|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2013)|
Malolos City Hall
|Nickname(s): Cradle of the Philippine Republic|
|Motto: The Renaissance City of Malolos|
Map of Bulacan showing the location of Malolos City
|Region||Central Luzon (Region III)|
|Congressional District||1st District of Bulacan|
|Founded||June 11, 1580|
|Cityhood||October 8, 2002|
|• Representative, 1st Congressional District||Victoria R. Sy-Alvarado (National Unity)|
|• Governor||Wilhelmino M. Sy-Alvarado (National Unity)|
|• Mayor||Christian D. Natividad (Partido Del Pilar)|
|• Vice Mayor||Gilbert T. Gatchalian (Partido Del Pilar)|
|• Total||77.25 km2 (29.83 sq mi)|
|• Land||67.25 km2 (25.97 sq mi)|
|Elevation||19.4 m (63.6 ft)|
|• Density||3,493.6/km2 (9,048/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+8)|
|Annual Income||P593,842,776.38 as of 2011|
|Income class||1st Class; Urban|
Malolos, officially the City of Malolos (Filipino: Lungsod ng Malolos), is a first class urban component city in the Republic of the Philippines. Malolos is considered as the 115th city in the country. It is the capital city of the province of Bulacan as the seat of the provincial government.
The city is 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. It is one of the major suburbs conurbated to Metro Manila, situated in the southwestern part of Bulacan, in the Central Luzon Region (Region 3) in the island of Luzon and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bordering Malolos are the municipalities of Bulakan (the former capital of the province) to the southeast, Guiguinto to the east, Plaridel to the north, Calumpit to the northwest, and Paombong to the west. Malolos also lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay.
Malolos was the site of the constitutional convention of 1898, known as the Malolos Convention, that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, at the sanctuary of the Barasoain Church. The convent of the Malolos Cathedral served as the presidential palace at that time. Malolos gave birth to the first constitutional republic in Asia.
It is also one of the centers of education in Central Luzon region. It has several universities like the government-funded Bulacan State University, and privately owned Centro Escolar University at Malolos and the only Catholic University in Bulacan, University of Regina Carmeli, now known as "La Consolacion University-Philippines". Malolos also houses the most populous high school in Central Luzon, Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School, founded in 1905.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Pre-Spanish Conquest
- 1.2 Early Spanish Period
- 1.3 Theories concerning the name
- 1.4 Gradual progress as a Spanish ruled town
- 1.5 Revolt of Pedro Ladia 1643
- 1.6 Simmering insurrections
- 1.7 Women of Malolos
- 1.8 Balangay Apuy of the Katipunan
- 1.9 Philippine Republic
- 1.10 The Rise of Malolos as the Capital of the Province
- 1.11 Governments of Malolos after the Philippine–American War
- 1.12 Encomienderos, Gobernadocillos and Mayors
- 2 Cityhood
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Declared as Historic Malolos Town Proper
- 7 Education
- 8 Social services
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Malolos, once the capital of the short-lived First Philippine Republic, is linked to many patriots and heroes in the country's history. Names such as General Emilio Aguinaldo, Pedro A. Paterno, Dr. José P. Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Pío del Pilar, Gregorio del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini, Antonio Luna, Felipe Calderón, General Isidro D. Torres and many others are forever engraved and enshrined in the annals of Philippine history, all of whom share one commonality.
According to Blair and Robertson, the name "Li-han" or "Li Han" was the ancient Chinese name for Malolos, whose leaders bore the title of "Gat-Salihan" or "Gatchalian" (derived from "Gat sa Li-Han"). It was in 1225 that a "Li Han in the country of Mai" was mentioned in the account of Chao Ju Kua titled Chu-Fan-Chi. The Sinified state of Mai is one among many Prehispanic Philippine States such as the Rajahnate of Butuan, the Kingdom of Tondo and the Sultanate of Maguindanao. In Mai, the richness of the soil and the convenience of its location made Malolos an important trading post for the native inhabitants and the traders from Cathay. Ferdinand Blumentritt, a Czech Filipinologist and José Rizal's friend, and Wang Teh-Ming, a Chinese scholar, supported this historic development of commercial activities which continued undisturbed until the advent of the Spanish era in 1572. This centuries-long trade relations must have resulted in many generations of Sino-Tagalogs, whose descendants are still omnipresent in Malolos. The innumerable Malolos families who bear Chinese-sounding surnames attest to these inter-marriages.
Early Spanish Period
Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi conceded Malolos in November 14, 1571, and constituted it as an Encomienda (Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, volume 34, page 304-310, paragraph 3) and on August 15, 1578, as the newly created Provincia de Bulacan was organized, Malolos was included in the new province later. The settlement was named as "Malolos" Legazpi entrusted the conquered settlement to the encomendero named Don Marcos de Herrera, with 8 Villages along Malolos Creek, and 6 Villages in Altag Creek, was entrusted to Don Jeronimo Tirado. Augustinian friars arrived in Malolos in December 8,1572 and the christianization and evangelization was in charge under the direction of Fray Diego Ordoñez de Vivar and Companions (Angels in Stone,Pedro Galende 1997) from nearby Calumpit and it was annexed as one of the visitas of Tondo,together with Calumpit.After clearing forests and virgin lands, the settlement grew, and the population increased,after Nine years the settlement was made into a Pueblo or Town in 1580 with an Augustinian Minister named Fray Mateo Mendoza OSA and a Gobernadorcillo which reside in the Casa Tribunal (now Casa Real de Malolos) near Malolos River. From the very beginning, Tagalog made up the majority of the Malolos populace. They were led by prominent ancient families, among them are Gatbontons,Lakandulas,Lacancales,Gatmaitans,Gatsalians (Gatchalian), and the Manahans. (Galende,1996)
Theories concerning the name
The First theory is that,the name of Malolos was presumably derived from the Tagalog word "Paluslos", meaning "downwards" meaning many rivers toward the bay (which is the Manila Bay). Second theory, Malolos was resulted from a misunderstanding among the first Spanish missionaries who reached the city. Searching for inhabited places along the Calumpit river, these priests came upon some natives of a riverside barrio (now Kanalate or Canalate). They asked for the name of the place. The natives, not knowing the Spanish tongue, answered paluslos", which the Spaniards pronounced "Malolos" or "Malulos". Corruption of the word through the years led to present "Malolos". Third Theory, was according to a book written by Dr.Nicanor Tiongson entitled "The Women of Malolos" the town's name was originally written as Malulos from the word Lulos means reed or tambo,a variety of grass abundantly grows near rivers and creek all over the town,hence the place was abundant with Lulos reed or "Malulos" The last theory was according to the research of Dr.Jaime Veneracion in 1998, that according to linguistic Otto Dempwolf, in his book Comparative Phonology of Austronesian Wordlist, "Malolos" was derived from an old word that means "forgotten" (nalimutan) "fainted" (nawalan ng malay) and (malilimutin) that even today, in related to Austronesian, the Toba-Batak of Palawan and those of Borneo, ‘lolos’ o ‘leles’ means (nakalimutan) and (nawalan ng ulirat). In this theory,Malolos was presumably a very,very ancient community with most residents are old aged (lolos) therefore the town named as Ma-lolos.
Gradual progress as a Spanish ruled town
In the eighteenth Century, Malolos became the center of Trade and Commerce in Central Luzon. Many Chinese merchants went to Malolos by using sea travel via Manila Bay to Malolos River. Due to the rapid increase of population and wealth, it became the Richest Town in the Province.
On August 31, 1859, the town of Malolos was divided into three independent towns; "Malolos", "Barasoain, and "Santa Isabel". These new towns are former districts of Malolos, with respective capitanes municipales and parish priests. With the beginning of American rule in 1903, these towns were again reunited into a single municipality. The two other districts became barangays under the political jurisdiction of Malolos.
To cite all the historical events that transpired in Malolos, one could fill a good-sized book. The major events especially those that revolved around the first Republic, cannot be left unmentioned. Some of these are the petition of the women of Malolos, the establishment of the Constitutional Convention, drafting and ratification of the Malolos Constitution, and the inauguration of the first Philippine Republic.
The wealth of Malolos lies not only in its more than four thousand hectares of fertile rice lands and more than two thousand hectares of fishponds, but in the character of its people as well. Its people have long been known for their diligence and ingenuity. In early days, farming and fishing were the town's main sources of livelihood. Later, they went into poultry and pigeon raising, carpentry and woodwork, and other profitable cottage industries and handicrafts. A major factor in Malolos' growth and development was the opening of the Manila–Dagupan railways or Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan (Spanish) in April 1892. With the advent of the railroad came new ideas from Manila and other places. Another factor is Malolos proximity to industrial and business centers. Only 42 kilometres (26 mi) from Manila, the town and its people are inevitably subjected to an influx of metropolitan thoughts and commerce.
In work methods and tools, it is not rare to find Malolos folk using a combination of the old and the new. Ramshackle shops shake to the whirl of modern electric-powered machines. Fishermen go out to sea in the same kind of dugouts or bancas their ancestors used. Many of these wooden bancas are now equipped with outboard motors. Handicraftsmen, woodworkers and weavers still follow the ageless artistic techniques of their forefathers.
Malolos was the site of the inauguration of Joseph Estrada on June 30, 1998, in Barasoain Church as the President of the Republic of the Philippines. Estrada, whose real surname is Ejercito, traced his ancestry to the Ejercitos who were prominent in the history of Malolos
It was in summer of 2004, the construction of the Malolos flyover marks a new milestone in their flourishing history being the first in the city. The structure, part of the former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's Bridge Program, the construction was undertaken in a record-breaking 60 days only according to the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structure was built to solve the daily traffic jam at the place, which have become a bane to motorist and also to employees in both private and government offices in this city. This remarkable feat hastened not only the city's development in commerce and trade but its neighboring municipalities as well.
During July 28–30, 2008, the city was chosen to host the first National Conference for Philippine-Spanish Relations. The conference's theme was "Philippine-Spanish Relations: Sharing Common History and Culture." This is a project both of the Province of Bulacan's research arm, Center for Bulacan Studies of Bulacan State University and by the Samahang Pangkasaysayan ng Bulacan, Incorporated.
Revolt of Pedro Ladia 1643
The inhabitants initially submitted docilely to the process of Hispanization and Spanish civil authority was soon in place. The Roman Catholic religion took root and spread rapidly and became part of the native culture. However, the innate desire for an unshackled existence and the desire for freedom continued to burn in the people. In 1643, barely sixty years after the civil nucleus of the Spanish local government was set up, Malolos townspeople revolted. The revolt was led by Pedro Ladia, a native of Borneo, who claimed to be a descendant of Rajah Matanda and who later proclaimed himself as "Rajah ng mga Tagalog" (Rajah of the Tagalogs). He instigated the people of Malolos to rise in arms against Spanish rule and was able to raise a substantial following. Even before Ladia could gather the support needed to fully carry out his plan, the friar curate of Malolos, Fr. Cristobal Enriquez, preempted the uprising by convincing most of the people to remain loyal to the Fatherland, Spain. The revolt died out for lack of enough popular support. Later, Pedro Ladia was arrested and sent to Manila to be tried and then executed.
Malolos was first organized into a formal municipal unit in 1822 when the first "alcalde constitucional" or municipal head was appointed. He was Jorge de Victoria, a Filipino, who like all succeeding "alcaldes", served for one year. He was followed by thirty-one other "alcaldes", with Juan Dimagiba as the thirty-first. In 1859, Malolos was subdivided into three administrative districts; Malolos, Barasoain and Santa Isabel. Juan Dimagiba became the first "alcalde" of the down-scaled Malolos. There were 12 others who served as "alcaldes" from 1859 to 1879, the first one being Mariano C. Cristobal and the 12th Capitan Tomas Tanchanco, whose term marked the start of civil turmoil in the town.
The next 240 years following the Ladia Revolt passed without any sign of serious discontent against Spanish rule. Although armed uprisings and resistance occurred in other provinces, notably in the Ilocos and in Jolo, Malolos was largely unaffected. Economic development that took precedence in the low-lying areas around Malolos, were steadily converted into productive ricefields and fishponds. This must have entailed a great deal of capital, both financial and labor, and both were apparently available in Malolos. The mestizo descendants of the pre-Hispanic Chinese traders, who became the landlords, must have been the major source of the finances. The ordinary townfolk furnished the labor and became the tenants. This landlord-tenant relationship lasted until the middle of the 20th century.
However, the continuing high-handedness of the civil government bureaucrats compounded by the abuses of the church friars became the sources of widespread unrest, which eventually reached Malolos in 1880. The enlightened and educated young ilustrados of Manila, having been exposed to European education, thoughts and political views, began to question the Philippines situation. These reformists, José Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena among them, began to expose the weaknesses of the status and to give voice to the need for reform. In Malolos, Marcelo H. del Plar, whose wife Marciana was from Malolos, made the town a principal reformist and propaganda target. Due mainly to his efforts, Malolos by 1882 became known as a center of anti-Spanish propaganda. Things came to a head in 1884, when a liberal, Don Manuel Crisostomo, was elected a gobernadorcillo. Led by him, a group of town leaders, including past, present a future town alcaldes, collided head-on with Fray Felipe Garciaf,town's curate on the list of taxpayers. The curate wanted to bloat the list, a move meant for the parish's financial gain. In 1888, during a deadly cholera epidemic, the group again clashed with the friars. To limit the spread of the epidemic, the civil government had issued a ban against church wakes for cholera victims. The church defied the ban, purportedly because of the fees which the church earned from these wakes. The town leaders took the side of the civil authorities. The situation was further inflamed with the visit of José Rizal in 1888 to the house of Don Tomas Tanchangco in Barrio San Vicente, a former alcalde and member of the reformist group. Among the alcaldes in the group were Jose A. Bautista, Jose and Antonio Tiongson, Mateo Buizon, Anastacio de Leon, Vicente Gatmaitan, Francisco Bernardo, Antonio Chiong and Jose R. Tiongson.
The town had become such a hotbed that Marcelo H. del Pilar was compelled to leave for Spain, leaving the campaign in the hands of the local leaders. The authorities soon cracked down on these Malolos mestizos and exiled many of them to Jolo, Palawan, Davao and other distant places.
Women of Malolos
A natural offshoot of the ferment gripping Malolos was the cry for the implementation in the town of a long-standing royal order for the teaching of the Spanish language to the "Indios" of the Philippines. This royal edict had not been obeyed, probably because the local friars and civil government believed that this would be against their interests. Knowledge of Spanish would give the natives and mestizos access to radical ideas of economic liberalism and political democracy already sweeping across Europe. Despite this opposition, Teodoro Sandico, a progressive teacher from Pandacan in Manila, succeeded in opening an Escuela de Latinidad for boys in Malolos.
It was at this point that the letter of the twenty-one Women of Malolos was written. On December 12, 1888, the 21 young women from the Chinese-mestizo families of Malolos, Bulacan – the Reyeses, Tantocos, Tanchangcos, Tiongsons and Uitangcoys: petitioned the newly arrived Gov. Gen. Valeriano Weyler, then paying a visit to Malolos, to allow the opening of a night school, at their own expense, where they could learn to read and write Spanish, the language which would eradicate friar domination and put them in touch with liberal ideas current in Europe. With Weyler's blessing and over the objections of the friar curate, the school opened in early 1889. The school lasted for only a few months what with the steady and strong opposition and persecution of the friars and militarists. Teodoro Sandico, who wrote the letter for the women and presumably became the school's first teacher, was accused of subversion and, like Marcelo H. del Pilar, had to flee from the country.
The audacity and the success of these women did not go unnoticed but the women's greatest adulation came from José Rizal in his letter of February 22, 1889, "Sa Mga Kababayang Dalaga Sa Malolos." The Women of Malolos were of the breed who looked at far horizons and thought of country above self, who stood up for what is right and not for what is merely convenient, who planned and acted not only for the future and the next generation, who decisively acted on their mouthed good intentions.
Balangay Apuy of the Katipunan
In the eve of July 7, 1892, the Katipunan was founded by Andrés Bonifacio together with Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano, Teodora Plata and Valentín Díaz in the house of Arellano on Azcarraga St. in Manila. The Katipunan fought against Spain for the Philippine independence. Many knew that there were many Katipuneros all over the country but few knew their names. Bulacan was one of the 8 provinces declared by Governor-General Ramon Blanco as in a state of war. Balangay Apuy, chapter or "balangay" of Katipunan in Bulacan province was organized in March 1896. The earliest members of the Katipunan from Malolos were Isidoro Torres, Ramon Gonzalez de Leon and Luis Gatmaytan. They became members in March 1896 and, together with Doroteo Karagdag, they were authorized to organize chapters or "balangay" in Bulacan province.
As a result of their efforts, the "Balangay Apuy" was organized in Malolos with the following officials and members: Luis Gatmaytan, President; Ramon Gonzalez de Leon, Secretary; Victorino Gatmaytan, Treasurer; Isidoro Torres, Doroteo Karagdag, Damaso Kaluag, Vicente Villavicencio, Donato Teodoro, Dionicio Dimagiba, Maximino Borlongan, Agripino Buendia, members. Other members were Antonio Bautista, "Tagausig", Gregorio Santos, "Taliba" and Romualdo Concepción, "Mabalasik."
In early 1896, a separatist organization affiliated with the Bonifacio-founded Katipunan. It was called Katipunan del Norte presided by Agustin Tantoko, coadjutor of Calumpit parish. It was most active in Bulacan province, especially around Malolos. Gabino Tantoko, a propietario from Malolos, was a member and so were Juan, Antonio, Ezequiel, all surnamed Tantoko, among others. After the discovery of the Katipunan, the Malolos members were arrested and tortured, like the brothers Luis and Victorino Gatmaitan and Nicolas Buendia.
Later, the "Balangay Apuy" was reorganized and Isidoro became president. He headed the armed uprising in Malolos, and defeated the Spanish forces in the decisive Battle of Malolos on June 1, 1897.
Malolos is the historical site of the constitutional convention of 1898 that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, the first republic in Asia, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Malolos served as the capital of the short-lived republic from 1898 to 1899. In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Scientifico Literaria de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public; Academia Militar,(the Philippine's First Military School) which was established on October 25, 1898; and The Burgos Institute, (the Philippine's first law school) and an exclusive school for boys.
Malolos Congress convened on September 15, 1898, at Barasoain Church. On the 18th, Aguinaldo proclaimed Malolos as the capital of the Philippines. The first important act of the Congress was the ratification on September 29, 1898, of the independence proclamation of June 12, 1898, at Kawit, Cavite. On October 19, 1898, by virtue of an act of Congress, the Universidad Literaria de Filipinas was established. It was in Malolos on December 20, 1898, when Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared December 30 of every year as a day of national mourning. The greatest achievement and for which the Malolos Congress was known was the framing of the Constitution, prepared by a committee headed by Felipe Calderón, was approved by the congress after amendments have been made on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by Aguinaldo the next day and promulgated on January 22. The last congressional act of the Malolos Congress was the inauguration of the Philippine Republic with Aguinaldo as the President on January 23, 1899, amidst the people's jubilation.
On March 31, 1899. (Good Friday) Aguinaldo ordered Gen. Antonio Luna to set the Malolos Cathedral including its huge silver altar on fire as part of their strategy called "Scorched-earth Policy" where everything will be rendered useless. Malolos was totally destroyed when the Americans captured the capital. During the Philippine–American War, after the bloody battle Aguinaldo escaped to San Fernando, Pampanga before the American Forces arrived at Malolos.
The Rise of Malolos as the Capital of the Province
More than a year after the 1899 Battle of Malolos, the National Capital seat was officially conferred again to the City of Manila again and in February 27, 1901, by the virtue of Public Law Number 88 of the Philippine Commission, the commission officially transferred the capital seat from Bulakan to Malolos and it became the Provincial Capital of the Province of Bulacan.
Casa Tribunal de Malolos was converted as the new Casa Real of Bulacan (Casa Real Shrine of Malolos) making it as the Official Office and Residence of Governor until 1930 when the new Provincial Capitol Building in Barrio Guinhawa, Malolos was built.
Governments of Malolos after the Philippine–American War
- During American Period
After the War, the Americans appointed a martial law administrator in the person of Jose Reyes Tiongson. He served as "presidente politico militar" from 1901 to 1902. With the capture of Pres. and Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela and the defeat of most of the Filipino armed forces all over the country, the Americans began to put up a network of local government units. The municipality of Malolos was re-organized, composed of the districts of Malolos, Barasoain and Santa Isabel. Appointed "presidente municipal" or town mayor was Ramon Gonzalez de Leon of Sitio Tampoy, (grand father of TV host Joey de Leon) one of the original members of the Katipunan Balangay Apuy. He was in the post for two years, 1903 to 1905. He and the nine others who followed him were all appointive officials. When the Philippines became a commonwealth, Leon Valencia was elected Mayor in 1937, the first ever elected. Diosdado Dimagiba succeeded him in 1940 but had to vacate the position because of the Japanese conquest. Also in this period, the Malolos Municipal Hall facing the Malolos Church was built, in a manner of Neo-Classical Roman Style.
- During Japanese Occupation
The Japanese appointed two "punong bayan" or mayors, Luis Peralta and Ignacio Tapang. After the joint US and Philippine Commonwealth armed forces liberated Malolos in March 1945, Adonis P. Maclang of the guerillas' Bulacan Military Area was appointed guerilla mayor of the town, before battle for the liberation of Bulacan, the local Filipino forces of the pre-war 32nd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 3rd Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was liberated in Malolos to helping the local guerrilla resistance fighters of the Bulacan Guerrilla Unit and American troops of the U.S. Army against the Japanese in 1945 at the end of World War II, followed by the appointment of Isberto Crisostomo as civilian town mayor in 1946. The first post-war election was held in 1946 and Carlos Maclang was elected mayor.
Encomienderos, Gobernadocillos and Mayors
As one of the original and oldest towns in the province of Bulacan, Malolos have a long list of town leaders since its formation as an Royal Encomienda in November 1571 down to the present City Mayor.
|Don Jeronimo Tirado, Marcos de Herrera||1571-1579|
|Don Juan Sarmiento||1643|
|Don Alonso de Ponte||1690-1697|
|Don Sebastian Rodrigo||1697-1698|
|Mateo dela Cruz||1702|
|Juan Jacinto Vistan||1703|
|Nicolas de Robles||1711-1712|
|Mateo Pablo Camua||1732,1739|
|Diego San Pedro Cruz||1734|
|Juan Tello de Victoria||1735,1741|
|Nicolas Juan Pascual||1736|
|Diego San Pedro Cruz||1734,1745,1751|
|Agustin Pablo Camua||1755|
|Vicente de Victoria||1756|
|Juan Josef de Robles||1759|
|Pedro Tello de Victoria||1760|
|Juan Domingo Arellano||1765|
|Carlos de Robles||1766|
|Agustin Domingo Garcia||1767|
|Juan Santiago delos Angeles||1768,1772|
|Antonio Pablo Cabay||1771|
|Nicolas de Victoria||1773|
|Felipe de Roxas||1774|
|Miguel Bartolome Robles||1776|
|Miguel Bartolome Robles||1779|
|Juan de Torres||1780|
|Diego de Victoria||1786|
|Domingo Salvador Galang||1790|
|Antonio de Robles||1791|
|Roque de Robles||1794|
|Josef dela Cruz||1797|
|Jorge de Victoria||1799,1822|
|Josef Lorenzo Chingco||1801|
|Juan Trajano dela Cruz||1802|
|Isidro de Victoria||1804|
|Pedro Nicolas Perez||1807|
|Antonio de Victoria||1808|
|Teodoro de Victoria||1809|
|Evaristo Nicolas Vasquez||1810|
|Santiago Cruz Aldaba||1812|
|Mateo Cristobal Mendiola||1813|
|Jose Eusebio Teodoro||1814|
|Pedro de Guzman||1816|
|Evaristo Nicolas Vasquez||1824|
|Agustin Josef Manalo||1826|
|Mariano Boni de Jesus||1828|
|Policarpio dela Cruz||1831|
|Juan de Robles||1858|
|Mariano C. Cristobal||1861|
|Juan delos Reyes||1865-1866|
|Macario delos Reyes||1867-1868|
|Jose A. Bautista||1881|
|Anastacio de Leon||1886-|
|Jose Reyes Tiongson||1892-1894|
|CAPITAN MUNICIPAL/PRESIDENTE LOCAL||Term|
|Jose Reyes Tiongson||1899-1900|
|PRESIDENTE POLITICO MILITAR||Term|
|Ramon Gonzales-De Leon||1903-1905|
|Mariano S. Tengco||1919-1922|
|Felix Tantoco Reyes||1951-1963|
|Purificacion Crisostomo Reyes||1968-1986|
|Danilo A. Domingo||1986-1998|
|Danilo A. Domingo||2001-2010|
|Christian D. Natividad||2010–present|
The charter of the City of Malolos was first passed through Republic Act 8754 in November 4, 1999. The bill's author was then Rep. Wilhelmino M. Sy-Alvarado now the (Provincial Governor of Bulacan). A plebiscite was conducted on December 18, 1999, where the votes "not" in favor of cityhood won. During the plebiscite, the clash between the pro and anti-cityhood groups reached the peak when the allegedly fraud done by the anti's to manipulate the results in able to win the "No" votes gathering 11,535 count against 9,321 Yes votes.
Due to the electoral fraud on Malolos cityhood plebiscite, the then Congressman Wilhelmino Alvarado and Malolos Mayor Restituto Roque filed an electoral protest at the Commission on Elections dated December 29, 1999 to recount the results of the plebiscite.
The recount reversed the initial decision and the Commissn found out that 10,746 votes approved the cityhood and only 8,402 against the conversion.
The protest was granted by the Second Division of Commission on Elections, per Resolution No. Election Protest Case (EPC) 99-2, October 8, 2002, the COMELEC affirmed that the "YES" vote won so the Cityhood of Malolos is valid as of December 18, 1999.
The invalidation of R.A 9591 the Lone District of Malolos Act
On December 19, 2007, Senator Manuel Araneta Roxas II introduced and filed Senate Bill 1986 that seeks to amend section 57 of Republic Act 8754, the component law converting Malolos from a municipality to a component city. The bill was read on First Reading and Referred to the Committee on Rules on the same day as it was filled. On May 13, 2008, it was referred to the Committee on Local Government, on motion of Senator Pangilinan. On October 6, 2008, the bill was sponsored by Senator Benigno S. Aquino III, and co-sponsored by Senators Richard J. Gordon and Mar Roxas.
In the House of the Representatives, House Bill 3693 was filed on March 4, 2008 by Ma. Victoria Sy-Alvarado, Representative of the first district of Bulacan. The Committee on Local Government, of the House of the Representatives, approved House Bill 3162, declaring Malolos City as a lone congressional district separate and distinct from the first congressional district of the province of Bulacan. The said House Bill was substituted by House Bill 3693, which had been approved by the House on April 29, 2008; transmitted on May 5; and was received by the Senate on May 6, 2008.
The Republic Act 9591, e
|Population Census of Malolos City|
Language and ethnicity
The majority of the Maloleños (or Malolenyo in Filipino) traces their roots to Tagalog ethnicity although there are also Kapampangan, Ilongo, Maranao, and other ethnicities who migrated to the city. The vernacular language is Filipino, in the form of Tagalog, while Philippine English is the language most widely used in education and business throughout the city. Although Malolos is the city where the Filipinos established the Spanish as their only official language in the first constitution, the native speakers of Spanish still alive are reduced to the very old members of a handful of families.
Population and Barangays
Based on the 2007 Census of Population and Housing, as of August 1, the city's population was at 223,069 people. It had a population density of 3,317 persons per square kilometer. There are 47,362 households in the city. Majority of the Malolos households usually lives along the major roads. It has an average crime rate of 6.28% and has a crime solution efficiency of 97.11%.
Malolos City is subdivided into 52 barangays that are spread over a land area of 7,725 hectares (19,090 acres) consisting of agricultural, commercial, industrial, residential, bodies of water, fishponds, marshes and roads. Many of the name of the barangays were derived from the name of common Philippine trees, because Malolos was once a vast virgin land and forests, before the Spaniards came and Christianized the natives. While others were named in honor of their patron saints.
Recently, the National Statistics Office released the official result of 2010 census in which Malolos City has a population of 234,945 people, an increase of 15,000 people from the 2007 census.
|San Vicente (Poblacion)||1,981||2,007||2,529|
|Santo Niño (Poblacion)||641||453||532|
|Santo Rosario (Poblacion)||7,065||7,211||7,593|
The Christianization of Malolos was done by the Agustinians in April 1572 thru the effort of Fray Diego Ordoñez de Vivar and it became one of the visitas of Parish of Tondo together with Calumpit,Lubao,Betis. Malolos formerly had its jurisdiction in Quingua—now Plaridel—from 1590 to 1602 and Paombong from 1571 to 1619. (Paombong is a former part of Malolos) The Mission Chapel was located near the river (now Barrio Canalate).In June 11, 1580 the mission chapel was accepted by the Augustinians as House of Order and became Iglesia Convento y Malolos. Later due to the frequent high tides that submerged the area, the friars moved the church to its present location in Poblacion in 1590 under the curate Fray Cristobal Tarique Muñoz, where started to built church made of light materials and wood. In 1599 Fray Roque de Barrionuevo started to built church made of stone and it was finished in 1700s.The majority of the residents are Christians. Roman Catholic is the predominant religion in the City.
Since the Spanish Period, Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism faith in Malolos is very intensive. It is evident through the existence of the Old 3 big stone churches. (Malolos Church,Barasoain Church and Santa Isabel Church) Being a dominant Catholic, Malolos together with the whole province of Bulacan is constituted as Vicaria dela Inmaculada Concepcion in which the (Cura de Malolos is the Vicar Forane) formerly annexed to the Archdiocese of Manila until March 11, 1962, when Pope John XXIII erected the Diocese of Malolos making the Malolos Church as its Cathedral. On March 2012 the Diocese of Malolos will celebrate its 50th Anniversary. It was highlighted by the Canonical Coronation of the patroness and queen of the City and the whole Province, Virgen Inmaculada Concepción de Malolos enshrined at the cathedral's altar.
Other religious groups include the Methodists, Aglipayans, Adventists, Baptists, Mormons, other Protestant churches, and Nontrinitarian churches (like Members Church of God International, Iglesia ni Cristo, and Jehovah's Witness). There also some Evangelical, Pentecostal, Charismatic churches, ministries, fellowships and religious groups. Islam (Muslims) could also be found in the city.
Commerce and industry
The City of Malolos is rapidly becoming industrialized due to its proximity to Metro Manila. Many corporations put up industrial plants and sites, and commercial and banking establishments in key places in the city. Malolos also serves as the Banking Capital of Bulacan, in prominent areas of the city particularly in Paseo del Congreso Avenue, the city hosts almost 40 banks. Many of the businesses and industries in the city include Agribusiness; Aquaculture; Banking; Cement Bag Making Ceramics; Construction; Courier; Education; Food/Food Processing; Furniture; Garments; Gifts, Housewares & Decorations; Hospitals; Hotels, Resorts & Restaurants; Information and Communications Technology; Insurance; Jewelry; Leather & Leather Tanning; Manpower; Manufacturing; Marble; Printing Press; Realty/Real Property Development; Shoe Manufacturing; Textile; Trade; Transport Services; Travel & Tours; and other services. Malolos City is now one of the Commercial Hubs in Central Luzon, being a promising investment city many projects are presently rising. Some of those projects are:
- "Puregold Malolos 2 or Puregold Jr at Malolos Junction, the 2nd PPCI Store in the City.
- "STI Academic Center Malolos, a 7-storey Building along MacArthur Highway, its construction is still in progress.
- Bulacan Eco-Commercial Center, own by the Provincial Government of Bulacan, presently constructed near Northrail Malolos Station, fronting Graceland Mall in MacArthur Highway.
- Mighty Corporaton, a cigarette factory located in Barangay Tikay.
- Robinsons Place Malolos, a major shopping mall owned by Robinsons Land Corporation located at MacArthur Highway, Baranggay Sumapang Matanda.
- Pabalat or pastillas wrapper making, an intricate art of paper cutting that turns ordinary pieces of Japanese paper into lace-like creations was once a prized skill amongst the old families of the province. It is a vanishing tradition in the province of Bulacan where it originated. Families proudly displayed tall dishes of this sweet treat for the benefit of visitors. With their fancy tails hanging down from the dish's rim and the light shining through the delicate paper, the wrapped candies looked like expensive handmade lace decorations, and were a welcome addition to the family's dining tables.
- Sweetened Lime skin or Minatamis na Balat ng Dayap in Filipino, one of the most popular old food art originated in Malolos.
- Inipit and Ensaymada, pastries that originated in Malolos, popular not only in Luzon but in other parts of the country as well.
First Bulacan Industrial City
The First Bulacan Industrial City is the first industrial estate at Barangay Tikay. There are more than 20 corporations and companies operating their factories inside the estate.
Historical Sites and Landmarks
Malolos serves as the Heritage City of Bulacan houses may historical sites and landmarks even structures such as walls and bridges found around the city. Some of these are already marked by National Historical Institute while others are not yet.
- Barasoain Church, located in Paseo del Congreso. Erected in 1885 actually its a second building on the site, the first one was burned in May 1884. It is the site of the very First Philippine Congress in September 15, 1898, and the Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in January 23, 1899. In this church the Oath of Office of Emilio Aguinaldo and Joseph Estrada as Philippine presidents had take place.
- Malolos Cathedral Erected in 1580 the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos. Unknown to many, Malolos Cathedral actually the served as Executive Palace during Aguinaldo's Presidency..
Declared as Historic Malolos Town Proper
August 15, 2001 the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (formerly National Historical Institute) issued Resolution No.2 series of 2001, declaring the historic Malolos City as Malolos Heritage Town.
The Historic Town Proper comprising all the heritage structures and landmarks in these Streets:
Calle Paseo del Congreso including Barasoain Church, Casa Jose Cojuangco Calle Padre Jose Burgos Calle Enriquez Calle Hipolito Calle Cigarillera (Tampoy) Calle Pariancillo Calle Sto Nino Calle Electicidad (F.T. Reyes) Calle M. Tengco Calle F. Estrella Heritage House of Santiago-Cruz at Calle Jarino Heritage Houses of Pineda and Aldaba at Calle Felix. T, Reyes The Malolos Water Cistern at Plaza Torres, Malolos downtown The Old Bridge of Malolos at Casa Real.
Casa Real de Malolos
Built in 1580, residence and office of the Gobernadorcillo of Malolos until 1673. It was used as Casa Tribunal of Pueblo de Barasoain in 1859. During American Occupation of Malolos, it was used again as the Municipal Hall of unified towns of Malolos, Barasoain and Sta Isabel in 1903-1940, Bulacan High School Annex in 1941. During Japanese period, served as office of Japanese Chamber of Commerce (1941–1944), in 1945 it became headquarters of Auxiliary Unit of US Army. In 1946 served as Temporary Provincial Capitol of Bulacan because the province capitol was damaged during World War II. In 1947, Bulacan Trade School, 1948 a Branch of Philippine National Bank. And in 1950, Malolos Postal Office. Today it is a Museum maintained by the National Historical Institute containing artifacts and memorabilia holding relics of the 21 Women of Malolos.
- Instituto Mujeres, located in Sto Nino street adjacent to Calle Pariancillo, is the site where Rizal addressed his famous letter to the 21 women of Malolos who petitioned Governor General Valeriano Weyler for a night school for women on December 12, 1888.
- Gregorio del Pilar's Tomb, located at the front plaza of Bulacan Provincial Capitol, containing the remains of the young general, topped with equestrian statue of the hero of Tirad Pass.
- The Kalayaan Tree, a hundred-year-old Siar tree. During the First Philippine Republic. President Aguinaldo and other of his Officials, holds some important meetings under this tree located in front of the Malolos Cathedral. Kalayaan is the Filipino word for freedom.
- The Camestisuhan District, the Enclave of Malolos rich Sangleys and Ilustrados", mostly located along streets of Sto Niño and Pariancillo, near the Basilica, typify the intricate architectural design of Spanish buildings. The name came from the word mestizo, the typical residents of the area during the Spanish period. Several historical mansions are located here:
- Adriano-Vasquez Mansion, a magnificent old house once housed Aguinaldo's Gobierno Militar de la Plaza. It now houses the Malolos Meralco office. It has a filigreed cast iron staircase that wind up to the balustered rampart.
- Bautista-Uytangcoy Mansion, along Sto. Niño St., behind the Adriano House, has ornately sculpted Neo-Classic touches and was built in the 1850s and redecorated in 1877 in the French Art Nouveau style. It was the Secretaria de Fomento and home of Don Antonio Bautista, Aguinaldo's Secretary of the Interior. It contains heirloom memorabilia including the original KKK flag and here, José Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar spoke to the 21 women of Malolos on June 27, 1892.
- The Cervantes Mansion, the office of the First Philippine Republic's Department of the Interior.
- The Arcadio Ejercito Mansion, at the corner of the streets of Estrella and Pariancillo, office of the First Philippine Republic's Department of War.
- The Lino and Maria Reyes Mansion, along Estrella Street, across the cathedral. This house served as the office of Apolinario Mabini when he was appointed as chief adviser to President Aguinaldo. It was said that Mabini and Aguinaldo were often heard arguing from this house. It once housed Aguinaldo's Secretary of Exterior. It has an octagonal rose window and a weather vane on top of the roof.
- The Tiongson Mansion, with its intricate balustered windows, once served as Aguinaldo's War Commission.
- The Lomotan House, located at the Sto. Niño street.
- The Fortunato Limpo Residence and Compound, located at Paseo del Congreso Street.
- Casa Tribunal de Malolos, built in 1800s owned by Adriano Clan, used as the Original and First Municipal Hall of Malolos from 1859 to 1899, converted into a jailhouse during the First Philippine Republic
- The Isidoro Torres Markerlocated in Mambog, Malolos city, the site where Isidoro Torres, the birthplace of the 2nd military governor of Bulacan. General Isidoro Torres is also the one of the founding fathers of Katipunan in the province of Bulacan.
- Guillermo Tolentino Markerlocated in Sitio Sabitan, Malolos city. The birthplace of the National Artist Guillermo Tolentino. Unveiled in July 24, 2012.
Feasts and Festivals
Dubbed as the Bulacan's City of Festivals, Malolos boasts with many feasts and festivals every year. Some festivals are civic festivities and most are religious festivals.
- Singkaban Festival (Sining at Kalinangan ng Bulacan), a festival of arts and culture in honor of Capitol's patron saint, "Our Lady of Victory", showcasing the traditional arts of "Balagtasan", "Kundiman" and folk dances amidst of the "Singkaban" arches. The festival is celebrated in every second week of September which is in conjunction with the "Linggo ng Bulacan". Linggo ng Bulacan (Held during September 8–15), A province-wide, week-long celebration consisting of various colourful cultural presentations, art and culinary exhibits, arts and skills contests, and the prestigious annual Dangal ng Lipi Awards Night. Yearly, its activities vary depending upon the chosen theme for the year. This festival is named after the special "BAMBOO ART" abundantly known to the Bulacan province especially in Malolos and Hagonoy where Singkaban Art originated. There are two types of Singkaban, Singkabang Malolos
- Sto Niño de Malolos Festival – This is held during the last Sunday of January, The biggest and largest expression of devotion to the Holy Child Jesus in the Luzon island, celebrated every last Sunday of January. The festivities begin with an exhibit of "Santo Niño" (Holy Child) and culminate in a grand procession of hundreds of folk, antique and new statues of the Holy Child in different depictions. The highlight of this festival is the hundred year-old antique miraculous image of Senor Sto Nino de Malolos.
- Pista ng Barihan" - held annually on Trinity Sunday, it is commonly called Pista ng Santisima Trinidad because the barangays of Santisima Trinidad and Pinagbakahan were once annexed to Barangay Barihan. This fiesta started since 19th century, where thousands of people attending this fiesta to pray for petition and wishes also to view the procession of three, miraculous and highly venerated antique icons of the Holy Trinity, together with other holy images from across the province.
The four holy images are:
- Santisima Trinidad de Mayor - oil on canvas, the back of the canvass exposed a date of January 10, 1500, and is thus the oldest catholic icon in the Philippines. It is considered very miraculous by majority faithful.
- Santisima Trinidad na Bata - oil on rosewood icon, the 1762 image is the second-oldest in the group, it is enclosed in an carved wooden frame.
- Santisima Trinidad de Trisagio - the last and youngest of the three holy icons.
- The fourth venerated icon, the Santisima Trinidad de Antigo, was formerly enshrined in the Santisima Trinidad Chapel's main altar. It was stolen on October 27, 1981, and has never been recovered.
All of these antique and miraculous images are in the custody of the Bisita ng Santisima Trinidad.
- Pabukang Puso - held every March 19 in Panasahan, commemorates the death of St. Joseph the Worker, Foster-father of Jesus. It is annually held at the front house of Roxas clan in Panasahan, whose patriarch, Valentin Roxas, started it in 1975. This tradition still continue until present day where the younger generations of the clan organising it.
- Pag-akyat Festival one of the traditionally-preserved feasts in the city,held in Barangay Atlag. It culminates Acenscion of Our Lord.
Parks and museums
- Hardin ng mga Bayani at Sining also known as Capitol Mini-Forest and Children's Park, in Provincial Capitol Compound
- Bulacan Heroes Park in Bulacan State University
- Mini Rizal Park in Bulacan State University
- Museo ng Bulacan, Hiyas ng Bulacan Museum Complex, located 500 m from Barasoain Church, is a cultural center and museum that houses the works, artifacts, relics and manuscripts of Francisco Balagtas, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Gregorio del Pilar, Mariano Ponce and other famous men of Bulacan.
- Casa Real Shrine, also known as the Malolos City Library and Museum
- Barasoain Museum, located across the hall of the Barasoain Convent, is managed by the National Historical Institute. Its corridors are hung with historical photographs of Bulacan and different rooms relate how democracy was established in the country. Open daily, 8am-5pm. Admission is free. The church and convent were declared as a National Landmark on August 1, 1973, under Presidential Decree No. 260 and both underwent a thorough restoration under the supervision of the National Historical Commission.
- Museo Diocesano de Malolos, also at the Barasoain Convent, is managed by the Malolos Diocese. It houses relics and religious items such as original 19th century baptismal records of Marcelo Hilario (a.k.a. Marcelo H. del Pilar), Francisco Baltazar (a.k.a. Francisco Balagtas) and Gregorio del Pilar; a bone fragment of San Vicente Ferrer encased in glass; priestly robes embroidered with gold-plated silver threads, antique prayer cards and altar frontals from different churches.
Malolos is hailed as one of the centers of education in Central Luzon region of the Philippines. The city is host to numerous schools in the primary, secondary and tertiary level. Here are the partial list of schools, academies, institutes, colleges, and universities in Malolos.
Colleges and universities
- Bulacan State University (BSU) (Main Campus)
- Centro Escolar University (CEU) (Malolos Campus)
- La Consolacion University Philippines (formerly University of Regina Carmeli) (Catmon and Barasoain Campus)
- Bulacan Polytechnic College(BPC) (Main Campus)
- STI Academic Center
- AMA Computer College (AMACC)
- AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC)
- ABE International College of Business & Accountancy
- St. Augustine College of Nursing
- Divine Colleges of Malolos City, Inc. (formerly Divine Arts & Sciences Computer College, Inc.)
- Collegio De San Jose (Veritas Technical School)
- Datacase Computer Technology Inc.
- Manila Montessori College International – Malolos Campus
- Corinthian International College
- Technical Skills Development Authority – Bulacan Provincial Training Center
- Saint Amatiel College
High schools, elementary, and pre-schools
Public or Government-Subsidized Schools
- Bulacan State University Laboratory High School (BulSU-LHS), in Guinhawa
- Bulihan National High School, in Bulihan
- Malolos City High School, in Bungahan, Santisima Trinidad, and Canalate
- Malolos City Integrated School (formerly Malolos Elementary School), in Santo Rosario, Babatnin, Catmon, Atlag
- Malolos Marine Fishery School & Laboratory (MMFS&L), in Balite founded in 1971
- Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School (MHPNHS), in Bagong Bayan (Santa Isabel)
- Pamarawan High School, in Pamarawan
- Pres. Corazon Cojuanco-Aquino National High School, in Mojon
- Cong. Teodulo C. Natividad High School, in Bangkal
Malolos has 38 public elementary schools under the authority of Department of Education Division of City Schools of Malolos, the city schools are divided into two educational district (EDDIS) for representational purpose. The office of DEPED Division of City Schools of Malolos is currently located at the Malolos City Integrated School (formerly known as Malolos Elementary School) in barangay Santo Rosario.
Malolos North District
Malolos South District
Footnotes Elementary School:
There are many privately owned and church-operated schools Elementary Schooltablished in the city. Private Schools are member of Malolos City Private schools Association (MACIPRISA).
- Academia de San Gabriel de Arcangel
- A.V.M. Monessori Center
- Bennechalah Kiddie Learning Center
- Bible Baptist Academy of Malolos
- Bulacan Ecumenical School
- Clarion School
- Centro de Malolos Institute
- Colegio de San Jose Malolos
- DANS Learning Center
- Darwin International School
- De La Salle Montessori International School
- Easy Steps Learning School
- Food for the Hungry Minds
- Gartens Learning Center
- Genle Academy of Malolos
- Golden Angels School of Malolos
- Holy Family School
- Holy Infant School
- Holy Rosary Learning Center
- Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos
- Holy Trinity Academy of Malolos
- Immaculate Conception School for Boys
- Immaculate Conception School of Malolos
- International Montessori Center
- J.E. Montessori School
- JEM'S Malolos City
- Jesus Christian Ministry School
- La Consolacion University Philippines, Elementary School Basic Education Department
- Levi's Angels Learning Center
- Liceo Delos Apostoles
- Little Angels Child Study Center of Malolos
- Living Angels Christian Academy
- LKBPI Montessori School
- Lord's Angels Montessori School
- Ma. Therese Montesori School
- Malolos Adventist Elementary School
- Malolos Christian School
- Malolos Ecumencal School (formerly Malolos Ecumenical Kindergarten)
- Mary the Queen School of Malolos
- MERR-C Society Academy
- Montessori de Natividad
- Montessori School of Malolos
- Northhills Academy of Malolos
- PROBEX School
- Santissimo Sacramento Catholic School
- Saint Ezekiel School
- Saint Vicent Kiddie School
- San Pablo Educational Center
- Shepherds Ways Academy of Bulacan
- Southville Academy of Malolos
- Stella Maris Academy
- Stella Orientis School
- St. Bernadeth Divine Academy
- St. Clement Academy
- St. Ezekiel Moreno School of Malolos
- St. John Academy
- St. Joseph Parochial School of Panasahan
- St. Mary Apostolate Academy of Malolos
- St. Thomas Aquinas Academy of Malolos
- STI Academy of Malolos
- Veritas Technical School
- The Malolos City hosts more than 51 residential subdivisions and the Northville 8 Resettlement Project of the Philippine government.
Hospitals, medical centers and large clinics:
- Bulacan Medical Center (formerly Bulacan Provincial Hospital)
- Sacred Heart Hospital
- Santos General Hospital of Malolos
- Malolos San Vicente Hospital
- Malolos San Ildefonso County Hospital
- Mary Immaculate Maternity Hospital
- Romel Cruz Hospital
- Ofelia Mendoza Maternity and General Hospital
- San Roque Hospital
- Santisima Trinidad Hospital
- Malolos Maternity Hospital
- Malolos EENT Hospital
- Saint Michael Clinic & Maternity Hospital
- Malolos Eye Center
- Santos Clinic, Inc.
- St. Vincent Polymedic Clinic
- EAQ Malolos Clinic and Laboratory
- Maunlad Medical Laboratory
- Malolos Rural Health Unit (RHS) I
- Malolos RHU II
- Malolos Healthy Lifestyle and Fitness Center
- Malolos RHU III
- Malolos Lying In
- Malolos RHU IV
- Malolos RHU V
- Malolos RHU VI
- Estefania J. Aldaba Memorial Health Center and School Clinic
- Bulihan BHS (Malolos RHU II)
- Catmon BHS (Malolos RHU)
- Mojon BHS (Malolos RHU II)
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- For the accounts of the attempted revolt, see Blair and Robertson, Vol. XXXVIII, p.98-99
- Malolos Historical Digest, June 2000
- Malolos Historical Digest, March 2000 issue, Marcial C. Aniag, editor; Book on the 21 Women of Malolos by Nicanor G. Tiongson
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- Newly built Bulacan hospital inaugurated[dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malolos City.|
- Malolos City Bulacan
- Malolos City Charter
- Senate Bill 1986 – Amending Malolos City Charter, "THE LONE CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT OF THE CITY OF MALOLOS"
- Official Website of the Province of Bulacan
- Malolos City on the Official Website of Bulacan
- The Malolos Republic
- The First Philippine Republic at Malolos
- The Malolos Constitution (Translated in English)
- Women of Malolos Foundation, Inc. official Website
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- Philippine Census Information
- The American Occupation of Malolos (1899)