|Nickname(s): La Ciudad Blanca (The White City), The Rome of America|
|Established||August 15, 1540|
|Founded by||Garcí Manuel de Carbajal|
|• Mayor||Alfredo Zegarra Tejada|
|• City||9,862.02 km2 (3,807.75 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,923.53 km2 (1,128.78 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2,335 m (7,661 ft)|
|• Density||99/km2 (260/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PET (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PET (UTC−5)|
Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the province of Arequipa and the seat of the Constitutional Court. Also known as the White City, it is the second most populous city in Peru, with 844,407 inhabitants according to INEI projections.
Arequipa is an important commercial center of Peru and is the second most industrialized city in the country. Its industrial activity includes manufacturing and the exporting of high quality wool. The city has close trade ties with Chile, Bolivia and Brazil.
The city was founded on the 15th of August, 1540, under the name of 'Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción" in the name of the Marquis Don Francisco Pizarro. In the Royal Decree of September 22, 1541, King Charles V of Spain ordered that it be called the "City of Arequipa."
In the Republican history of Peru the city acquired greater prominence in politics, being the focus of popular rebellions. Many Peruvian intellectual, political, and religious figures became prominent in this era. During this time it was awarded the title of "Heroica ciudad de los libres de Arequipa".
Its historic center is spread over an area of 332 hectares and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its historic heritage, along with its many scenic and cultural sites, make the city a national and international tourist destination. Its religious, colonial, and republican architecture blends European and native characteristics into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña".
- 1 Place names
- 2 Symbols
- 3 Politics
- 4 Political-administrative organization
- 5 History
- 6 Geography
- 7 Demography
- 8 Morphology and urban structure
- 9 Economics.
- 10 Sights and attractions
- 11 Telecommunications
- 12 Transportation
- 13 Health System
- 14 Education
- 15 Sports
- 16 Culture
- 17 International relations
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 Bibliography
- 21 External links
- 22 External links
The name of the city is the Spanish version of the name of the valley in which the city was founded. Based on etymology and traditions, there are various tales that attempt to explain the origins of the name.
One folkloric tradition states that the Inca Mayta Capac received a petition from his subjects to reach the valley of the River Chili. They asked him for permission to stay in the region. They marveled at the beauty of the landscape and the mild climate. The Inca answered "qhipay Ari" (Quechua: "Yes, stay"),.
Padre Blas Valera and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega suggested that the name of the city came from an ancient Aymara word, "ari qquepan", meaning "trumpet sound". It referred to the sound made from blowing into the empty conch-like shell of a sea snail.
Another possible etymological source comes from the Aymara language with the phrase " qhipaya ari "or" Ariq qipa 'ari (acute, sharp or pointed) and qhipaya (behind), which translates to "behind the peak," referring to the nearby volcano, El Misti.
Names and qualifications
Arequipa was one of the cities of the Viceroyalty of Peru that was more intense flattery Among the various praise found for the city in literature is a reference in the play "La Galatea" by Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, which mentions that the Spanish poet Diego Rivera Martinez, having been to Arequipa, refers to the city with the phrase "In Arequipa, eternal spring".
It also highlights the various distinctions awarded by the Spanish Crown, which where the titles of City, Coat of Arms, Very Noble and Loyal, Faithful, and treatment of Excellence.
Very noble and very loyal
The ruling classes and city leaders rallied always faithful and loyal to the Spanish crown the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in the eighteenth century, upon the different movements and rebellions indigenous and mestizo, Arequipa retained its political balance. The Tupac Amaru II uprising facing the city with a column of troops assembled at their expense, helped destroy the siege of the city La Paz, which earned it the epithet of "Restorative province of Collao ». For these services the King Carlos IV, a royal decree issued in the city of San Lorenzo on 5 December 1805 in which orders and intitulé be called Faithful.
By royal decree issued in the city of Madrid, on 16 November 1818, is granted to the city to treat its Cabildo excellence. This distinction was granted following reports submitted by Don Hipólito Unanue, deputy of the province of Arequipa and the Municipality of the city, Arequipa involvement in advocacy produces real when lifting the city La Paz in 1809.
Heroic City of the free
In the Republican era, a decree issued by General Orbegoso ordered that the department and its capital city be denominated "Department of Law" and "heroic city of free Arequipa". General Orbegoso installed his government from the 13 January 1835 in the city of Arequipa, and consequently General Felipe Santiago Salaverry named himself Supreme Chief of the Republic, with the pretext that the country was leaderless, i.e. without President, as Orbegoso was outside the capital.
Salaverry's new government was recognized in various parts of the country, except for southern Peru, which continued to obey Orbegoso. A general amnesty decree, given by Salaverry in May 1835 and the call to Congress to meet in Jauja, were signs that command of the country had been concentrated in the hands of Salaverry, but despite these actions Arequipa remained the only part of the country to abide by the authority of Orbegoso, who had installed his government there and whose recognition was given this name.
Coat of arms
Almost a year after the founding of the town, King Charles I of Spain elevated it to the rank of city by a royal decree on 22 December 1540, awarding it a coat of arms, on which a mythical animal carries a banner with the inscription Karlos V or Del Rey, as described by Ricardo Palma traditionalist Peruvian Traditions in his book, in which he explains the location of the components in the shield, based on a reporter's knowledge of heraldry. In the tradition of "The godson of providence", it is explained as quoted:
«Nada entendido en heráldica el demócrata que esto escribe, atiénese a la explicación que sobre tal alegoría da un cronista. Dice que la inscripción de la bandera expresa la posesión que el rey tomó de Arequipa y que al colocar aquélla, no bajo los pies, sino en la mano del grifo, quiso el monarca manifestar su aprecio por la ciudad, no pisándola como a vasalla, sino dándole la mano como a favorecida. Si hay quien lo explique mejor, que levante el dedo.»—Ricardo Palma, Tradiciones Peruanas
The crimson flag of the city has been the subject of debate among historians. In 1940 scientific publications Mostajo historians such as Francis and Victor M. Barriga firmly confirmed the crimson color of the banner, as opposed to the blue argued by historian Victor Benavente. This matches the color used in sports activities in the city. On 2 September Dr. Mostajo sent a letter to the Mayor of the City to put forward their views regarding the color of the Banner of Arequipa, basing their claims on the 'Act of the oath of King Carlos III "on 11 August 1788. On 23 September of the same year, Father Victor M. Barriga published an important document in the Catholic newspaper El Deber that contains a description of the royal standard of Arequipa found in the "Act of 3 September 1789".
Both documents state that the standard color is crimson and that its origins date back to the colonial flag of the city, which is described as cited:
«Para la celebración de las fiestas reales de proclamación y jura del rey don Carlos IV, había mandado el Ilustre Cabildo hacer con anticipación un nuevo estandarte de terciopelo carmesí, con los escudos de Arreas Reales y de la Ciudad, guarnecido de sobrepuesto de oro, el cual estaba asido de una asta primorosamente labrada, rematando ésta en una lengueta de espolón, desde cuya garganta pendían dos cordones de seda carmesí con sus borlas, que hacían primoroso juego. Un dosel, paños de sitial, cojines y sobrebancas con flecos y rapacejos de oro.»—Juramento, proclamación y fiestas populares que hicieron celebrar en esta ciudad el Intendente D. Antonio Álvarez y Jiménez y el Alférez Real D. Manuel Flores del Campo en homenaje al Rey Carlos IV, con motivo de su exaltación al trono de España
The anthem of the city is called the fourth centenary anthem, written by Emilio Pardo Valley with music Aurelio Diaz Espinoza, who won the 1939 contest called by the city council for the creation of the music and lyrics of the anthem. The award was given in 1940, since which the hymn has been sung at all civic events held in the city.
During the colonial period, Arequipa never had an important official status, but played an outstanding economic role. Indeed, early on it took advantage of his situation at the crossroads on the silver road in colonial times and the wool road after independence. This privileged position allowed it to accumulate administrative, commercial and industrial power, and benefit local social classes committed to the future of the city. Thus Arequipa has played an important role in the emergence of the political parties and political trends that have played a central role in Peru. Unlike most cities, Arequipa brought not only significant political figures and national policy, but was also the scene of several important political movements that achieved national effect.
From the 1820s until the end of the decade he forged a transitional society in Peru, also economic pillars on which the city based its support – the manufacture of wool and Railway South – begin to decline and for this and other reasons, Arequipa begins to produce a number of political leaders shaped by a growing middle class of professionals, intellectuals and technocrats, who will participate in the defense of the legal and economic stability. At this stage, during which the city acquires a significant population increase, and on the other prominent political participation, becoming the country's second city, and as a city in continued defiance against Lima.
In this transition period intellectual groups emerge as the "Group Coven" movement whose demands were limited to political decentralization disassociating claims related to social justice and economic reform, such as land reform, and failed in an abrupt end as a result of the Great Depression. Prominent leaders also arise, Victor Andres Belaunde and José Luis Bustamante y Rivero, leaving his mark as a strong-willed constitutionalists in early 1930, and from 1945 to 1948 José Luis Bustamante y Rivero who served as president of Peru.
In 1950 the lawyer Francisco Mostajo (prominent liberal Arequipa since 1901) is leading a revolution against Odria Arequipa, Arequipa in 1956, Fernando Belaunde Terry manages to get a large block of voting middle class in 1962 and 1963 and Popular Action Belaunde Terry with the support of another party originally from Arequipa, Christian Democrats, had such strong support that was enough to win the presidency of Peru.
With a third of the electorate was allied with APRA, the lobby of Arequipa and its supporters in Lima and other parts of the country became invincible in 1945, after the ideologies clearly differ from these center-right Democrats with APRA, quickly and permanently alliance collapsed.
The starting point of the political path followed by Arequipa is marked by the new national bourgeoisie, which appears to challenge the existing bourgeois elite in Peru, where there was a significant and growing stratum of people in Peru with professional, administrative and trade.
Since the 1900s the rebellious spirit Arequipa, reborn from the pen of a group of intellectuals, a new generation of liberal anticlericalism characterized by a very Catholic society and opposition to economic and political centralization of the country, this opposition Arequipa to the political and economic centralization of the country naturally led to a constitutional position in the 1930s and the subsequent adoption of ideologies Christian Democrats in the 1940s and 1950s. Lawyers and projected a strong church influence in politics Arequipa, as well as the middle class gained further declined participation to economic prosperity in the south of the country.
These new interests take political structure more clearly inside the country whose strongest political structure was the city of Arequipa, and their potential strengths of this national election that was reflected by strength in the candidacy of Fernando Belaunde Terry in the 1956 presidential elections. The southern region, dominated by the city of Arequipa has a long history of separatism and the Republic of Peru, Arequipa and the upper class of the twentieth century has preserved a distinctive regional identity.
Throughout history Arequipa policy have led to many uprisings that earned the city the adjective of "The Lion of the South". According to Leslie Bethell Cambridge University "if Arequipa was the capital of liberalism the other regions of Peru promoted their own interests only through their ideology'. other authors conclude that revolutions were not developed under personal interests or politicians that incentivized, but by passion for law and justice, for his religious faith and his honor.
Leslie Bethell emphasizes the importance of revolutions of Arequipa stating:
:«None of the numerous aprista insurrections in the three decades, including that in Trujillo in 1932, secured as much political leverage as these three Arequipa-based movements.»
- «Ninguna de las numerosas insurrecciones apristas en las tres décadas, incluyendo la de Trujillo en 1932, han garantizado una gran influencia política como estos tres movimientos surgidos en Arequipa.»—Leslie Bethell, The Cambridge History of Latin America: Latin America since 1930
This revolutionary fame known among Peruvians still won it through numerous rebellions where almost all revolutions, some with national impact, armed themselves to defend local autonomy, compared to a centralizing capital more and more taking up arms in the revolutions following:
The city, as the capital of the province, is governed by the Provincial Municipality of Arequipa that has jurisdiction over the entire territory of the province. There is restricted to the city authority. In this regard, the district municipalities of the metropolitan area also have jurisdiction over matters relating to their own districts.
The city, as the regional capital, is home to the Regional Government of Arequipa. It is also headquarters of the different regional offices of ministries that make up the Civil Service of Peru
The Provincial Municipality of Arequipa regulates citywide, metropolitan and provincial important issues like urban planning, the transport s, s municipal tax collection, management of road safety by the local police, the maintenance of public roads (asphalt, cleaning ...) and gardens, etc.. It is also responsible for the construction of municipal facilities such as sports centers, libraries and social services.
|1994–1995||Fernando Sebastián Ramírez Alfaro||Neighborhood Unity Front|
|1996–1998||Roger Luis Caceres Peréz||FRENATRACA|
|1999–2002||Juan Manuel Guillen Benavides||Arequipa.Tradition and future|
|2003–2006||Peyson Yamel Romero Peralta||APRA|
|2007–2011||Simon Balbuena Marroquín||PNP|
|2011–2015||Zegarra Alfredo Tejada||Arequipa Reborn|
Seat of the Constitutional Court
The Constitutional Court is the highest authority and control interpretation of the Constitution. It is autonomous and independent of other constitutional bodies. Subject only to the Constitution and the Organic Law. The court has seven judges elected by the Congress with the favorable vote of at least two thirds of the legal number of members for a period of five years.
The city is the "Legal Capital of Peru" and "Official Headquarters of the Constitutional Court", as a result of a project decentralist the first vice presidential candidate, Manuel Seoane Corrales, who proposed the initiative of the city of Arequipa was the headquarters of the Superior Court of Justice, which would make the city was the Legal Capital of Peru. Due to the military coup that began in Peru, the initiative was in the air, to be reborn after the election of the Constituent Assembly in 1978. This time, the initiative did not succeed due to the high opposition, but later concluded that Arequipa would host the then "Constitutional Court", as stated in Article 304 º of the Constitution of Peru, 1979: "The Constitutional Court is based in the city of Arequipa ".
Later, by the Constitution of 1993, created the "Constitutional Court", which, according to its Charter, is based in Arequipa, although under Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court.
The city is bounded by the district lines that comprise his constituency, the figure for the same population of the city is not adjusted to the total population of the districts that could be partially or fully recitals within the city, as RENIEC entities considered that the city is divided into 15 administrative districts, coordinated by the provincial municipality, which in turn are subdivided into districts, however INEI uses other methodologies for the delimitation of the city.
|3||Cerro Colorado||.... 9||Miraflores|
|5||Yanahuara||11||JL Bustamante y Rivero|
|6||Alto Selva Alegre||12||Mariano Melgar|
|Source: National Institute of Statistics and Informatics|
The metropolitan area is to head to the city and consists of 19 districts with metropolitan category, extends over a surface of 305,798 acres (123,752 hectares) of which 10,142 acres (4,104 ha) are distinctly urban. A metropolitan level unemployment level reaches the level of 8%, in contrast to 5% unemployment in the city.
Until shortly before the rise of the Inca Empire existed in what is now the city some nomads living conglomerates engaged in activities such as hunting, fishing and gathering, developing some animals domesticated llamas and starting mainly sedentary and emerging practices agriculture. Eventually, after migration processes within the region were established early settlements, many with connections to the sea, giving rise to the first communication channels thereby increasing the accessibility of the territory.
During this time he built major irrigation canals or ditches in the Chili River Valley, which allowed cultivate the plains and terraces developed on the flanks of the slopes of the river. The ace Chimbe Yarabayas and settled in the city's current settlement, which together with communities and Cabanas Collaguas developed an agrarian economy in the desert.
Arrival of the Incas
When the Inca Huayna Capac came to the plain of the River Chili, founded no city, the Inca prepared to put their mitimaes control, intelligence and strength of border enclaves before expanding inland villages. To monitor and Chumbivilcas Yanaguaras intended to Chillques, for the same mission with the Callapas Collaguas and on the east of Chili, populated by Yarabaya and Copoatas, the mission fell to the Chichas.
The task of putting mitimaes in the Inca Empire, was not related to the founding of a town, which has a connotation Hispanic Andean. That's what happened in Arequipa, as it did in Chuquisaca Huayna Capac (Charcas, of Upper Peru), where it created a people, but replaced by mitimaes natives, which was not done in the valley of the Chili. From a Hispanic view shows chronicling Garcilaso de la Vega, described as historically inaccurate, and describes that around 1170 the Inca Huayna Capac stopped with his army in the wilderness Chili River valley, which he called Arizona qquepay expression meaning "let's stay here", said Inca lands distributed among three thousand families, who founded the villages or towns of Yanahuara Caima, Tiabaya Paucarpata Socabaya Characato Chiguata and others.
Arequipa was founded on 15 August 1540 by Garci Manuel de Carbajal in the Chili River valley as "Villa de la Asunción de Nuestra Señora del Valle Hermoso de Arequipa" in an area occupied by some Indian villages. Once carried out the necessary foundation to distribute the lots, for Pizarro, the Cabildo and the Dominican Order assigned for each extension a plot which covers a whole block to a plot of the founders apple quarter, and the main church a plot of half a block from the rest of solar neighbors by the passage of the Cathedral.
The city at the time of the foundation council already had a set, because the foundation of the town is given following the transfer of the Villa Hermosa de Camana, whose name was partially retained and replaced by Viila Hermosa de Arequipa, until Charles V of Germany and I of Spain raises it to the town to city status by Royal Decree dated Fuensalida, on 22 September 1541. The efforts of the transfer were made by Garci Manuel de Carbajal, who was established as the political authority to make the foundation of the new town and choose the new ruler, a position he fell on Don Juan de la Torre.
The council was responsible for choosing the competent authorities who assumed office on New Year's Day, nominating the mayors, the attorney, the superintendent of the City, the faithful executor, Holders of assets of deceased hospital administrator and visitor apothecary. This political order is broken in times of civil wars, because the task of designation was made by the rebel groups benefiting its adherents. Since 1853 by order of Viceroy Martín Enríquez de Almanza application starts balloting system and under this system a mayor is elected "neighborhood" and other "soldiers", who were later replaced by the mayor 'neighborhood' and ' of citizens".
At the counter, the treasurer and the royal officials Hacendaria box city, by decree of Philip II, are given the power to hold the office of alderman simultaneously, producing discord overlap of responsibilities and power. To avoid conflicts of jurisdiction, it is decided that alferazgo charges and council would sell perpetual becoming, this system was valid until the time of independence.
The former public works carried out in the city is listed on the Main Church, the Town Hall, the Chili River Bridge and the monastery of Our Lady of Grace. In 1609, by request submitted to Pope Paul V on 20 July 1609 and agreed in Bula 6 January 1612 authorizes the demarcation of the bishopric of Arequipa. King Philip III entrusted this mission to Viceroy Juan de Mendoza y Luna.
In the city lived independence as all provinces of Peru, in civil war. Because of its geography and location had special circumstances, for example when Pumacahua revolution and rebel troops entered briefly Arequipa was a moment of euphoria but then left the city, and remained in Arequipa colonial power until the Battle Ayacucho, not that Arequipa was against independence, but was fighting a civil war.
The colonial authorities were flexible address concerns freethinker of Arequipa is an example of this is the foundation of the Science and Arts Academy Lauretana on 10 December 1821, directed by Evaristo Gomez Sanchez, who was in turn the first printing department. Just built the Academy, its principal members Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro, Aparicio Gómez Sánchez, Francisco de Paula Gonzalez Vigil, Gaulberto Valdivia, Manuel Amat y Leon and Juan de Dios Salazar, took sides in favor of emancipation.
The Bridge historian says there doubt as to which if signed first knew or Ica, the first act of independence but most said that the council was the first to do it I knew throughout Peru in April 1820. The historian Agustin de la Puente says a historical phenomenon happened in the stage of emancipation and independence:
«Ese es un fenómeno curioso, en el sur comenzaron las revoluciones precursoras con Túpac Amaru, pero el sur quedó en poder del rey hasta más tarde. En cambio el norte, donde hubo menos movimientos revolucionarios previos, se independizó antes; un fenómeno histórico.»—José Agustín de la Puente.
One aspect that distinguished from other areas of Arequipa and Lima Peru was particularly explicit public commitment of the city to the Spanish crown and monitoring directries closed from the kings of Spain phenomenon called fidelismo and had as remarkable defenders Francisco de Paula Quiroz, Mariano de Rivero, Nicolás Fernández, and José Miguel de Lastarria, this attitude reason for the city in 1805 received the title of Faithful by Royal Charter.
Since its founding Spanish and over three centuries, the city was inhabited by mostly Spanish origin, which manifests and was recognized as a faithful follower of Spain, a reason that contributed to maintaining and strengthening the Fidelismo was obviously the social structure and the prevalence of Spanish, sustained by high society and representative elements. Another factor was the geographical because its location was not likely to be influenced by current or libertarian movements, and geography influenced them to disassociate Arequipa to the big Aboriginal.
After independence, the territory corresponding to the Municipality of Arequipa department was appointed by decree of 26 May 1822. The Congress of 1826 and 1827 were as Constitutional President to Arequipa and "Lauretano» Javier de Luna Pizarro. During the government of Bolivar, after the victory of Ayacucho, the city was a bustling counter the spread of the dictatorial powers of the Liberator. The lawyers arequipeños Domingo Tristan, Benito Lazo, Gualberto Valdivia publicly opposed the constitution and sharp Bolivarian lifetime. The result of the activity of the Academy Lauretana was the foundation of the National College of American Independence and the National University of San Agustin created in 1827.
In 1835 he moved his government generally Orbegoso from Lima to Arequipa, and sought support from then President Andrés de Santa Cruz Bolivia against the claims of Gamarra and Salaverry. Deciding battles between troops and Salaverry Confederation were in Uchumayo, near the city of Arequipa, on 4 February 1836, where he defeated Salaverry, and Socabaya, three days later, on 7 February, beating Santa Cruz. On 18 February 1836, Salaverry and his top aides were shot in the main square of the city.
After expressing their rejection of the Confederation, Chile sent under General Ventura Blanco Encalada a military expedition that reached the territory arequipeño 12 October 1837. Before going into battle were negotiations that allowed signing a peace treaty in Paucarpata, adjacent to the city district, on 17 November, between the Chilean military chief Gen. Quiroz, of the Confederation. Chile did not endorse the treaty and sent a second expedition under General Bulnes, the following year, in support of Ramón Castilla and other Peruvian military leaders opposed to Santa Cruz.
In the following years the city hosted insurrectionary successive military coups. On 20 February 1843, there was proclaimed as the supreme head of the Republic General Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco, whose ambitions ended with the Battle of Carmen Alto on 22 July 1844. On 14 April 1854 from Arequipa insirió as interim president General Ramon Castilla, who managed to take power. Against this de facto government, on 1 November 1856 took up arms again in Arequipa, General Vivanco. After failing his military expeditions to Lima and Trujillo, had to return to Arequipa in late 1857 to organize its defense. The forces commanded by Miguel de San Román Vivanco faced in the battle of Paucarpata on 29 June 1857.
War with Chile
Lizardo Montero arrived in Arequipa on 31 August 1882, declaring the capital of Peru. Also, Montero convened a National Congress on 28 April 1883.
«De la noche a la mañana Arequipa se convirtió en la "Capital del Perú": con presidente y escolta en "palacio", con ministros y secretarios en sus despachos, con el alto mando militar en sus cuarteles. Un viejo y reitarado sueño se transformaba en realidad aunque con visos de sainete y de tragedia: el gobierno no ejercía el poder en todo el territorio nacional que en sus zonas neurálgicas estaba militarmente ocupado por el enemigo...»—Niera, Máximo, «Historia General de Arequipa»
Montero's government had a "National Congress" installed on 22 April 1883 in the cloisters of the College Independence and National University of San Agustin, a military support consists of all males 20 to 60 years that formed an army of 4,000 men and 8,000 National Guardsmen to 10 000 and an important financial support based on quotas and taxes erogacione both the economic elite and the various southern agricultural districts.
However, Peru's Arequipa forces revolted against the authority of Lizardo Montero. On 25 October 1883, a popular uprising overthrew the government and military of Lizardo Montero Flores who retired in Arequipa to La Paz, bringing Chilean troops under Jose Velasquez occupied the city on 29 October, this being delivered by the diplomatic corps of the city.
Twentieth and twenty-first centuries
Reached the twentieth century, the city was the scene of military coups on 22 August 1930, when the commander Luis Sánchez Cerro was proclaimed Supreme Head and forced the resignation to President Augusto B. Leguia, and 27 October 1948, when General Manuel A. Odria formed a joint government and ousted President José Luis Bustamante y Rivero.
The city was also the scene of brave civic protests against arbitrariness. The two most important were against the Odria, one on 17 June 1950, featuring students of the College of American Independence and the second for nine days of December 1955. As usual earthquakes in the department had special significance earthquakes in 1868, 1878 and 1913, for the severe injury and damage that resulted.
The city's economic development was favored by the railroad Arequipa Islay built by Henry Meiggs. This was linked to the railway linking Arequipa, Cuzco and Juliaca. The first telegraph system in the region, which connected Mollendo, Arequipa and Vitor, was established in 1908. Drinking water was supplied to the city with an aqueduct leading Yumina mineral waters, opened in 1914. In 1931 he built roads Yura Arequipa-Puno and Arequipa. In Chili to 78 kilometres (48 miles) from the city and 4300 masl dam was built to irrigate El Fraile 3000 ha in the plains of La Joya. This hardworking engineering work was completed in 1938. In 1940 he inaugurated the modern Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon Airport.
In the mid-nineteenth century, the expansion of international demand helped reorganize the landlords and warlords colonial exploitation of indigenous peasants in Puno through the expansion of large estates while a circle of Arequipa controlled the marketing and processing wool at the expense of rural communities.
The momentum of this market, broader than deep, Arequipa is built from the second half of the nineteenth century as a city of middle classes, merchants, artisans, professionals, home to an elite regional macro in modern business city located. In time, the elite arequipeña happens to collect, process and export wool, producing, acquiring lands medium farmers or indigenous highland and developing an operating system supported by income. This modern twentieth century Arequipa, old families, industries, large middle classes and workers organized in unions, is constructed as a bourgeois city, civic, democratic.
Law 15,923 of 10 January 1966 authorized the creation of the industrial park of Arequipa, important motivator mediated regional manufacturing.
In the early years of this century the historic center of Arequipa was declared Cultural Heritage of Humanity, there was also a 8.4 magnitude earthquake on 23 June 2001, one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900, and of greater magnitude in the history of Peru because of this earthquake, many of the historic buildings in Arequipa were damaged or destroyed.
The city is located at an altitude of 2,328 metres (7,638 ft), the lowest part of the city lies at an altitude of 2,041 metres (6,696 ft) in the area called the Huayco Uchumayo District and the highest is located at 2,810 metres (9,220 ft).
«Ciudad y campiña por marco exterior el desierto. Geográficamente hablando, Arequipa entra, pues, en la categoría de Oasis: un pueblo en un islote de verdura. Todo es árido a su alrededor, de un lado las montañas solitarias y mudas, de otro lado, la pampa rugosa y escueta—José Luis Bustamente y Rivero
The central part of the city is crossed by the River Chili from north to south in a valley called the Valley of Arequipa or the Valley of Chili. To the north and east of Arequipa are the Andes mountain while to the south and west are intermediate mountain highlands. The valley opening to the coast plays a decisive role in allowing Arequipa to be a city in the middle, strategically connecting the two regions.
A series of volcanic cones dominates the skyline from the city. These volcanoes form mountains like the Misti, Pikchu Pikchu and Chachani. This rugged Andean western edge of South America is characterized by thick layers of volcanic lava that cover large areas.
The climate of the city is predominantly dry in winter, autumn and spring due to atmospheric moisture, is also due to semiarid effective precipitation and tempered by the thermal condition. It lacks the rigors of winter and summers overwhelming the coast, a situation that ensures the presence of a vital sun and a clear sky with 300 days of sunshine a year and a record 4000 hours of sun exposure to years justifying the nickname "City of the eternal blue sky 'funded. Throughout the year presents temperatures do not rise to 25 °C (77 °F) and rarely drop below 10 °C (50 °F). The wet season lasts from December to March and is reflected by the presence of clouds in the afternoon and low rainfall. In winter (June, July), the weather gets a little cooler and the temperature drops to an average of 10 °C (50 °F), but the dry climate helps to feel the cold less intensely.
The average relative humidity is 46%, with an average high of 70% in the summer season and a minimum average of 27% during the seasons of autumn, winter and spring, according to data from the weather station Goyeneche Hospital.
The winds are influenced by a system of local winds and the passage of frontal systems of low atmospheric pressure, which are conditioned by the topographical surrounding the valley where the city is. The occurrence of winds occurs mainly in the evening and early morning, mountain breezes are having a north-east direction and in the course of a day dominated by valley breezes with a South-West direction. The wind velocity along the day fluctuating between 1.5 m / s and 2.5 m / s.
|Climate data for Arequipa|
|Average high °C (°F)||21.5
|Average low °C (°F)||8.6
|Rainfall mm (inches)||28.0
|Source: World Meteorological Organization|
The global solar radiation recorded in the city ranges from 850–950 W / m 2 (watts / square meter), considered one of the highest levels of radiation in South America and the highest recorded in Peru. This phenomenon is due to its proximity to the area of influence of the Atacama Desert and pollution at every stage.
According to census XI of 2007, the province of Arequipa concentrates 75.5% of the total population of the region and the city of Arequipa, the capital of the department, with 70% of the total population and 90% of urban population. [nota 1]
One of the first references that can be found is the Venture Travada the mid eighteenth century, wrote:
«El número de gentes que tiene esta ciudad es de 30.000 de todos sexos, estados y edades. Los indios apenas 4.000 y para su doctrina basta una sola parroquia en la ciudad – la de Santa Marta – que comprende todos los indios forasteros y naturales que viven dispersos en la ciudad y para ser una sola no es muy numerosa porque excepcionando algunos negros, mulatos y otros apenas llegan a 6.000. todos los demás son españoles, muchos de ellos de nobleza conocida cuya sangre procuran honroso no degenerar...»—Travada Córdova y Ventura
One of the first population census in the city date back to 1796 where there were 37,241 inhabitants in the 'pen' which corresponded to 22 207 Spanish, 5929 Indians, mestizos 4908, 2487 and 1710 slave castes. At the end of the first half of the twentieth century, the effects of momentum multplicadores to Arequipa by the works of 1940 demonstrated very quickly which was clearest symptom population growth, as annual population growth of 1.1% for the period of 1876 to 1917 tripled to 3.3% annually in the period that goes from 1940 to 1960.
In the early years of the second half of the twentieth century the city would rise from 85,000 in 1940 to 158,000 in 1961 in an unprecedented population explosion process, whose possible reasons have to do with the establishment of the first industrial enterprises generated as opening import substitution due to World War II and the transformation of agricultural production. The demographic trend is substantially modified by two factors: the earthquake of 1958 and the drought plateau, accelerating migration and urbanization, and peripheral growth that lasts until today. The population explosion was enhanced by the rearrangement of urban space after the earthquakes was really impressive and Arequipa's population doubled in a decade. The 158 000 inhabitants in 1961, would be 309 000 in 1972 and almost 500,000 in 1983, the invasion of rural areas generated a remarkable process in which subsistent farming actively participates in the urban cycle.
Evolution of the population of Arequipa in the period between 1796 and 2012
- Sources: Population Census 1804 (Gil de Toboada) Viceroyalty of Peru in 1812, [nota 2] Census of inhabitants of Peru (1876) [nota 3] Census of the City of Arequipa in 1917 INEI, INEI 2012 population estimate
Morphology and urban structure
On 15 August 1540 a plot was made forty-nine "blocks or islands." [nota 4] sides were measured and each had a length of "400 feet Castilians' (111.40 meters), separated by streets" 37 feet Castilian "(10.30 meters), so that the checkerboard foundation is characterized by perfection in drawing apples. [nota 5]
The writer Pedro Davalos and Lisson, in his book The First Century contains the description given by Paz Soldan in 1855:
«Fundose esa ciudad por orden de Francisco Pizarro y con bando solemne el día 15 de agosto de 1540. Su primer sitio, fue atrás de Caima, pero después se trasladó al en que hoy se halla, por presentar más extensión y comodidades. Al trazarla se cuidó que sus calles se cortasen en ángulos rectos y en dirección casi de NS y EO, y que cada cuadra tuviese 150 varas de largo y doce poco más o menos de ancho. Para conservar la salubridad, comodidad y aseo, se cortaron acequias en el medio de las calles, así rectas como transversales, cuyo cauce está bien acanalado. Las calles que corren −230- de E a O son ocho (las principales) y las otras también ocho: sus aceras todas están bien enlosadas con una especie de piedra blanca volcánica, llamada Sillary el piso restante empedrado con guijarros.»—Pedro Dávalos y Lissón – La primera centuria : causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente. Tomo II.’’
Because of this, there is no doubt that the former "Villa Hermosa de Arequipa" he intended to occupy the regional capital. The city became a connecting link between Cuzco, ponds and the ocean. And in fact the city of Arequipa in the exploitation phase of silver in Potosi, has since become "'a major logistics hub." The urban setting near the present district of San Lazaro, where was erected the first chapel of the city occupied an area of 850 x 875 meters.
The square foundation, located three blocks from the river and occupied an eccentric position in the founding and checkerboard patterns as Hispanic was the focal point of the city. Apples was occupied by four or eight lots, and were distributed according to their importance in the new neighborhood. With the passage of time some religious institutions came to occupy a block as the case of the Convent of Santa Catalina and San Francisco Monastery.
In the Republican era shows a growth process similar to the colonial era, where the urban area has grown at the expense of the countryside, a process that has worsened in recent decades. The city also experienced an expansion to the east of what is now called historic, new avenues were plotted as Parra Boulevard and Twentieth Century Avenue, was established wooded neighborhood of El Vallecito, where he built the first shawls to the 1940s, and the city extended into Yanahuara, poor people came to occupy the districts of Miraflores, Barrio Obrero, Jacinto Ibanez.
Urban architecture is extended with new construction, and moved the market town located in the Plaza de Armas to the park Duhamel and later to its present location at the Convent of the Order of St. Camillus agonizing Parents, between 1905 and 1910 Goyeneche Hospital was built, also built bridges linking the city center with the district as the bridge Yanahuara Real. By the year 1940, the first project was proposed expansion and urban facilities. This plan envisaged the creation of a ring of houses greater than existing growth plan consolidating regarding radial and concentric paths regarding land use, neighborhoods were enabled Cuarto Centenario and Selva Alegre. He was also given a boost to urban facilities with the construction of the Municipal Theatre, the Hotel de Turistas, the Municipal Library, the Athenaeum Theatre, American Independence College, Campus of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin.
Until the late 1950s there were two factors that substantially changed the trends of urban growth, the earthquakes in the years of 1958 and 1960 and the drought plateau, which accelerated peripheral growth.
This period starts with greater force the displacement of resident population sectors, there is a shift in the industry that was located in the Barrio del Solar and El Barrio Obrero following the creation of the industrial park, causing a process outsourcing of the city center towards commercial activities primarily in the informal sector. An example of this exodus is the displacement of some educational institutions that previously were located in the city center as the National University of San Agustin in the year of 1962 and residential sectors to consolidate the periphery to the center of the city as a dynamic central business district.
Since Arequipa is predominantly urban, industry, commerce and construction taking place in the capital of the department have a central role in the future of the town. However, the presence of fertile valleys and high Andes allows agricultural activity has great importance for the development of the city: a central axis of the demands arequipeñas is building irrigation to improve their productivity. Finally, in recent times, the mining industry has entered a stage of modernity, has ceased to be only artisanal or small business to include large-scale mining, as in the case of Cerro Verde, established in 1993 in the Arequipa.
The contribution of the city of Arequipa in Arequipa region's GDP is 74.2% of its GDP according to studies by the National University of San Agustin, also the region's GDP is the highest Arequipa after Lima.
In the period 2003–2008 was the "City with greatest economic growth in Latin America", according to the report in 2009 of "America Economia" presenting a percentage change in GDP per capita of 66.1%. Also in 2007–2008 was the city with the highest percentage change in GDP in Latin America with a variation of 9.59%.
|Economic Indicators – City of Arequipa|
|Population (MM)||GDP 2010 (millions U.S. $)||GDP per capita 2010 (U.S. $)||% Unemployment 2011||No. investment banks|
|Source: American Journal Economics. Special Cities|
The contribution to the national sales tax is 20.3%, in solidarity tax on 17% being the second national taxpayer in these taxes. Arequipa has a production structure strongly biased to trade and services sectors, the primary sector of agriculture and mining accounted for 29.6% of GDP, the secondary sector of manufacturing industry and 20.7% in the tertiary sector and trade and services 49.7%, it was strengthened in recent years by a lack of productive investment.
The construction sector of the city is the second most dynamic in the country, after Lima, according to the Study of Urban Buildings by the Institute of Construction and Development of the Peruvian Chamber of Construction. Building activity in 2011 amounted to 611 961 m 2, 65% for housing, 10% for offices and commercial premises 4%. In the case of housing supply, departments account for 70% and 30% households of the total supply in this sector of destination.
Fairs, exhibitions and congresses
The city is seen as a place of exhibitions and events in the country. The promotion of trade fairs and exhibitions in the city is in charge of Birmingham Convention Bureau, an organization that in 2011 recorded the occurrence of about 1200 events, among which were:
- International Book Fair
The III International Book Fair held in Arequipa in 2011 had an influx of 400,000 people and a collection of a million and a half soles
- Mining Convention
Oriented mining sector entrepreneurs, investors and government delegations in the last edition in the year 2011 had the presence of 40 countries bringing together 50,000 people.
- International Fair of Arequipa
From the twentieth century in the city have developed the industries related to the primary sector, highlighting the textile and agricultural industries. They constitute a center of exchange and mediation in the southern Andes, serving as a link between the coast and the mountains.
According to the "Specialized Household Survey on Employment Levels" has the largest amount of "Economically able to work" within the country amounting to 625 547 people, and the most economically active population (PEA) which amounts to 376 764 people having a same employment rate above the national average with an average monthly income of 928 soles whose main areas of activity in which play is manufacturing (12.9%), trade (23%) and non-personal services (36.6%).
In Arequipa tourism is a factor of the economy energizing establishing itself as the third most visited city in the country after Cusco and Lima, in 2010 arrived in the city a total of 1.395 million visitors according to the Ministry of Commerce and Tourism.
The city's industrial sector has the largest nationwide diversification and is the second most industrialized city of Peru product of the Industrial Park was established during the first government of Fernando Belaúnde Terry. After two major earthquakes, in 1958 and 1960, with the law of the "Rehabilitation and Development Board of Arequipa» Industrial Park was built with two or three factories at that time, and the Yura Cement factory.
The city's industrial sector comprises industrial parks among which may be mentioned the "Parque Industrial de Arequipa" orientaado to large and medium enterprises, the "Industrial Park APIMA" to small businesses, the "Industrial Park Rio Seco "and industrial areas in the Alfonso Ugarte Av, Alternative Uchumayo and North Cone. Finally, there is a consolidated sector and planned and Ladrilleras Umapalca Yarabamba way. Spatial occupancy for industrial zones cover an area of 286 hectares.
- Arequipa Industrial Park, along its existence has undergone several transformations of their industries, showing a more dynamic consumer related industries (food and beverages), construction (PVC, cement and steel) and those of Export (textile companies). In this industrial companies are also engaged in the chemical industry and plastics, companies producing non-metallic minerals, stationery and printing, among others, conglomerando over 150 companies, among which we can highlight to Alicorp SAA, Processed Foods SA, Laive, La Iberica, Manuel Muñoz Najar, Bin Pan SA, Consorcio Industrial Arequipa SA, Omniagro, Backus & Johnston, Corporación Aceros Arequipa. Also in Arequipa is developed textiles both cotton and alpaca and wool factories represented by: Francky and Ricky, Michell & Cia. e IncaTops, companies are also in the Arequipa Industrial Park.
Sights and attractions
The Old Town
In its 332 hectares has 5817 properties of which 500 are categorized as heritage properties, generally have been built in the nineteenth century, on the site of earlier colonial buildings destroyed by the earthquake of 1868. The houses, usually made in ashlar, are characterized by semi-circular arches and vaulted ceilings. Ashlar structures always have thick walls: 1 to 1.5 meters for rooms, 2 meters for churches. Through the use of lime mortar, the walls are shown homogeneous image that is reinforced with brick vaults or ashlar that are justified in the rarity of the wood.
In the city itself is a stylistic school called "School Arequipa" of crucial importance in the region and whose influence reached Potosi. This school is characterized by profuse decoration planiform textilográfica and the open spaces and the design and size of their covers, which differ in these aspects of Cuzco and Lima covers.
The architecture in the historic center is characterized by the prominence of ashlar, the use of which begins in the last third of the s. XVI. This volcanic stone, white or pink exceptionally soft, lightweight, and weatherproof, emerged as a seismic structural solution. The ashlar was unable to take the early years, except for the covers of the main church and some houses. The original city was built with adobe, masonry, sticks and straw roofs or mud pie. Houses of this type were made until the nineteenth century and were common in the eighteenth century, some remain in the original district of San Lazaro. Later came the brick and tile houses with tile found in the Monastery of Santa Catalina. The cataclysm of 1582 settled these systems and raised the earthquake reconstruction. Then came the ashlar as prime structural solution.
Major earthquakes which milestones in the formation of Arequipa architecture. You can mention five periods:
In historical existence is accounted for 14 churches or temples, four chapels, five convents and 3 monasteries, among the monuments of this type include:
It is the most important neoclassical ediicio Peru, product reconstruction started in 1844 and finished three years later and led by architect Lucas Poblete. Its interior is faced with trs ships with one of the side walls of the main square which fills a side façade is divided by Corinthian columns.
- Church of the Company
It is the monument maximum Arequipeña School, is one of the most splendid creations of Peruvian Baroque and starting point of this school, in its façade has an inscription inscribed with the year 1698 which shows that the beginning of the eighteenth century this regional art had reached its peak, therein lies a more exaggerated baroque altar.
«Pétrea ciudad adusta. Sólida trabazón de viviendas donde el sillar es símbolo de la psicología colectiva: roca y espuma; dureza y ductilidad. Amalgama de fuego, en que el aliento del volcán funde y anima las piedras y las almas»—José Luis Bustamente y Rivero (President of Perú 1945–1948)
There are 10 buildings that origin were engaged in civic purposes, such as Phoenix theaters. and the Municipal Theatre, the Goyeneche Hospital and the Hospital of Priests of St. Peter, bridges Bolognesi and Grau, the Instituto de la Rosa Chavez, Railway Station, Mercado San Camilo and the Molino de Santa Catalina.
The historic center of Arequipa lacked a wall as we had the city of Lima, they persist despite military monuments as Twentieth Century Prison and Penal Fundo El Fierro women.
Within the historic center there are 246 houses were declared monuments household, this type of construction is characterized by thick walls made solid as drawer, with arches and domes similar to those built in the temples and monasteries religious, giving the same robustness and monumentality to these constructions built from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and generally used for housing.
Parks and gardens
In the historic center of the city's parks and squares for a total of 26 hectares of green areas that are complemented by 22 acres (9 ha) of countryside within this historic area, between the squares and parks include the following areas:
Outside this monumental natural areas that stand out are the following:
- Ecological Park of Alto Selva Alegre. is located in the middle of an urban area east of the city, right outside Cayma District and Rio Chili in the territory of the district of Selva Alegre. The park and surrounding areas occupy an area of 1008 hectares of which 460 hectares covering only the ecological park. The back of the park is located in the buffer zone of the National Reserve of Salinas Aguada Blanca.
- Fundo Paradise. is part of the Natural Park of Selva Alegre and occupies an area of 67 hectares
- Chilina Valley countryside. is part of the Natural Park of Selva Alegre and occupies an area of 151 hectares
- Chilpinilla Metropolitan Park. 14 hectares
- Military College Forest Park. 14 hectares.
- Selva Alegre Park. 20 hectares.
- Yanahuara Villa Hermosa, located 2 kilometres (1 mile) from the city, famous for its churches built in Andalusian style alleys which is Yanahuara Monumental Zone Cultural Heritage of the Nation.
- Cayma Villa, 3 miles (5 kilometres) from the centre of town. Place known for its taverns and where there is a beautiful seventeenth-century church. With a viewpoint which affords a beautiful view of Arequipa.
- The thermal baths of Yura, 30 kilometres (19 miles). Its waters come from inside the volcano Chachani. Also, near the city are the medicinal sources of Jesus and Socosani.
- Sabandía natural valley with most crystalline waters in the region. Here is the Sabandía mill was built and in operation since the eighteenth century.
- The farm Sachaca or the Founder's Mansion, is 12 kilometres (7 miles) from the city. Built on the river Socabaya, is a residence that belonged to different owners of historic renown in Peru but became especially known for being one of the family properties princiales Goyeneche. This beautiful piece of architecture is now open to the public.
With regard to mobile telephony, in the city of Arequipa operate the following companies: Movistar, Claro (America Phones) and Nextel, the last used over the business, Claro, Movistar and Nextel offer its 4G service (only coverage Arequipa Metropolitana) enabling mobile broadband Internet, video calls, among others.
On 15 August 1959 was the official opening of the television in the city of Arequipa in the Cultural Hall of the National University of San Agustin, as an initiative of businessman Jack Dwyre through South Televisora Peruana – Channel 2 television, UNSA TV today. The programs were alive and in the first transmission was presented the inaugural Miss Universe 1958, Gladys Zender.
The National University of San Agustin would be well above the first house of studies in South America to have a media like television. In that sense, it was remarkable the work of the Institute of Cultural which was led by Dr. Gustavo Quintanilla Paulet.
«...el convenio que permite contar con Televisión Universitaria es una prueba del desarrollo de Arequipa, tanto en el aspecto material cuanto en lo que concierne al espíritu, pues los hombres de negocios que dirigen Televisora Sur Peruana S. A. saben que el progreso económico de un pueblo debe llevar al progreso cultural...»—Publicación periodística de 1959.
Furthermore in 1962, Birmingham was the first city to issue a decentralized signal through Radio Television Continental (channel 6), then in the year 1987 comes to channel 8 belonging to Arequipa SA Broadcasting Company, signal from the 2012 ATV transmitted as South.
Among the newspapers that are printed in the city stands the newspaper El Pueblo who is the Dean of the national press and the dean of the southern press, this journal is presented in a large format and characterized since its inception on 1 January 1905, to be quarry writers as Percy Gibson and Alberto Hidalgo, and politicians like Hector Cornejo Chavez, Mario Polar Ugarteche and Alfonso Montesinos.
Metropolitan road network has a structure that supports radiocentric four primary routes or trunks: Army Av, Av Jesus, Av and Av Alcides Carrion Parra and allow the movement of the population from the intermediate and peripheral areas activity centers.
These pathways longitudinal nature are interconnected by bus routes, forming a ring around the central area consists of: Av Venezuela, Lieutenant Ferré, Progress, Av Arequipa, Gomez de la Torre Av, Av La Marina, San Martin, Avenida Salaverry, Mariscal Cáceres, Socabaya Malecon and Avenida Venezuela.
This system is completed with some main roads as Cayma Av, Av Arequipa, Goyeneche Avenue, Kennedy Avenue, Dolores Av, Av Lambramani, flows carrying local roads to bus and vice versa.
Integrated Transport System
A public transport system is under construction in Arequipa. Implemented by the Ministry of Transport and Communications and the Provincial Municipality of Arequipa, the system consists of a network scheme called rationalized based two trunk routes operated transit buses Rapid Transit (BRT) called ArequipaBus interacting with structuring routes and feeder networks.
- Exclusive trunk route or corridor, consisting of two segregated lanes along which articulated buses (BRT), its northern terminus is located in the area of Rio Seco in the district of Cerro Colorado and its southern terminal at Socabaya district.
- Feeder Routes: 43 routes formed by converging on the trunk route, nine of which operate in the northern and southern suburbs of the city and 34 in intermediate areas.
- Structuring routes, comprising 35 routes and according to its characteristics provide a direct service with an origin and destiny.
Arequipa is served by Rodríguez Ballón International Airport located in the district of Cerro Colorado about 12 miles (19 kilometres) northwest of downtown, for its features and facilities is one of the best in the country, from 2011 to through a grant administered by the consortium "Andean South Airports".
In 2011 introduced a passenger flow of 1,025,466 passengers between domestic flights and international and a load flow of 2193 tons in 2010, becoming the second in the southern region in the fluid passenger traffic after Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport, Cuzco city, and third in the country.
The airport holds daily air connections with the cities of Lima, Cusco, Tacna and Juliaca and international destinations such as Arica, Iquique, Antofagasta and Santiago de Chile, along with regular flights coming to Buenos Aires, Argentina.
In 2011 there are four airlines that offer their services on domestic flights, with a total of 38 daily flights in low season its main destinations and 52 daily flights in high season. The company makes three Sky Airline flights each reguales international destinations (Arica, Iquique, Antofagata, Santiago de Chile) per week, and next to the city of Buenos Aires with Argentine Airlines codeshare.
The railway network system has been operating in Arequipa since 1871, enables communication between the coast and the mountains and different levels of progress and expansion of population centers located in its path. The system consists of the lines: Cusco-Puno-Arequipa and Arequipa-Mollendo. Is of great strategic importance in a multimodal communication system in the southern macro region, since it is the most effective and economical way to transport heavy loads over long distances.
The International Terrapuerto Arequipa is located in the district of James Hunter from which the city and the region of Arequipa is connected by land throughout Peru and La Paz, Santiago de Chile, Mendoza and Buenos Aires.
Apart from having the International Bus Station Bus Terminal has the Arequipa regional usage and services towards the mountains and the coast. In the city of Arequipa interregional routes exist, consisting Uchumayo variant that serves as the connection with the coast, out to Yura that serves as a connection to the Sierra and the departure of Jesus which connects to the highlands of Arequipa and Chiguata area.
In 2011 in the city of Arequipa are registered 182,000 vehicles according to the Superintendency of Public Registries, in the same year the fleet was increased to 64 000 vehicles, of which 12 000 360 were recorded as new units.
As the administrative and economic capital of the Arequipa Region, the city has the largest number of both public health centers and private which total 680 establishments. Public health institutions that are present in the city are:
According to the 2007 Census data INEI in Arequipa, there is a student population totaling 823,148 inhabitants of three years or more to attend a regular school, which represents 95.24% of the entire provincial population of Arequipa.
Nursery, primary and secondary
In 2007 in the districts of the city 20% nbsp; 595 students at grade level or initial childhood education, primary education, 143 543 and 219 305 secondary education. Among the oldest schools in the city are the Seminary of San Jeronimo in operation since 1622, the American Independence College, St. Francis College, Don Bosco Salesian College, College De La Salle and St. Joseph College.
The city of Arequipa has the presence of more than 15 universities, with only one national and eight private headquartered in the city, the rest are private and national universities both at home and abroad (Chile).
In 2007 in the existing universities housed a university population of 70,894 students and colleges university not a population of 56 087 students, becoming the city with the highest number of home university of the country after the capital and the city with the highest population percentage-wise university of Peru. The population categorized with university and complete university reached 108 823 and 70 252 students respectively.
National University of San Agustin
It is the second largest public university in the country, behind the University of San Marcos, had the predecessor to the Royal and Pontifical University Intra calustra, created by decree on 22 January 1714 and the Academy of Sciences Lauretana Arts and founded on 10 December 1821, from which was born the National University of San Agustin who was installed on 11 November 1828 but according to the university law recognizes the creation of the university on 2 June 1827.
The construction of the city university is a product of the projection made by the architect Hector Velarde in 1940 but it was not until 1962 that the university decentralizes its functions and moves to the campus. The campus features correspond to a scheme totally academic teaching style of L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, with remarkable symmetry in the arrangement of the elements and pavilions which then lead to a neo-formal lexicon that led it to adopt a "style arequipeño" whose formal features transcended the city and were projected to other centers of Peru and the rest of America. [nota 6]
The first private university established in the city was the Catholic University of Santa Maria, the establishment of this university was followed by San Pablo Catholic University, University of San Francisco. and the University of La Salle, it belongs to International Network of Universities of La Salle, and Javier Prado Private University and Southern University.
Additionally, in the city are located branches from other universities, as a branch of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, subsidiaries of Néstor Cáceres Velásquez Andean University, Technological University of Peru, Peruvian Wings University; San Pedro Private University, the University del Mar, Chile, the University of Chimbote Los Angeles, School of Business San Francisco Xavier, the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and San Martin de Porres University for example-that add universities established in the city of Arequipa.
|National University of San Agustin||1828||24188||Arequipa|
|Catholic University of Santa Maria||1963||12268||Arequipa|
|San Pablo Catholic University||2004||4769||Arequipa|
|San Francisco University||2010||–||Arequipa|
|University of La Salle||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Private University of Health Sciences||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Private Autonomous University of South||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|Javier Prado University||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Arequipa|
|San Francisco Xavier||2010||–||Arequipa|
|Alas Peruanas University||2004||9743||Lima|
|José Carlos Mariátegui University||Maestría en Ingeniería del Software Aplicada||–||Lima|
|Néstor Cáceres Velásquez University||2006||1038||Puno|
|Technological University of Peru||2007||1201||Lima|
|San Pedro Private University||2010||–||Chimbote|
|University Los Angeles de Chimbote||2009||344||Chimbote|
|University of the Sea||2009||–||Chile|
|Source: National Census II University|
Among the scenarios that the city has for the practice of football we mention the Universidad Nacional San Agustin Stadium, the Mariano Melgar Stadium, the stadium and the sticks Umacollo Stadium.
The most popular sport is football in Arequipa, this sport is represented by the FBC Melgar club football, which participates in the Peruvian First Division football, and who in 1981 was the first champion from the Peruvian interior. Among the historical clubs play football classic arequipeño among them are:
Arequipa culture is marked by the regionalist character of its inhabitants, Arequipa, unlike other big cities Peruvian mestizo and indigenous features has been highlighted as a "Spanish island in a sea indigenous" is the wellspring of juxtaposed positions, as a result the Arequipa regional profiles are more clearly defined than in the rest of Peru, while both culturally and geographically is described as a cultural and natural oasis and is reaffirmed by the Ventura Travada documentation:
«El número de gentes de esta ciudad es apenas 30.000... los negros, mulatos y otros apenas llegan a 6000, todos los demás son españoles, muchos de ellos de conocida nobleza, porque esta ciudad es de las que sobresalen en el reino de gente española cuya sangre procuran no degenerar, celebrando muchos casamientos con españoles llamados huampos. [Estos españoles] al instante que arriban a este reino se aplican al comercio mercantil porque generalmente es uno de los empleos más honrosos...»—Travado Córdova y Ventura
Unlike other regional sentiments, Arequipa regionalist sentiment was connected to the fight with centralism:
«En contraste con otros regionalismos peruanos, especialmente el del Cusco con su singular legado de haber sido la capital del Imperio Incaico, el sentimiento regionalista arequipeño estaba conectado a la lucha contra la política centralista de crear un Estado moderno, alternativa creíble para el centralismo limeño. El regionalismo arequipeño ha logrado evitar ser despedido como un mero provincianismo. Critíca a la política descentralista esfuerzo sobre la base de una reserva de locales, el lugar específico de las imágenes como capital simbólico para validar el éxito material de las clases dominantes regionales.»—Thomas Love, Redefining Identity, Maintaining Control in Southwestern Peru
There are elements that have shaped the culture around Arequipa, a hallmark. His proud regionalism, expressed in numerous insurrections or revolutions that have earned him the nickname "City caudillo" or phrases like consecrate Jorge Basadre, "Arequipa is the gun pointed at the heart of Lima ', referring to the antagonism between both cities.
An element of culture is its arequipeña Castilian dialect that incorporates a distinctive rhythmic way of speaking, which usually prolong the last vowel of the final word in each sentence. The Castilian of Arequipa, also incorporates several Quechua words, besides the use of the voseo.
All sources are agreed to the province of Arequipa as the representative area of the Peruvian voseo, in general in Peru, the voseo is seen in rural areas bordering voseo areas except in Arequipa, where vosean speaking rural and urban areas, is to use archaic and recession, plus the use of single use of you, in Arequipa are used voseantes Chilean verb endings.
Regarding voseante paradigm of Arequipa, is usually linked to the type II monoptongado voseo, though possibly colonial influence in the second conjugation verb given third party.
It is a rural dialect of the city, has been largely lost due to migration from other provinces and the standardization of Castilian by the media in the capital, however, always in schools competitions are promoted lonccos poems.
Its principle is based or iconographic art of petroglyphs and pre-Columbian pottery. The site with more graphs in stone are the Toro Muerto has been the subject of many studies, most notably those of Dr. Eloy Linares Málaga and Dr. Antonio Núñez Jiménez Cuban.
His second contribution is the Spanish state and Indo-American, who initially had applications in the size of walls, faces carved churches and altars, des painting appeared as mestizo, which is a naïve tried to recreate the Christian symbolism . The art of deep chiaroscuro, anatomical and ingenuity hieratic provisions lasted for many years since the European Renaissance failed hard because of geographical distance, but so that the increased media and travel advances and ado came to the third stage, which is the art academic and romantic, then arequipeñas wealthy families brought European art, mostly from France, England and Spain, the art, but not high-level teachers, gave the foundation for what would advance the fourth state of our history of fine arts, Carlos Baca Flor, Masias and Reynoso Vinatea preamble contemporary art Teodoro Nunez Ureta, Ureta Alejandro Nunez and Luis Palao Berastain among youth of that based on the short edge new American realism and impressionism .
After the fifth stage amorphous art, symbolist and other current and conceptual styles imported from North America and Europe with vertigo by mass media, among the master of this new era are Ramiro Pareja, Germán Rondon, Ricardo Córdova, the Evaristo and brothers Dario Callo Anco, Erick Huanca, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Companoca and other young master that currently contribute at various isms and boundaries of what is visual art. The Museum of Contemporary Art and the Museum of Arequipa Fundo del Fierro are good benchmarks.
The city has the greatest diversity of registered plates on to other parts of Peru, it has registered 194 varieties of dishes, which represent 40 entrees, 11 soups or lunches, 11 wines, 70 dishes, 51 desserts and 11 drinks.
The cuisine of the city stands by the use of seasonings and preparation methods introduced by both Andean and Europeans, because many dishes were created to satisfy the tastes of Spanish, merchants, soldiers and priests who had settled in Arequipa.
The eating habits are characterized by a slow diet for each day of the week, this fact shows that in most restaurants and picanterías gets used to prepare on Monday: Chaque, Tuesday: Chairo, Wednesday: Chochoca, Thursday: Suck Colorado or potato flour, Friday: Suck on Friday, Saturday: stew or Timpusca and Sunday: white broth or Pebre loins. This practice follows a global context where food has established fixed schedules and are respected by the population and most restaurants and picanterías city and moved to the availability of specific ingredients in local markets to meet demand according to the day of the week.
Among the most popular dishes are the shrimp Suck, Ocopa Arequipa, Rocoto filling Adobo Arequipa, Single cheese, potato cake, fried ribs, Cuy chactado, Cauche cheese, Locro pectoris, Chaque, among others. For dessert highlight the cream cheese, donuts, convent sweets, chocolates, and beverages such as, Chicha de Jora, the region anise (anise or aniseed liqueur).
The identity of Arequipa literature is linked to the early nineteenth-century libertarians. Mariano Melgar is, in that sense, a compulsory reference, as to the quality of his lyrics, his example and his vital attention to the themes and modes land drew the line that would guide the creative writing in his hometown. In the mid-nineteenth century, the poetic voices from Benito Bonifaz, Manuel Castillo, José Mariano Llosa, Ignacio Gamio, among others, gave prestige to the letters Arequipa. Later that century, the novel George, the son of the village (1892), Maria Nieves and Bustamante, on the line of Victor Hugo, in the opinion of Luis Alberto Sanchez, gave us in his interesting 'Introduction', some signs preciosistas White City.
Poetry is heading towards the teaching of Manuel González Prada vibrant, and there are poems full of ideas and concepts Jorge Polar, philosopher and jurist, author of Arequipa. Description and social studies (1891), whose statement: "Years Arequipa has fought bravely to win free institutions for the Fatherland. Not born in vain at the foot of a volcano ", summarizes the feeling that inaugurated Mariano Melgar and that in one way or another, is present in Arequipa literature of the nineteenth and much of the twentieth, and the romantic voice of Francisco Mostajo, popular leader, who openly criticized the prevailing tone and advocated without success, the vital airs of modernism in its statements to the wind, 1908.
The twentieth century imposes rhythm and casually characteristic of youth. In this area appears Group The Coven, with distinctly modernist aspirations. Their representatives make up a generation varied, but a common concern for change. They are in their ranks: Percy Gibson, Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, and Renato Federico Morales Agüero Well Rivera. This group Arequipa, sort of "colónidos" (Colónida group of Lima, founded by Abraham Valdelomar in the decade of 10), to which are added the poets featured Alberto Guillen and Alberto Hidalgo latter a vanguard that has not yet received the recognition it deserves, assumes a freer language, away from the prevailing rhetoric and romantic. His affiliation would be closer to some avant-garde notions.
The gathering is organized in the halls, and the talents of the poets of the time are not indexed for arequipeño masterfully, but Valdelomar Abraham, who evokes an evening of 1910 in the article "The throne of the sun. Notes of a journey." The Conde de Lemos highlights in it to Percy Gibson author of the verses of the famous waltz Melgar, who put music Benigno Ballon, who invites Colónida write in the journal.
In this Gibson he published the poem "Democratic Gospel":
For its part, the paradoxes Tower (1926), Cesar Rodriguez Atahualpa, which pays homage to his homeland, as well as his "Song of Arequipa" (1918), set the tone of the regionalist pride to which we have referred at the beginning. This group accounted mamuel happened that Gallego Sanz, brothers Jorge and Xavier Bacacorzo and Guillermo Mercado (1904–1983), the latter poet who started within indigenismo and published, among other books, Golden Soul (1925) A chullo of poems (1928) and Song of Sachaca (1940). The prose had its greatest exponent in the first half of the twentieth century, in the figure of Augusto Morales Aguirre (1888–1957), who left as proof of his masterly novel The People of the sun (the first is around 1924), which managed continental resonance. His works include Dream Flower (1906) and Prayer (1913), poems, and Justice of Huayna Capac (1919), novel.
Scholar and journalist, Aguirre Morales worked in newspapers and Universal Chronicle. Among his contemporaries are Juan Manuel Osorio and Juan Manuel Polar. Later, Arequipa also produce a noted literary critic, internationally recognized, Enrique Cornejo Quea (1936–1996) who applied the concept so sharply of "diversity" in American literary studies. Born in Arequipa in 1931, Oswaldo Reynoso released in 1961, "The innocent stories", and in 1964, the novel "In October there are no miracles, who have had multiple reprints. Owner of a poetic prose breath, then posted The beetle and man "(1970)", In search of Aladdin "(1993) and" The eunuchs immortal "(1995). But undoubtedly the most renowned Arequipa in the field of letters is Mario Vargas Llosa (1936), Nobel Prize for Literature in 2010 and author among other texts of the Hero (1964), The Green House (1966), The War of the End of the World (1981), The Feast of the Goat (2000) and inspired by the life of Flora Tristan, The Paradise on the other corner (2003).
Arequipa maintains an intense literary life, to mention a few names of different generations, quote Jose Ruiz Rosas, poet who, although born in Lima (1928), developed his poetic valuable in the city of Arequipa and currently resides in this, among others, the poems Grocery (1978), Poems (1980), gathered Poetry (1992) in the White City; Oswaldo Chanove (1953), poet, author of The Hero and his relationship with the heroine (1983), Study on the action and passion (1987) y.el Pale Rider (1994), or Carlos Herrera (1961), the original focus narrator who posted black and white (1995) and blind Argonaut Chronicles (2002).
Museums and cultural centers
Cultural events are mainly in the cultural institutes, organizations such as the Alliance Française, the Peruvian Center for German and Peruvian North American Cultural Center organized activities around the arts, music, dance and literature, among others. Meanwhile, the Centro Cultural de la Rosa Chaves National University of San Agustin and the Catholic University of Santa Maria promote cultural activities.
In the 1990s banking institutions showed great interest in promoting and managing cultural activities, private companies, meanwhile, joined this movement by sponsoring various projects.
- Cathedral Museum
- Virtual Hall of Arequipa, located at the "Gateway to the City" are contained several aspects of urban town of the historic center of Arequipa, more precisely the area that has been declared as a World Heritage Site and some nearby; here shows the evolution of the architecture over time arequipeña.
- Regional Museum of the Central Reserve Bank. The center has a numismatic room, where you can see notes and coins that were minted in the Central Reserve Bank of Arequipa in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. The museum also has a gallery comprising 17 eighteenth-century paintings of the Cusco School, and archaeological pieces in metal and ceramics from the Chavin, Chimu, Moche, Viru, Recuay, Nasca and Inca.
- Archaeological Museum José María Morante
- Archaeological Museum of the University of St. Augustine, located in a seventeenth-century mansion, the museum exhibits a varied collection comprising lithic, bone remains of human sacrifices, pottery elementary and pre-Columbian textiles.
- UCSM Archaeological Museum, displays about 1000 objects developed different cultural groups in the region from 12 000 a year. C. until the colony: Nasca, Tiahuanaco, Wari, Churajón, Acari, Aruni and Inca, and colonial and transitional material.
- Andean Sanctuaries Museum of the Catholic University of Santa Maria, was created on 26 March 1997, following the significant archaeological research by Project 'height Sanctuaries Southern Andes ", led by Professors Johan Reinhard and Jose Antonio Chavez. In this museum is the Mummy Juanita who was sacrificed on Mount Ampato, despite being an attractive displays, museum work has been questioned.
- Numismatic Museum
- Museum of Contemporary Art, is devoted to painting and photography from 1900 onwards, houses an interesting collection of twentieth-century art, photography and exhibitions of Miguel Vargas and Carlos Vargas, Cusco photographer Martin Chambi, was mentor of the two brothers, that through his work documenting daily life and customs of the city of Arequipa twentieth-century. Also on display are works by young local artists, paintings of Peruvian artists like Fernando and Carlos Enrique Polanco Szyszlo, Ramiro Llona, José Tola, Gerardo Chavez, Natalia Iguíñiz, Jaime Higa, Light Letts, Carlos Runcie Tanaka, Amelia Weiss, Claudia Cuzzi and Venancio Shinki.
- Museum of Natural History, located in the metropolitan district of Yanahuara, under the administration of the convent of La Recoleta.
- Museo de Santa Catalina
- Graphic Museum Gazette, the house museum located in Bolivar, it shows the evolution of writing from cave paintings to the first printing presses and machinery involved in the production process of official gazette El Peruano. In this museum you can see the resolution of Arequipa passport and Original Declaration in which Arequipa is declared on 4 September 1882 as "Capital of Peru".
- Colonial Art Museum Santa Teresa
- Columbian Museum La Recoleta
- Chiribaya Culture Museum
- The Amazonian Museum, located in the district of Yanahuara exhibiting objects from the activity of the missionaries in the jungle during the XVI, XVII, XVIII.
- Forestry Museum Ecological Police, this museum located in the metropolitan district of Paucarpata has a sample of more than 300 animal species of Peruvian wildlife, especially the one in danger of extinction. Also has 35 live animals.
Since late viceroyalty there are important academic composers like Mariano Melgar (who was best known in his role as poet), Pedro Jiménez Tirado April and Florentino Diaz is apparently coming to Arequipa one of the cities in the country with more of the best composers and musical training.
In the Republican era include Manuel Aguirre who assimilated the teachings of Chopin and Schuman to give them some melanconlia and simplicity to his music. Similarly, Luis Duncker Lavalle-a master pianist who can speak both academic folk-music as Octavio Polar, Manuel Aguirre, David H. Molina, who spread his orchestral works with the Association of Arequipa and Aurelio Diaz Espinoza who was author of the Hymn of Arequipa. Also, with a more modernist highlights Carlos Sanchez Malaga. Later in the twentieth century include Roberto Ramirez-Ortiz Zevallos, Roberto Carpio Valdez, Juan Francisco Ballon Ballon, Armando Sanchez-Málaga and Benigno Ballón Farfán González, author of numerous yaravíes, sailors and popular waltz Melgar.
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Historic centre of Arequipa
- Arequipa Region
- Rodriguez Ballon International Airport
- Metropolitan areas of Peru
- Goyeneche Palace
- Tourism in Peru
- "Población oficial 2012" (pdf) (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Chanfreau, p. 40
- Mincetur. "Export Investment Guide", p. 17
- Linares Málaga, p. 115.
- (Ponce 1960, p. 53)
- (Neira 1990, p. 438)
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Compendium of rules of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 80.
- UNESCO (30 November 2000). "Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa". Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- Oficina Técnica del Centro Histórico y Zona Monumental de Arequipa (MPA – OTCHA) (2002). Compendio Normativo Final del Centro Histórico de Arequipa (1). p. 2.
- (Garayar 2004, p. 51)
- (Palma 1893, p. 29)
- Toponymy "Arequipa"
- History and legend, Mariano Melgar
- Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. La Galatea, The song of Calliope, Madrid (1585), the reference to Martinez de Ribera, in 66 and 67 octaves.
- (Neira 1990, p. 226)
- (Neira 1990, p. 227)
- (Neira 1990, p. 228)
- Decree assuming command of the Republic General Felipe Santiago Salaverry, February 25, 1835 .
- (Galdós Rodríguez 1997, p. 246)
- (Neira 1990, p. 354)
- (Neira 1990, p. 356)
- (Galdós Rodríguez 1997, p. 245)
- Adela Pardo Gamez de Belaunde (20 February 2002). Arequipa: su pasado, presente y futuro (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 September 2009.
- (Cotler 2009, p. 97)
- (Cotler 2009, p. 93)
- (Ponce 1960, p. 51)
- (Bethell 1991, p. 402)
- (Love 1995, p. 6)
- (Bethell 1991, p. 401)
- (Guillemette 2010, p. 5)
- Linda Arequipa (2007). "History of Arequipa". Retrieved 5 February 2010.
- (Bethell 1991, p. 403)
- (Guillemette 2010, p. 3)
- Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa. Reglamento Interno del Concejo de la Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa (in Spanish). Información General de la Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Observatorio de la Gobernabilidad (ed.). "Detalles del Proceso Electoral – Elecciones Municipales de 1993". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Observatorio de la Gobernabilidad (ed.). "Detalles del Proceso Electoral – Elecciones Municipales de 1995". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Observatorio de la Gobernabilidad (ed.). "Detalles del Proceso Electoral – Elecciones Municipales de 1998". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Observatorio de la Gobernabilidad (ed.). "Detalles del Proceso Electoral – Elecciones Municipales de 2002". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Observatorio de la Gobernabilidad (ed.). "Detalles del Proceso Electoral – Elecciones Municipales de 2006". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Observatorio de la Gobernabilidad (ed.). "Detalles del Proceso Electoral – Elecciones Municipales de 2010". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- (Coaguila Valdivia 2010, p. 4)
- Rommel Arce, Mario. "La tradición jurídica de Arequipa". Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Regulation Regulatory Constitutional Court, p. 2.
- RENIEC (ed.). "Distritos de Arequipa". Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- (García de los Reyes Arquitectos y Asociados 2012b)
- (García de los Reyes Arquitectos y Asociados 2012a, p. 36)
- América Economía (2012). "Las mejores ciudades para hacer negocios". América Economía (Especiales). Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- (Galdós Rodríguez 1997, p. 13)
- (Galdós Rodríguez 1997, p. 14)
- (Galdós Rodríguez 1997, p. 15)
- (Garayar 2004, p. 50)
- (Arellano 1988, p. 257)
- (Neira 1990, p. 244)
- (Cornejo Bouroncle 1952, p. 16)
- (Neira 1990, p. 246)
- (Neira 1990, p. 247)
- (Neira 1990, p. 248)
- (Neira 1990, p. 256)
- (Neira 1990, p. 278)
- Gadea Aburto, Saúl (23 August 2006). "¿Por qué el Perú es independiente?". In Arequipa al día. Arequipa al día (in Spanish). Universidad Católica de Santa María. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
- History of Peru. Lexus Publishers 2000. ISBN 9972-625-35-4
- (Garayar 2004, p. 54)
- (Cáceres-Péfaur 2006, p. 127)
- (Cáceres-Péfaur 2006, p. 128)
- (Garayar 2004, p. 56)
- (de la Riva Agüero 1858)
- (Pardo y Aliaga 2007, p. 34)
- (Monguió 1968)
- (Garayar 2004, p. 57)
- (Neira 1990, p. 532)
- (Mc Evoy 1997, p. 222)
- (Bulnes 1996, p. 285)
- GARAYAR, Carlos (2003). "Atlas del Perú – Arequipa". Lima: PEISA. 992-40-315-7.
- (Cotler 2009, p. 20)
- (Cotler 2009, p. 27)
- (Cotler 2009, p. 28)
- The highest magnitude earthquakes since 1900.
- Tavera, Hernando (2011). "Cuantificación del Tamaño del Terremoto de Arequipa del 23 June 2001" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- Bustamante y Rivero, José Luis (1947). Contur.
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 17)
- Regional Government of Arequipa. "Analysis of the state and of the determinants of health", p. 19.
- Climate Patterns
- National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", p. 21.
- National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", pp. 21–22.
- "World Weather Information Service – Arequipa". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved August 21, 2013.
- (Cotler 2009, p. 94)
- Córdova y Ventura, Travada (S. XVIII). "1". Op. p. 90.
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 83)
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 226)
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 15.
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 231)
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 232)
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 12.
- (Contreras 2004, p. 278)
- (Dirección de Estadística 1878, p. 426)
- (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica 1944, p. 60)
- "El crecimiento de las ciudades". Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (Migraciones Internas en el Perú). Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- (Neira 1990, p. 224)
- (Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa 2002, p. 10)
- (Dávalos y Lissón 1863, p. 320)
- Mario Rommel Arce. "Los Barrios: Su historía, costumbre y tradiciones". Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 14.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 24.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 6.
- (Cotler 2009, p. 96)
- Centrum. Cerro Verde Financial Reports, p. 4.
- América Economía (2009). "Ser verde en 2009 es como estar online en 1999". América Economía (in Spanish) (7728). p. 22 – p. 25.
- "Eguren, Arequipa se consolida como plaza para convenciones y eventos". Radio Programas del Perú. 21 November 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Convención minera 2011 confirma a la ciudad como plaza principal de realización de eventos". Travel Update. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "¿CÓMO SE GESTÓ EL PREMIO INTERNACIONAL DE NOVELA CORTA MARIO VARGAS LLOSA? – Premio Internacional de Novela Corta Mario Vargas Llosa". Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "requipa: 50 mil personas visitan al momento Convención Minera". Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Metropolitan Strategic Plan of Arequipa, Arequipa Economics
- "Ciudades:Promedio y mediana del ingreso laboral mensual de la PEA ocupada". Ministerio del Trabajo (Programa de Estadísticas y Estudios Laborales). 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "PEA Ocupada según diversas variables: estructura de mercado, grupo ocupacional y rama de actividad". Ministerio del Trabajo (Programa de Estadísticas y Estudios Laborales). 2000. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Arequipa:principales indicadores del sector turismo 2001–2010". Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (Banco de publicaciones estadísticas). 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- 3. "Arequipa, perfil Económico". Banco Central de Reserva del Perú (ilustrada ed.). 2006. p. 292.
- Centty Villafuerte, Eymor B. (2002). "Informe Pymes de Arequipa 2002". Banco Central de Reserva del Perú. p. 124.
- Zonificación Industrial. "Aspecto Normativos del Plan Director". Oficina de Planificación y Gestión Urbano Ambiental – Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa. 2002. p. 29. p. 11.
- National Environmental Council. "To clear the air", p. 26.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 39.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 40.
- (San Cristobal Sebastian 2009, p. 16)
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 18.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 65.
- UNESCO. History of Humanity, p. 221.
- (Fergusson, p. 432)
- Arellano, p. 256.
- José Luis Bustamante y Rivero Una visión del Perú. Elogio de Arequipa. Ediciones P.L.V. Lima, 1972.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 66.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa. "Diagnosis of the historic center of Arequipa", p. 51.
- "Parque Natural de Selva Alegre". Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "Los gigantes de piedra en el Parque Ecológico de Alto Selva Alegre". Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "Arequipa, Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad". Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "Nuevo Bosque en Arequipa". Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Provincial Municipality of Arequipa (Tourism)
- Yanahuara Villa Hermosa (Mayor's Message)
- Founder's Mansion
- Mario Rommel Arce. "50 años de la televisión en Arequipa". Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- Universidad de "San Martín de Porres." Escuela Profesional de Turismo y Hotelería. Instituto de Investigacíon (2005). El impacto económico de la cultura en Perú. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- (Garayar 2004, p. 60)
- "Sistema Integrado de Transportes". Arequipa Bus. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Rutas de l Sistema Integrado de Transportes". Arequipa Bus. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Obras del SIT inician en noviembre próximo". La República. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Mincetur. "Export Investment Guide", p. 26.
- Airport Concession South Andean
- "Movimiento Nacional de Pasajeros 2011". Corpac. 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Movimiento Internacional de Pasajeros 2011". Corpac. 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Stat of the Superintendency of Public Registries
- new cars sold in 2011 (Automobile Association of Peru)
- National Institute of Statistics and Information, Health Facilities
- EsSalud (2004). "Centros Asistenciales de Arequipa". Centros Asistenciales del Perú.
- Cuerpo Médico HNCASE (2009). "CMHNCASE".
- Ministry of Health, accessed 29 June 2008
- "Historia del Colegio San Jerónimo". Colegio San Jerónimo. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- National Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 10.
- (Robles 2006, p. 45)
- Universidad Nacional de San Agustín (2012). "Reseña Histórica". La Universidad. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 216)
- (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 217)
- Citado en (Gutiérrez 1994, p. 217)
- University of San Francisco. Creating the Autonomous University of San Francisco
- National Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 19.
- National Assembly of Rectors. "University Statistical Data", p. 20.
- "Reporte Universitario REDATAM". Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "El "boom" de las universidades particulares". Semanario Vista Libre (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Página Institucional de la Universidad Alas Peruanas". Dónde estamos. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Página Institucional de la Universidad José Carlos Mariategui". La Universidad (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Memoria Institucional 2011.
- "Página Institucional de la Universidad Tecnológica del Perú Arequipa". UTP Arequipa (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Carrera en Prevención de Riesgo de la Universidad del Mar". Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- INEI (ed.). Almanaque de Arequipa 2002. p. 169.
- (Love 1995, p. 4)
- (Love 1995, p. 1)
- (Guajardo Castro 2009, p. 15)
- (Carricaburo 1997, p. 36)
- Real Academia Española de la Lengua (October). "Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas". Retrieved 2 February 2009.
- (Carricaburo 1997, p. 37)
- (Cornejo Velásquez 2010, p. 44)
- Various authors (2011). El egasín, revista interna de Egasa (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- (Cornejo Velásquez 2010, p. 54)
- (Cornejo Velásquez 2010, p. 47)
- (Cornejo Velásquez 2010, p. 48)
- (Cornejo Velásquez 2010, p. 58)
- (López de Romaña 2006, p. 53)
- (López de Romaña 2006, p. 54)
- Andina: New Museum of Arequipa Cathedral opens its doors
- Provincial Municipality Virtual Room Arequipa
- Andean BCR Museum.
- UNSA Museum
- Guide Museums: Archaeological UCSM
- Universidad Católica de Santa María. "Museo Santuarios Andinos". Retrieved 22 September 2012.
- (López de Romaña 2006, p. 55)
- Natural History Museum
- Museum of Santa Catalina
- Patronato Popular y Porvenir Pro Música Clásica (1985). "La Música en el Perú". Lima, Perú: Patronato Popular y Pro Música Clásica. p. 121.
- (Garayar 2004, p. 65)
- "Arequipa busca estrechar lazos comerciales con ciudades hermanas". 10 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- *"Charlotte – Arequipa". Charlotte, United States. 2004. Retrieved 9 April 2008.
- "Ciudades hermanadas". Hawaii Government. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- "Estudiantes de Universidad de San Agustín de Arequipa saludaron a alcaldesa". Municipio de Iquique. Archived from the original on 8 May 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- Patto di amicizia against the Arequipa and the Città di Città di Firenze [Florence – Arequipa]
- Avventure nel Mondo – Centro di Documentazione
- Sister cities, Vancouver
- "Ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Guanajuato (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- «El departamento de Arequipa está ubicado en la zona sur occidental del Perú. Tiene una población de 1 140 810 habitantes, distribuida en 8 provincias y 109 distritos ubicados en una superficie de 63 345.39 km2. El 82 % de la población vive en poblados de más de 2000 habitantes, considerados como población urbana y el 84 % vive en la sierra. La provincia de Arequipa concentra el 75,5 % de la población total de la región y la ciudad de Arequipa, capital del departamento, concentra el 70 % de la población total, y el 90 % de la población urbana.»
- «Se ha considerado a la población del partido del "Cercado", que puede ser más amplia que la de la ciudad propiamente dicha, pero puede servirnos de referencia.»
- «La ciudad de Arequipa está compuesta por los distritos de Arequipa, Miraflores y Palomar.»
- «Se dispusieron las calles a cordel perpendicularmente, formando islas o manzanas en número de 56, es decir, un auténtico damero, que se conserva hasta nuestros días con muy pocas variantes.»
- «La anchura de las calles fue de treinta pies y el largo de cada cuadra de 250 pies. La Planta primitiva fue luego alterada al fundarse los conventos y monasterios que requirieron dos manzanas algunos de ellos: Es entonces cuando recién aparecen las pequeñas plazas. Efectuada la distribución de solares por vecinos, estos no edificaron de inmediato, los Bandos del Cabildo son reiterativos para que edificaran sus viviendas.»
- «Buen ejemplo del neoarequipeño es el edificio del Diario de la Nación de Buenos Aires en la calle Florida, obra del Arq. Pirovano.»
- Arellano, Fernando (1988). Universidad Católica Andrés, ed. El Arte Hispanoamericano (in Spanish). ISBN 9789802440177. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Barriga, Víctor M. (1940). editor La Colmena, S.A., ed. Arequipa y sus blasones (in Spanish).
- Benavides Rodríguez, Alfredo (1990). Andrés Bello, ed. La arquitectura en el virreinato del Perú y en la capitanía general de Chile (in Spanish) (ilustrada ed.). p. 282.
- Bethell, Leslie (1991). Cambridge University Press, ed. The Cambridge History of Latin America: Latin America since 1930 (ilustrada ed.). p. 919. ISBN 9780521266529.
- Carricaburo, Norma (1997). Arcos Libros S.L., ed. Las fórmulas de tratamiento en el spanish actual (in Spanish). ISBN 847635278-6.
- Chanfreau, Marie-Françoise (1995). M. IFEA: Instituto fránces de estudios andinos, ed. La vivienda en los pueblos jóvenes de Arequipa y Trujillo: creación de una nueva tipologçia regional (in Spanish).
- Contreras, Carlos (2004). Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, ed. El aprendizaje del capitalismo:Estudios de historia económica y social del Perú republicano. p. 332. ISBN 9789972510977. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Congreso de irrigación y colonización del norte (1929). Imprenta Torres Aguirre, ed. Anales del primer Congreso de irrigación y colonización del norte: 19–24 February 1929, Lambayeque, República del Perú. p. 270. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Cornejo Bouroncle, Jorge (1952). H.G. Rozas, ed. Arequipa: homenaje y recuerdo. p. 35. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Cuneo Vidal, Rómulo (1931). Sociedad Geográfica de Lima, ed. Boletín de la Sociedad Geográfica de Lima (in Spanish).
- Dávalos y Lissón, Pedro (1863). Librería e Imprenta Gil, ed. La primera centuria : causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente. Tomo II (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional del Perú. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- de la Riva Agüero, José (1858). Librería de Garnier Hermanos, ed. Memorias y documentos para la historia de la independencia del Perú. Librería de la Universidad de Míchigan. p. 304. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Dirección de Estadística (1878). Ministerio de Gobierno, Imprenta del Estado, ed. Resumen General de Censo General de habitantes del Perú de 1876 (in Spanish).
- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, ed. (1944). Relación de los censos parciales levantados en el Perú después del censo general de 1876. "Censo de población y ocupación de 1940". Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
- Galdós Rodríguez, Guillermo (1997). Universidad Nacional de San Agustín, ed. Una ciudad para la historia, una historia para la ciudad: Arequipa en el siglo XX (in Spanish). p. 391.
- Garayar, Carlos (2004). Ediciones Peisa, ed. Atlas Regional: Arequipa (in Spanish). ISBN 9972-40-315-7.
- Gutiérrez, Ramón (1994). Evolución histórica urbana de Arequipa Metropolitana 1540–1990 (ilustrada ed.). p. 249. ISBN 9788489034013.
- Linares Málaga, Eloy (1990). Pre historia de Arequipa (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Love, Thomas (1995). Departament of Sociology/Anthropology of Linfield College – McMinnville, Oregon, ed. Cash Cows and Fighting Bulls:Redefining Identity, Maintaining Control in Southwestern Perú.
- Mc Evoy, Carmen (1997). Fondo editor PUCP, ed. La utopía republicana: ideales y realidad en la formación de la Cultura Política Peruana, 1871–1919 (in Spanish). p. 467. ISBN 9972420620. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Miró Quesada, Aurelio (1998). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, ed. Historia y leyenda de Mariano Melgar (1790–1815) (in Spanish). p. 218. ISBN 9789972460616. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Monguió, Luis (1967). "Don José Joaquín de la Mora y el Perú de mil ochocientos". In University of California Press. Don José Joaquín de Mora: apuntes biográficos (in Spanish). p. 268. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Neira, Máximo (1990). Fundación M.J. Bustamante de la Fuente (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Nuñez Pacheco, Rosa; Torres Santillana, Gregorio (1991). "Polifonía del silencio, la literatura arequipeña en los últimos diez years". In Promolibro. El author de creación literaria de la Macroregión Sur (in Spanish).
- Palma, Ricardo (1893). Barcelona, Montaner y Simón, ed. Tradiciones peruanas (in Spanish) III. pp. 1–252. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Ponce, Fernando (1960). Retablo de papel, ed. La ciudad en el Perú. Arequipa. p. 53.
- Pardo y Aliaga, Felipe (2007). Fondo editor PUCP, ed. Teatro completo: Crítica teatral; el Espejo de mi tierra (in Spanish). p. 34.
- Zátonyi, Marta (2006). Ediciones Infinito, ed. Gozar el arte, gozar la arquitectura (in Spanish) (ilustrada ed.). p. 292. ISBN 9789879393406.
- Asamblea Nacional de Rectores (2012). ANR, ed. Datos Estadísticos Universitarios (in Spanish). II Censo Nacional Universitario. p. 21. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cáceres-Péfaur, Beatriz (2006). La visita de Simón Bolívar a la ciudad de Arequipa (Perú). Visión de la historiografía local contemporánea. (in Spanish) (11). Presente y Pasado, Revista de Historia. pp. 124–140. ISSN 1316-1369. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Coaguila Valdivia, Jaime Francisco (2010). Recetario para una construcción relacional de la identidad arequipeña (in Spanish). Jueces, abogados y "escribanos". Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Consejo Nacional de Ambiente. Consejo Nacional del Ambiente, ed. Gesta Zonal de Aire, Arequipa (in Spanish). Plan a limpiar el aire. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cornejo Velásquez, Hernán (2006). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, ed. El simbolismo de la comida arequipeña (in Spanish) 17. Lima: Investigaciones Sociales. pp. 41–65. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Cotler, Julio (2009). Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el desarrollo, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, ed. Poder y cambio en las regiones (in Spanish) (15). Serie Desarrollo Humano. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Empresa de Generación del Energía Eléctrica S.A (EGASA) (2003). "En agosto Arequipa está de fiesta". Egasin Nº2 (16).
- García de los Reyes Arquitectos y Asociados (2012a). Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa, ed. Diagnóstico propositivo para el Plan de Desarrollo Metropolitano de Arequipa. Memoria Síntesis. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- García de los Reyes Arquitectos y Asociados (2012b). Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa, ed. Plan de Desarrollo Metropolitano de Arequipa. Memoria Síntesis. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Guajardo Castro, Alejandro (2009). "Aspectos morfosintácticos del habla loncca en la campiña arequipeña". Maestría de Lingüística de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (in Spanish).
- Guillemette, Martín (2010). Institut des Hautes Etudes de l'Amérique Latine, ed. La revolución mexicana y sus impactos en América Latina: una propuesta de análisis a nivel local. El caso de Arequipa, Perú (in Spanish). México y sus revoluciones (XIII Reunión de historiadores de México, Estados Unidos y Canadá).
- Grup, Franz (2010). Instituto Nacional de Cultura, ed. Gaceta Cultural del Perú (in Spanish).
- López de Romaña, Flavia (2006). Instituto Nacional de Cultura, ed. Casos de Gestión Cultural en el Perú (in Spanish).
- Mincetur (Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism). Proexpansión, ed. Arequipa, Export Investment Guide. p. 98. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa; Superintendencia del Centro Histórico y Zona Monumental (30 November 2000). Historical Center of the City of Arequipa, Compendio Normativo (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 August 2009.
- Municipalidad Provincial de Arequipa (2002). "Diagnostico del Centro Histórico de Arequipa". Plan Maestro del Centro Histórico de Arequipa (in Spanish). p. 73.
- Robles, Elmer (2006). Origen de las universidades más antiguas de Perú (in Spanish) 8 (1). Revista Historia de la Educación Latinoamericana. pp. 35–48. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Arequipa.|
- Arequipa travel guide from Wikivoyage
- General facts and travel information about Arequipa
- Travel Information about Arequipa
- Local government of Arequipa
- Peru Cultural Society – Arequipa