In the context of hairstyles, the usage of the term pigtail (twintail or twin tail) shows considerable variation. According to most dictionaries, a pigtail is a braid of tightly woven hair. The name is based on the short, thin, kinked tail of a pig, referring to the way a short, tight braid may stand out from the scalp through asymmetric tension of the weave. However, the term may also apply to a single braid regardless of length or tension, focusing instead on the knobby texture of the overall structure.
Alternatively, the plural term pigtails may be applied to a pair of two braids or ponytails on opposite sides of the head. In British English the term "pigtail" or "pigtails" refers specifically to bunched hair that has been plaited (braided). In places where this usage is common, unplaited pairs are called bunches and a single bunch, regardless of position on the head, is called a ponytail.
Word origin and usage 
The term pigtail appears in English in the American colonies in the 17th century to describe a twist of chewing tobacco. One of the steps in processing the tobacco was to twist a handful of leaves together to form a compact bunch that would then be cured (dried, either with or without smoking). The term "pigtail" was applied to the bunch based on its resemblance to a twisted pig's tail.
From the later 17th century through the 19th century, the term came to be applied to any braided (plaited, in British parlance) hairstyle. The British army also adopted a single pigtail or "queue" as its standard dress for long hair.
Most dictionaries still define "pigtail" as a single tight braid. However, many American English speakers use the term to describe two symmetrical bunches of hair on either side of the head, braided or not. In some cases, the term only applies to unbraided hair. This usage of the term can be seen on personal and professional websites devoted to hairstyles or even by typing "pigtails" into a search engine.
There are numerous styles of pigtails in which a person may wear their hair. They may be braided, straightened, beaded, ribboned, in buns, fishtailed, and even French braided. Pigtails can be placed on different parts of a person's head: high, low, or to the side.
In some regions of China, traditional culture related the wearing of pigtails to a girl's marital status. A young, unmarried, Chinese girl would often wear two buns, or bundles of hair on either side of the head to display her availability to prospective husbands. This style of pigtails is sometimes referred to as "ox horns." However, when this girl would marry, the two pigtails, or buns, would be replaced with just one, thus indicating her marriage. It is thought that this may have led to the Western view of pigtails being typically associated with children and young girls; unmarried Chinese girls who had immigrated to the Western world would still wear their hairstyles as they had in China. This cultural aspect gradually spread to Westerners, although its meaning was largely lost. It is worth noting, however, that Chinese boys and men did not change their hairstyle regardless of marital status.
The Manchurian, or Qing style of coiffe, called the 'queue' or 'cue' is sometimes misdescribed as a pigtail.
See also 
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- Merriam-Webster: pigtail
- Stevenson, R. L. (2006). Treasure Island. Retrieved October, 2008, from Project Gutenberg database.