List of French forts in North America

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The Citadelle of Quebec is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[1] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[2]

This is a list of all forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]

Canada[edit]

The French forts in Canada were located west from Alberta to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location Province/State Country
Fort Anne 1636 Annapolis Royal Nova Scotia Canada
Fort Bas de la Rivière 1750 Fort Alexander Manitoba Canada
Fort Boishébert 1749 Grand Bay New Brunswick Canada
Fort Beauséjour 1751 Aulac New Brunswick Canada
Fort Bourbon (West) 1741 Grand Rapids Manitoba Canada
Fort Bourbon (North) 1697 York Factory Manitoba Canada
Fort Charlesbourg Royal 1541-1543 Cap-Rouge Quebec Canada
Fort Chambly 1665 Chambly Quebec Canada
Citadelle of Quebec 1693 Quebec City Quebec Canada
Citadelle of Montreal 1690-1821 Montreal Quebec Canada
Fort Dauphin 1741 Winnipegosis Manitoba Canada
Fort de la Corne 1753 Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest Saskatchewan Canada
Fort de la Montagne 1685 Montreal Quebec Canada
Fort Espérance 1787 Rocanville (near) Saskatchewan Canada
Fort Frontenac 1673 Kingston Ontario Canada
Fort Gaspareaux 1751 Port Elgin New Brunswick Canada
Fort Kaministiquia 1717 Thunder Bay Ontario Canada
Fort Laprairie 1687 Laprairie Quebec Canada
Fort La Reine 1738 Portage la Prairie Manitoba Canada
Fort Le Jonquiere 1751 Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert) Saskatchewan Canada
Fortress of Louisbourg 1719 Louisbourg Nova Scotia Canada
Fort Maurepas 1733 Selkirk Manitoba Canada
Fort Menagoueche 1751 Saint John New Brunswick Canada
Fort Paskoya 1741 The Pas (on Cedar Lake) Manitoba Canada
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles 1670 Pointe-aux-Trembles Quebec Canada
Fort Richelieu 1641 Sorel-Tracy (near) Quebec Canada
Fort Rouge 1738 Winnipeg Manitoba Canada
Fort Rouillé 1750 Toronto Ontario Canada
Fort Royal (Plaisance) 1687 Placentia Newfoundland Canada
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay) 1670 (1686) Fort Albany Ontario Canada
Fort Sainte Anne 1629-1641 Englishtown Nova Scotia Canada
Fort Saint Jacques 1686-1693 and 1697-1713 Waskaganish, Quebec (Fort Rupert) Quebec Canada
Fort Saint-Jean 1746 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Quebec Canada
Fort St. Louis 1670s (1686) Moose Factory Ontario Canada
Fort St. Pierre 1731 Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake) Ontario Canada
Fort Sainte Thérèse 1665 Carignan Quebec Canada
Fort Senneville 1671 Montreal Quebec Canada
Fort Témiscamingue 1679 Ville Marie Quebec Canada
Fort Ville-Marie 1642-1688 Montreal Quebec Canada
Port-la-Joye 1720 Charlottetown Prince Edward Island Canada

Saint Pierre and Miquelon[edit]

Name Date constructed ca. Location Commune Country
Pointe aux Cannon Battery[6] 1690 Saint Pierre Island Saint-Pierre FR-SPM

United States[edit]

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far West as the Dakotas, and as far East as Maine.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location Province/State Country
Fort des Alibamons 1717 Wetumpka Alabama USA
Fort Assumption 1739 Memphis Tennessee USA
Fort Beauharnois 1727 Goodhue County Minnesota USA
Fort de Buade 1683 St. Ignace Michigan USA
Fort Carillon 1754-57 Ticonderoga New York USA
Fort Caroline 1564 Jacksonville Florida USA
Fort de Cavagnal 1744 Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth Kansas USA
Fort Charles 1562 Beaufort South Carolina USA
Fort de Chartres 1720 Randolph County Illinois USA
Fort Condé 1723 Mobile Alabama USA
Fort Conti 1679 Youngstown New York USA
Fort Crèvecoeur 1680 Creve Coeur Illinois USA
Fort Denonville 1687 Youngstown New York USA
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit 1701 Detroit Michigan USA
Fort Duquesne 1754 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania USA
Fort de La Présentation 1671 Ogdensburg New York USA
Fort de la Rivière au Bœuf 1753 Waterford Pennsylvania USA
Fort Lévis 1759 Ogdensburg New York USA
Fort Louis de la Louisiane 1702 Le Moyne Alabama USA
Fort Machault 1754 Franklin Pennsylvania USA
Fort Massac 1757 Massac County Illinois USA
Fort Maurepas 1699 Ocean Springs Mississippi USA
Fort Miami (Indiana) 1715 Fort Wayne Indiana USA
Fort Miami (Michigan) 1679 St. Joseph Michigan USA
Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Mackinaw City Michigan USA
Fort des Natchitoches 1714 Natchitoches Louisiana USA
Fort Niagara 1678 Youngstown New York USA
Fort Orleans 1723 Brunswick Missouri USA
Fort Ouiatenon 1717 West Lafayette Indiana USA
Fort Pentagouet 1638 Castine Maine USA
Fort Pimiteoui 1691 Peoria Illinois USA
Fort Presque Isle 1753 Erie Pennsylvania USA
Fort Rosalie 1716 Natchez Mississippi USA
Fort Ste. Anne 1666 Isle La Motte Vermont USA
Fort St. Charles 1732 Lake of the Woods County Minnesota USA
Fort St. Frédéric 1729-1757 Crown Point New York USA
Fort St. Joseph 1691 Niles Michigan USA
Fort Saint Louis 1685 Inez Texas USA
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher 1682 North Utica Illinois USA
Fort Sandoské 1745 Sandusky Bay Ohio USA
Fort de Tombecbé 1735-37 Epes Alabama USA
Fort Toulouse 1717 Wetumpka Alabama USA
Fort Vincennes 1731-32 Vincennes Indiana USA

See also[edit]

Canada related
United States related


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  3. ^ Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7. 
  4. ^ a b Rene Chartrand (2013). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0318-4. 
  5. ^ a b René Chartrand (2010). The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3. 
  6. ^ "Landmarks and monuments Saint-Pierre and Miquelon". Retrieved 2010-07-08.