort St. Charles 1732 Lake of the Woods County Minnesota
Fort St. Frédéric 1729-1757 Crown Point New York
Fort St. Joseph 1691 Niles Michigan
Fort Saint Louis 1685 Inez Texas
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher 1682 North Utica Illinois
Fort Sandoské 1745 Sandusky Bay Ohio
Fort de Tombecbé 1735-37 Epes Alabama
Fort Toulouse 1717 Wetumpka Alabama
Fort Vincennes 1731-32 Vincennes Indiana

See also[edit]

Canada related
United States related


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  3. ^ Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7. 
  4. ^ a b Rene Chartrand (2013). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0318-4. 
  5. ^ a b René Chartrand (2010). The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3. 
  6. ^ "Landmarks and monuments Saint-Pierre and Miquelon". Retrieved 2010-07-08.