Hair spray

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This article is about the grooming product. For other uses, see Hairspray (disambiguation).
Two varieties of modern hair sprays.

Hair Spray (also hair lacquer or spritz) is a common cosmetic product that is sprayed onto hair to keep it stiff or in a certain style. The spray can be dispensed from a pump or aerosol spray nozzle.

Modern hair sprays were developed around the time of the aerosol can in the 1940s, and the first patents describing copolymers for hair styling were published in the 1940s.[1][2]

Ingredients[edit]

Hair spray products are a blend of simple industrial polymers that provide structural support to hair. These frequently include copolymers of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl acetate (PV). This copolymer mixture is usually modified to achieve the desired physical properties (adhesive strength, foaming, etc.), using plasiticers such as aminomethyl propanol, surfactants such as Benzalkonium chloride, and other agents like dimethicone.

These active ingredients make up only a small portion of a hairspray (aerosol can). The majority of a canister is filled with volatile solvents necessary to solubilize and aerosolize the copolymer mixture. These include simple alcohols like ethanol or tert-Butanol to solubilize the active ingredients, and Dimethyl ether or mixed hydrocarbons as propellants.

The copolymer mixture, solubilizing agents, and propellants are usually highly volatile and flammable (like most aerosols). For this reason, hair sprays have been classically used for combustion in potato cannons, and have been banned as carry-on items by most airport security agencies.

History[edit]

Hairspray became common after the patent of the aerosol process and the making of the aerosol spray can during the 1940s. The first to package it was Chase products (an aerosol manufacturer) in 1948, as the beauty industry saw that the aerosol cans used in WWII for insecticides could be used as a dispenser for hairspray.[3] It thrived and became increasingly popular and mass-produced, as up dos and other such hairstyles were created. By 1964, it became the highest selling beauty product. However sales declined in the 1970s as hairstyles were now predominately worn straight and loose. By the 80s, hairspray’s popularity came back as big hairstyles resurged with the punk rock scene. Today, hairsprays are formulated as flexible, medium, and maximum hold, as there is much more of a liking towards natural hairstyles[4]

Chemical Makeup[edit]

Hairspray is made of many polymers. It used to be made up of a chlorofluorocarbon compound which was nonflammable and nontoxic. However, when it was discovered that they can cause destruction of stratospheric ozone, it was replaced with flammable and more harmful ingredients such as alcohols and hydrocarbons. Today, hairspray is made up of polyvinylpyrrolidine, polydimethylsiloxane, and copolymers with vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride. [5]

Harmful Effects[edit]

Hairspray is an aerosol product containing many harmful chemicals. Because of its aerosol application, hair spray is extremely flammable. In 1993, the FDA released a warning statement to prevent hair spray related fires. Prior to this statement, many fires caused by the use of this product had been reported. [6] Volatile Organic Compounds, which cause smog, are often found in these types of products. These compounds, known as CFCs, can cause harm to the ozone and are related to global warming. These are harmful to people as well. [7] If they are accumulated, they cause lightheadedness and headaches as well as possible allergic reactions and asthma attacks. Another harmful substance found in hairspray is formaldehyde, something used in larger doses to preserve dead bodies. Because it is used to kill mold and bacteria as well, it is in hairspray to ward off potential contaminants. Although it is put into hairspray for a reason, it is a suspected carcinogen and is toxic. Formaldehyde can cause many problems such as dermatitis, headaches, and respiratory illness.

Phthalates are also found in hairspray in order to increase the suppleness of other polymers. This family of chemicals are used in hairspray in order to improve its cosmetic use. However, it has been classified as an environmental toxin and can cause birth defects. In addition, the ingredient labeled as "fragrance" are chemicals that due to how low in concentration they are, do not need to be listed. These chemicals can build up and for people who are hypersensitive, it can be extremely detrimental. Symptoms caused by this include muscle weakness, skin rashes, mood disorders, difficulty breathing, headaches, and disorientation. [8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ US patent 2305356, Luckenbach, William F., "Dressing of Hair", issued 1940-4-4 
  2. ^ US patent 2464281, Peterson, Durey H., "Cream Hair Treating Preparations", issued 1945-3-7 
  3. ^ Liz Suman. "The History of Hairspray." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. <beautysupply.about.com/od/Hairspray/a/The-History-Of-Hair-Spray.htm>
  4. ^ Victoria Sherrow, "Hairspray." Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History.
  5. ^ "What is hairspray made of?." General Chemistry Online: FAQ: Chemistry of everyday life:. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. <http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/consumer/faq/hairspray-ingredients.shtml>.
  6. ^ "FDA ISSUES HAIRSPRAY WARNING." - Free Online Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/FDA+ISSUES+HAIRSPRAY+WARNING-a013119595>
  7. ^ "Hairspray." Hairspray. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Apr. 2014. <http://www.kinnelonconserves.net/Hairspray.html>
  8. ^ "What is Harmful to the Environment That Is Found in Hairsprays?." Home Guides. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. <http://homeguides.sfgate.com/harmful-environment-found-hairsprays-78516.html>.

Sources[edit]

  • Ben Selinger, Chemistry in the Marketplace, fourth ed. (Harcourt Brace, 1994).Abigail Saucedo (2008)
  • Victoria Sherrow, "Hairspray." Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006. 183-84. Print.