New Spanish Baroque
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Baroque art in the Viceroyalty of New Spain allowed New Spanish artists to experiment in creating expressive forms, whether contrasting and realistic. Creating artistic expressions were very popular among the New Spanish society.
Highlights on the one hand, and polychrome carvings that besides show the technical skills of the artisans, reflect the expressiveness and color contrasts own of the New Spanish Baroque.
Two columns that were part of an altarpiece, showing the characteristic features of the arrangements of baroque in the architecture of New Spain: the Salomónico, developed from the mid 17th century and the Estípite began to spread from the early 18th century.
A model of the Cathedral of Puebla represents the architectural magnificence of the New Spain. A choir book, accompanied by a harpsichord of 18th century, highlights the importance that had the music for the colonial society of the Baroque period in Mexico.
In the realm of painting, new Spanish baroque has some great artists, whose works are in museums like the Museum of the Viceroyalty in Tepotzotlán, El Carmen Museum in San Ángel, df., Santa Mónica Museum in Puebla, Metropolitan Cathedral in Mexico City, among other places. The artists that stand out are:
- Miguel Cabrera
- Juan Correa
- Cristóbal de Villalpando
- Simon Pereyns
Just to mention a few. Everyone had a style; Miguel Cabrera was asked in his study, where requests for paintings arrived to convents, churches, palaces, noble houses and more.
Cristóbal de Villalpando
Cristóbal de Villalpando, his early works located back to the year of 1675 in the high altar of the Franciscan convent of St. Martin of Tours in Huaquechula where his paintings are 17 but that date should not be taken as the beginning of his career. Although there is no certainty, it can infer that the painter was born in Mexico City in the year 1649. Little is known about his childhood and adolescence, being the first published data on his wedding date in the year 1669 (from where it were to calculate the date of birth according to age at the time could have to marry). He married María de Mendoza with whom he had four children.
Undoubtedly, Villalpando was one of the highlights painters of Mexico City during the last years of the 17th century, the proof is the triumphant cycle of paintings that were commissioned by the council of the Cathedral of Mexico, for garnish the walls of the sacristy of the church. The canvases that were executed for the occasion: The triumph of the Catholic Church, The Triumph of St. Peter, St. Michael's victory (known as Woman of the Apocalypse) and the appearance of St. Michael on Mount Gargano. Unfortunately and perhaps because of tectonic faults in the vaults of the building, Villalpando was unable to complete the cycle of six paintings, same as completed Juan Correa.
Due to the interruption of Mexican cathedral paintings, Villalpando moved to Puebla de los Ángeles where also intervened in the Cathedral. He produced the oil known as Glorification of the Virgin in the dome of the Chapel de los reyes, located in the metropolitan church headwall. It is also worth noting the amount of his work found in the temple of the Profesa in Mexico City. He was recognized by the painters' guild as an important element, and a couple of occasions led the group. Reached old age being a renowned character and even did some errands in the last decade of his life. It is recognized stylist influence on later generations. It is considered one of the last authors of Baroque painting in New Spain, after his death and throughout the 17th century, all the New Spanish plastic would take a different path.
Juan Correa, Novohispanic painter, was active between 1676 and 1716. His painting covers topics both religious and secular. It is considered that one of his best works is the Assumption of the Virgin of the Cathedral of Mexico City, several of his works the Guadalupean subject, arrived in Spain, also painted Guadalupean issues in Rome (1669).
(Antwerp, about 1530 - Mexico, about 1600) Flemish painter. In 1558 he moved to Lisbon and then to Madrid, where he worked as a portrait of the court.
In 1566 went to New Spain, achieved great fame with his painting in Mexico. Many works attributed to him, for the most part lost, between the conserved include, among others, the ten tables of the altarpiece of Huejotzingo (1586), which reveals the influence of Dürer. It is also his work on San Cristóbal (1585).
The charges against him were that Pereyns had stated that it was more a sin to have an affair with a married woman with a maiden, that he preferred to paint portraits and not saints and that when he confessed that he did not have all their sins. Pereyns concepts inherited from their ancestors, specifically his father, who was a Lutheran. Not incidentally, such an attitude against the Novohispanic ecclesiastical institution was expressed in the mouth of a Flemish.
He was imprisoned, and while in prison, painted a picture called "Our Lady of Atonement" to spare her conviction. He was released and donated the painting to the Archbishop of Mexico, who would send his successors put it on the Altar del Perdón, at the Metropolitan Cathedral.
Writing and Philosophy
For the poems and writings there is a wide variety of characters.
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
It begins with the Tenth Muse, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, who was born in San Miguel Nepantla, the day of 12 November 1651 and died in Mexico City on April 17, 1695, was one of the greatest writers, during the Golden Age began his passion for letters from a child, but as a woman, could not get into university, so she said "nun costume", so could write his poetry, concerts, sonnets, tenths and books. First entered the Carmelites, but decided to change their discipline with Jeronimes in the Convento de San Jerónimo, now University of the Cloister of Sor Juana.
To mention some works, Redondillas, Al que ingrato me deja, Amor es mas laberinto, Los empeños de una casa, Primero sueño, and one of the famous Respuesta a Sor Filotea de la Cruz. Of concerts, it can mention a poem become carol, called Ah de las mazmorras, among others. She was on the verge of condemnation of the Spanish Inquisition, because at that time thought the woman was not made for philosophy. Presumably a lesbian relationship between Sor Juana and Viceroy María Luisa Manrique de Lara y Gonzaga. Although there is no certain evidence. It is also said was a feminist, his accusations against men, and poems, like those mentioned: Redondillas and Al que ingrato me deja.
At the end Sor Juana, retired from the letters to go about her work as religious. Categorized by a famous phrase "I, the worst of all." In 1695 an epidemic of plague affects the capital of New Spain, including the Convento de San Jerónimo. Sor Juana helped care for the sick, and she sank contaminated.
Juan Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza
Another character worth mentioning is Juan Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza, born in Taxco 1581 and to late in Madrid on August 4, 1639 was a Novohispanic writer of the Golden Age of who cultivated variants of the drama. His works include the comedy La verdad sospechosa, which is one of the key works of Spanish American Baroque theater, comparable to the best pieces of Lope de Vega and Tirso de Molina. Notes on children of Juan Ruiz de Alarcón are scarce. He was born in Taxco, a town now part of the state of Guerrero. It is known that his maternal grandfather was Jewish and his paternal grandfather was the son of a priest of La Mancha and a Moorish slave. Everything indicates that came from a family well connected with the Castilian nobility. Studied, from 1596 to 1598, in the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. By 1600 had to leave the University of Salamanca, thanks to the chaplaincy of Gaspar Ruiz de Montoya, learn where civil and canon law to deepen. While in Salamanca, Alarcón rose to prominence as the author of dramas and essays. For 1606 he went to Seville in order to practice as a litigator in commercial matters and canonical. There he met Miguel de Cervantes, who would subsequently influence his works, including La cueva de Salamanca and El semejante a sí mismo.
In the first months of 1607 he returned to New Spain. Two years later he obtained a bachelor's degree in law and opposed, unsuccessfully, several chairs. On arrival in Madrid, starts the most fruitful period of his literary output. His early works were represented Las paredes oyen and Los pechos privilegiados, both with moderate success. It was soon known in the literary circle in Madrid, but never established deep ties with any of its members. Instead, he earned the enmity of others. These retain many satirical quatrains and disguised allusions to Alarcón, who was always ridiculed for his physical —was hunchback— and its American origin. He, in turn, responded to the vast majority of attacks on him and never stopped writing. It has been proposed a hypothesis about the possible collaboration of Ruiz de Alarcón and Tirso de Molina, one of the most famous writers of his time and who most influenced his work. There are no written tests on the collaboration of both, although it is assumed that at least two of the comedies of Tirso, published in Segunda parte (Madrid, 1635), belong to Alarcón.
With the accession of Philip IV, in 1621, the theater gained a great importance in the royal court. Alarcón soon strikes up a friendship with the son-in advantage of the powerful Count-Duke of Olivares, Ramiro Felipe de Guzmán, whose shadow grew further as a poet. Between 1622 and 1624 write La amistad castigada, El dueño de las estrellas and the vast majority of his plays. Since 1625 had served on the Council of the Indies, thanks to the intercession of his friend Ramiro Felipe de Guzmán. During the first months of 1639, Alarcón's health began to deteriorate. Stopped attending meetings of the Council of the Indies and was replaced in his position as rapporteur. In August dictated his testament, where all your debts slogan and debtors. He died the morning of August 4 and was buried in the parish of San Sebastián.
Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora
The youngest son of eight children, was related to the famous Baroque Culteranismo poet Luis de Góngora. His father was tutor to the royal family in Spain and to emigrate to the New World joined the viceroyalty bureaucracy for the rest of his life. In 1662, Sigüenza entered the Jesuit college of Tepotzotlán to begin his religious studies, he continued in Puebla. In 1667 the order was expelled for indiscipline. Return to Mexico City and enters the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. In 1672 assumed the post of professor of mathematics and astrology, in the post he had held 30 years before Diego Rodríguez, was occupied for 20 years made notable contributions. In 1681 Sigüenza wrote the book philosophical manifesto against the Comets, he was trying to calm the superstitious fear in the people that caused this cosmic phenomenon. The Jesuit Eusebio Kino strongly criticized this text from an Aristotelian-Thomistic view, but, far from being intimidated, Sigüenza responded by publishing his work Libra astronómica y philosóphica (1690), where arguments based strictly about the comets according to the most current scientific knowledge of his time against Thomism and Aristotelianism of Father Kino quoted authors like Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Kepler and Tycho Brahe.
Until recently it was thought that the book published by Sigüenza in 1690 that describes the adventures of a Puerto Rican named Alonso Ramírez ("Los infortunios de Alonso Ramírez") was a fiction invented by the famous Mexican intellectual.
The heavy rains of 1691 flooded the fields and threatened to flood the city, and a plague, a consequence of all this moisture, the wheat consumed. Sigüenza used a precursor of the microscope apparatus to discover the cause of plague was the Chiahuiztli, an insect like the flea. As a result of this disaster, the following year there was a severe shortage of food caused a popular riot. Mobs looted the shops of the Spanish Europeans (Spaniards) and caused numerous fires in government buildings. Sigüenza managed to salvage from the fire the city library, saving a great loss. Sigüenza calculations established in about ten thousand the number of participants in the riot. As real cosmographer New Spain drew hydrologic maps of the Valley of Mexico. In 1693 he was sent by the viceroy as a companion of Admiral Andres de Pez in a journey of exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico and especially the peninsula of Florida, where he drew maps of Pensacola Bay and the mouth of the Mississippi River. Perhaps this experience inspired his novel marine adventure Misfortunes of Alonso Ramirez. In his later years devoted much time to collect material for a history of ancient Mexico. Unfortunately, the untimely death interrupted this work was not resumed until centuries later when Creole consciousness had developed enough to be interested in the identity of their nation. At death he donated his valuable library with more than 518 books a Jesuit school and ordered that his body be handed over to the medicine, that cure is found against the evil that caused his death. [Edit] Cetina Gutierrez Main article: Cetina Gutierrez
Portrait of Cetina Gutierrez. Cetina Gutierrez (Seville, 1520 - Mexico, 1557), Spanish poet of the Renaissance and the Spanish Golden Age, born in Spain and died in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Noble and wealthy family, he lived a long time in Italy, where he was a soldier under the command of Charles I. Spent much time in the court of the Prince of Ascoli, who dedicated numerous poems, and also attended Luis de Leyva and the distinguished humanist and poet Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. He adopted the nickname Vandalio pastoral and composed a song Petrarchan a beautiful woman named Laura Gonzaga. To this lady is dedicated the famous madrigal that has passed all anthologies of poetry in Castilian: Eyes clear, calm, If you are looking for a sweet praise, Why if you look at me, you look angry? In this song there are many sonnets whose formula is essentially the translation of a loving thought of Petrarch Ausiàs March or the quartets and further development staff in the tercets. In 1554 he returned to Spain Cetina and in 1556 went to Mexico, where there was between 1546 and 1548, with his uncle Gonzalo Lopez, who was heading there as accountant general. There he fell in love again such a Leonor de Osma, and under his window was mortally wounded in 1557 by a jealous rival, Hernando de Nava, in Puebla de los Angeles.