|Location||Russian Arctic, Sakha Republic|
|Established||1988 / 1996|
Pleistocene Park (Russian: Плейстоценовый парк) is a nature reserve on the Kolyma River south of Chersky in the Sakha Republic, Russia, in northeastern Siberia, where an attempt is being made to recreate the northern subarctic steppe grassland ecosystem that flourished in the area during the last ice age.
The project is being led by Russian researcher Sergey Zimov, with hopes to back the hypothesis that hunting, and not climate change, was primarily responsible for the extinction of wildlife at the end of the Pleistocene epoch.
A further aim is to research the climatic effects of the expected changes in the ecosystem. Here the hypothesis is that the change from tundra to grassland will result in a raised ratio of energy emission and energy absorption of the area, leading to less thawing of permafrost and thereby less emission of greenhouse gases.
To study this, large herbivores have been released, and their effect on the local fauna is being monitored. Preliminary results point at the ecologically low-grade tundra biome being converted into a productive grassland biome, and at the energy emission of the area being raised.
|This section requires expansion with: more detail on the hypotheses and aims (see Talk page). (February 2014)|
The primary aim of Pleistocene Park is to recreate the ancient taiga/tundra grasslands that were widespread in the region during the last ice age. The key concept is that animals, more than temperature, maintained that ecosystem. This argument is the justification for rewilding Pleistocene Park′s landscape with megafauna that was previously abundant in the area, as evidenced by the fossil record.
A secondary aim is to research the climatic effects of the expected changes in the ecosystem. Here the key concept is that some of the impacts of the large herbivores, such as eradicating trees and shrubs or trampling snow, will result in a stronger cooling of the ground in the winter, leading to less thawing of permafrost during summer and thereby less emission of greenhouse gases.
Background: regional Pleistocene ecoregions
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
It has been proposed that the introduction of a variety of large herbivores will recreate their ancient ecological niches in Siberia and regenerate the Pleistocene terrain with its different ecological habitats such as taiga, tundra, steppe and alpine terrain.
The main object, however, is to recreate the extensive grasslands that covered the Beringia region in the late Pleistocene. This form of grassland (which is also known as mammoth steppe) was inhabited by a diverse set of large and medium herbivores. Back in the Pleistocene the area was populated by many species of grazers which assembled in large herds similar in size to those in Africa today. Species that roamed the great grasslands included the woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, Lena horse, muskox, and reindeer.
Another herbivore which during the Pleistocene was abundant in this region but now faces possible extinction in its remaining habitats is the saiga antelope, which can form massive herds that keep the vegetation down.
At the edges of these large stretches of grassland could be found more shrub-like terrain and dry conifer forests (similar to taiga). In this terrain the browsers of the Pleistocene were to be found. This group of megafauna included woolly rhinoceros, moose, wapiti, Yukon wild ass, and camels. The more mountainous terrain was occupied by several species of mountain-going animals like the snow sheep.
Back in the Pleistocene there was also a great variety of carnivorous mammals as well. On the plains there were prides of Beringian cave lion. These large cats were the apex predators of the region, but also shared their habitat with other predators such as grey wolf, cave hyena, Homotherium, brown bear, wolverine, and arctic fox which all occupied a distinct ecological niche essential for the balance of their respective ecosystems.
On the edges of the grasslands (in the shrubs and forests) there were also brown bears, wolverines, cave bears, lynxes, tigers, leopards, and red foxes. The siberian tiger and amur leopard occupied the southern part of the steppe biome and surviving populations are still found along the present Russian-Sino border in the Amur region and Primorye region
In present day Siberia only a few of the former species of megafauna are left, and their population density is extremely low, too low to have an impact on the environment. To reach the desired effects, the density has to be raised artificially by fencing in and concentrating the existing large herbivores. A large variety of species is important as each species has a different impact on the environment and as the overall stability of the ecosystem increases with the variety of species (compare Biodiversity#Biodiversity and ecological services). Their numbers will be raised by reintroducing species which went locally extinct (e. g. muskoxen). For species that went completely extinct, suitable replacements will be introduced if possible (e. g. wild Bactrian camels for the extinct Pleistocene camels). As the number of herbivores increases, the enclosure will be expanded.
While this is taking place, the effects will be monitored. This concerns for example the effects on the fauna (are the mosses being replaced by grasses, etc.), the effects on the atmosphere (changes in levels of methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor) and the effects on the permafrost.
Progress and plans
In 1996 a 50 ha (125 acre) enclosure was built in Pleistocene Park. As a first step in recreating the ancient landscape, the Yakutian horses were introduced, as horses had been the most abundant ungulates on the northeastern Siberian mammoth steppe. Of the first 40 horses, 15 were killed by predators and 12 died of eating poisonous plants. More horses were imported, and they learned to cope with the environment. In 2006 approximately 20 horses lived in the park, and by 2007 more horses were being born annually than died. By 2013, the number had risen to about 30. Moose, present in the area, were also introduced. The effects of large animals (mammoths and wisents) on nature were artificially created by using an engineering tank and an 8-wheel drive Argo all-terrain vehicle to crush pathways through the willow shrub.
The vegetation in the park started to change. In the areas where the horses grazed, the soil has been compacted and mosses, weeds and willow shrub were replaced by grasses. Flat grassland is now the dominating landscape inside the park. The permafrost was also influenced by the grazers. When air temperature sank to –40 °C (–40 °F) in winter, the temperature of the ground was found to be only –5 °C (+23 °F) under an intact cover of snow, but –30 °C (–22 °F) where the animals had trampled down the snow. The grazers thus help keep permafrost intact, thereby lessening the amount of methane released by the tundra.
The new enclosure finally allowed a more rapid development of the project. After the fence was completed, reindeer were brought into the park from herds in the region and are now the most numerous ungulates in the park. To increase moose density in the park, special constructions were added to the fence in several places which allow animals outside the fenced area to enter the park, while not allowing them to leave. Besides that, wild moose calves were caught in other regions and transported to the park.
In September 2010 the muskox was reintroduced. Six animals were imported from Wrangel Island, one of which died after a few weeks. Seven months later, in April 2011, six Altai wapitis and five wisents arrived at the park, the wapitis originating from the Altai mountains and the wisents from Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve near Moscow. But the enclosing fence proved to low for the wapitis, and by the end of 2012 all six wapitis had jumped the fence and run off.
For the near future the focus in animal introductions will be placed on browsers, not grazers, i.e. wisents, muskoxen, moose and wapiti. Their role in this phase will be to dimish the amount of shrubs and trees and enlargen the grassy areas. Only when these areas have sufficiently increased will grazers like saiga and kiang be introduced.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
Criticism of the project mainly concerns three main areas:
Firstly, critics admonish that the introduction of alien species could damage the fragile ecosystem of the existing tundra. To this criticism Sergey Zimov replied: ″Tundra – that is not an ecosystem. Such systems had not existed on the planet [before the disappearance of the megafauna], and there is nothing to cherish in the tundra. Of course, it would be silly to create a desert instead of the tundra, but if the same site would evolve into a steppe, then it certainly would improve the environment. If deer, foxes, bovines were more abundant, nature would only benefit from this. And people too. However, the danger still exists, of course, you have to be very careful. If it is a revival of the steppes, then, for example, small animals are really dangerous to release without control. As for large herbivores – no danger, as they are very easy to remove again.″
Secondly, many doubt that the majority of species can be introduced in such harsh conditions. For example, according to some critics the Yakutian horses, despite the fact that they have been living in the park for several generations, would not have survived without human intervention. They normally tolerate –60 °C, but are said to cope poorly with an abundance of snow and possibly would have died within the first snowy winter of starvation. However, horses of much less primitive stock abandoned by the Japanese Army have been living feral on some uninhabited Kuril Islands since 1945. Despite the deep snows (two to three times deeper than in Yakutia), they have successfully survived all the winters without feeding. And in Pleistocene Park, while some of the Yakutian horses accept supplementary feeding, others keep away and survive on their own.
Thirdly, there are doubts regarding the feasibility of the project. Critics have questioned the benefits of the project as a scientific experiment and the practical value of recreated ecosystems.
Size and administration
Pleistocene Park is a 160 km2 scientific nature reserve (zakaznik) consisting of willow brush, grasslands, swamps, forests and a multitude of lakes. It is owned and administered by a non-profit corporation, Pleistocene Park Association, consisting of the ecologists from the Northeast Science Station in Chersky and the Grassland Institute in Yakutsk. The reserve is surrounded by a 600 km2 buffer zone that will be added to the park by the regional government once the animals have successfully established themselves.
Animals already present in the park:
- Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx): Present before the project started. It is an important predator of medium-sized herbivores like hares and roe deer.
- Tundra wolf (Canis lupus albus): Despite the original low concentration of ungulates, the area was home to a wolf family already before the project started. This arctic subspecies of the grey wolf is widespread from northern Scandinavia to the Kamchatka Peninsula.
- Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus): Present before the project started. Well adapted to living in the arctic environment, its fur changes color with the season: white in winter, brown in summer.
- Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos): Present before the project started. Currently the largest predator in the region.
- Wolverine (Gulo gulo): Present before the project started. A stocky and muscular carnivore, the wolverine is a powerful and versatile predator and scavenger.
- Red fox (Vulpes vulpes): Present before the project started. Red foxes are omnivores with a highly varied diet. In the former Soviet Union, up to 300 animals and a few dozen plant species are known to be consumed by them.
- Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus): Present before the project started. They mainly graze in the southern highlands of the park. This territory is not affected by spring flooding and dominated by larch forests and shrubland. Reindeer rarely visit the flood plain. Besides actively grazing (especially in winter) they browse on willow shrubs, tree moss and lichens. (Numbers in park at end of 2013: 10–50)
- Moose (Alces alces): Present before the project started, although in low numbers. Immigration from neighboring areas is stimulated. Due to poaching the density of moose in the region has substantially decreased in the last 20 years. To increase moose density in the park, special constructions were added to the fence in several places which allow animals outside the fenced area to enter the park, while not allowing them to leave. Besides that wild moose calves are being caught in other regions and transported to the park. It is the largest extant species of the deer family and one of the largest herbivores in the park today. (Numbers in park at end of 2013: 5–10)
- Yakutian horse (a strain of Equus ferus caballus): Imported from the surrounding Srednekolymsk region beginning in 1988. These animals are smaller than normal horses and grow long hair for the winter season to help them survive the cold winter. These are purely grazing animals – they eat only grass species, and visit the park′s forests only during the spring flood. (Numbers in park at end of 2013: approximately 30)
- Muskox (Ovibos moschatus): Muskoxen arrived at the Park in September 2010. They were brought from Wrangel Island (itself repopulated with animals from North America). There are plans to import several more muskoxen in 2013 or 2014. Compared with Wrangel Island the food base in the Park is very good for muskoxen. So far they are doing well and show no signs of body weight loss. (Numbers in park at end of 2013: 5 males)
- Wisent (European bison, Bison bonasus): The first wisents were introduced in April 2011. The wisents were brought to the park from the Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve near Moscow. The transportation was more complicated and took a longer time than originally thought, but all the animals recovered rapidly after the trip. The wisents were released into the larger fenced area after spending two weeks in the small paddock. Wisents seem to be able to eat anything, from carrots to old willow branches, dry grass and even pieces of the wooden feeding rack. Yakutian horses are dominant over the wisents, who often flee from them. At one time it had been considered to introduce American wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) as ecological proxy for the extinct steppe wisent, Bison priscus instead. (Numbers in park at end of 2013: 4 adult females, 1 adult male; calves not stated)
- The largest non-ungulate herbivores to be found in the park are the snow hare (Lepus timidus), the black-capped marmot (Marmota camtschatica), and the arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii).
Animals considered for reintroduction:
- Altai wapiti or Altai maral (Cervus canadensis sibiricus): Had been introduced in April 2011. The wapiti made their way to the park all the way from the mountainous regions of Altai in central southern Siberia. Wapiti are very good jumpers and all six escaped within the first two years. The fence is being strengthened to cope with future introductions.
- Yak (Bos mutus): Could be brought from the Tibetan Plateau. Along with the wisent and the reindeer, the species could contribute to the further proliferation of grasses in the region.
- Snow sheep (Ovis nivicola): Immigration from neighboring areas is encouraged.
- Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica): Introduction is in the planning stage. Its presence would be critical for the regulation of poisonous plants in the region that can be digested by the saiga but are harmful to other herbivores. Currently, free saigas can only be found in Russia in the Chyornye Zemli Nature Reserve.
- Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus): The Bactrian camel could act as a proxy for extinct Pleistocene camel species, whose fossils have been found in areas that once formed part of Beringia. The wild form of the species is critically endangered and is only found in some few areas of China and Mongolia.
- Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus): Immigration from neighboring areas is encouraged.
- Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica): Introduction planned for a later stage, when herbivores have multiplied. Endangered and reduced to the Primorye region. As the largest feline alive, the Siberian tiger could play a key role in regulating the numbers of the largest herbivores.
Animals that could be placed in the park in the event of being ′resurrected′ from extinction:
- Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius): In January 2011, the Yomiuri Shimbun reported that a team of scientists from Kyoto University were planning to extract DNA from a mammoth carcass preserved in a Russian laboratory and insert it into egg cells of African elephants in hope of creating a mammoth embryo. If the experiment succeeded, the calf would be taken to the park along with others to form a wild population. The researchers claimed that their aim was to produce the first mammoth within six years.
Southern branch of Pleistocene Park
In the years 2011 to 2014 a 150 ha (370 ac) branch of Pleistocene Park was constructed near the city of Tula in Tula Oblast in the European part of Russia, approximately 250 km (150 mi) south of Moscow.
In February 2014, a herd of feral Bashkir ponies arrived from the southern part of the Ural Mountains. In March 2014 True Nature Foundation, a European organization for ecological restoration and rewilding, will deliver a herd of American bison.
- Sergey A. Zimov (2005): ″Pleistocene Park: Return of the Mammoth’s Ecosystem.″ In: Science, 6 May 2005, vol. 308, no. 5723, pp. 796–798. Accessed 5 May 2013.
- Aleksandr Markov (2006): ″Good Fence for Future Mammoth Steppes.″ Translated by Anna Kizilova. Russia-InfoCentre website, 21 January 2007. Accessed 5 May 2013.
- Sergei Zimov (2007): ″Mammoth Steppes and Future Climate.″ In: Science in Russia, 2007, pp. 105–112. Article found in: www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Materials. Accessed 5 May 2013.
- Adam Wolf (2008): ″The Big Thaw.″ In: Stanford Magazine, Sept.–Oct. 2008, pp. 63–69. Accessed 7 May 2013. – PDF of print version, found in: www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Materials. Accessed 7 May 2013.
- Arthur Max (2010): ″Russian Scientist Working To Recreate Ice Age Ecosystem.″ In: The Huffington Post, 27 November 2010. Accessed 7 May 2013.
- Martin W. Lewis (2012): ″Pleistocene Park: The Regeneration of the Mammoth Steppe?″ and ″Pleistocene Re-Wilding: Environmental Restoration or Ecological Heresy?″ In: GeoCurrents, 12 respectively 14 April 2012. Accessed 2 May 2013.
- S.A. Zimov, N.S. Zimov, A.N. Tikhonov, F.S. Chapin III (2012): Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon.″ In: Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 57, 4 December 2012, pp. 26–45. Accessed 10 February 2014.
- Damira Davletyarova (2013): ″The Zimovs: Restoration of the Mammoth-Era Ecosystem, and Reversing Global Warming.″ In: Ottawa life Magazine, 11 Februar 2013. Accessed 6 June 2013.
- Eugene Potapov (2012): Pleistocene Park. Video, 7:11 min., uploaded 21 October 2012. Accessed 23 April 2013.
- Panoramio (2012): A view of the Kolyma River floodplains taken from the surrounding hills above Pleistocene Park. Photo, uploaded 23 October 2012. Accessed 27 June 2013.
- "Pleistocene Park Underway: Home for Reborn Mammoths?", National Geographic, May 17, 2005, retrieved 2009-04-20, ""... During the last ice age northeastern Siberia remained a grassy refuge for scores of animals, including bison and woolly mammoths. Then, about 10,000 years ago, this vast ecosystem disappeared as the Ice Age ended. Now, though, the Ice Age landscape is on its way back, with a little help from the Russian scientists who have established "Pleistocene Park." ..."
- Anna Meyer (2005), Hunting the double helix: how DNA is solving puzzles of the past, Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1-74114-107-9, retrieved 2009-04-20, "... lies in the work of a Russian ecologist, Sergei Zimov, who hopes to recreate a ′mammoth steppe′ in north-east Siberia, part of a ′Pleistocene Park′. Work on the project has begun, and so far there are horses, moose, reindeer and bison in the park. These animals are removing mosses and shrubs, ..."
- Sergey A. Zimov (6 May 2005). "Pleistocene Park: Return of the Mammoth’s Ecosystem". Science; pp. 796–798. Article also to be found in www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Materials. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Sergei Zimov (2007). "Mammoth Steppes and Future Climate". Science in Russia; pp. 105–112. Article found in: www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Materials. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Damira Davletyarova (11 February 2013). "The Zimovs: Restoration of the Mammoth-Era Ecosystem, and Reversing Global Warming". Ottawa life Magazine. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Luke Griswold-Tergis (8 November 2013). "A Pleistocene Park – pt.1". Earth Challenge Blog. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Facebook: Pleistocene Park Movie. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- S.A. Zimov, N.S. Zimov, A.N. Tikhonov, F.S. Chapin III (4 December 2012). "Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon". Quaternary Science Reviews; pp. 26–45. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Luke Griswold-Tergis (11 November 2013). "A Pleistocene Park – pt.2". Earth Challenge Blog. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Scientific background.
- Arthur Max (27 November 2010). "Russian Scientist Working To Recreate Ice Age Ecosystem". The Huffington Post. Article found in: www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Media about us. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Алексей Курило (Aleksey Kurilo) (2 August 2008). ""Плейстоценовый парк" Якутии открывает тайны прошлого". Sakha News. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Gennady G. Boeskorov (2004). "The North of Eastern Siberia; Refuge of Mammoth Fauna in the Holocene". Gondwana Research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 451–455. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- Александр Костинский, Александр Марков (Aleksandr Kostinskiy, Aleksandr Markov) (2006). "В Сибирской тундре воссоздается экосистема, погибшая 12 тысяч лет назад". Радио Свобода, 21 December 2006. – Printversion of an interview with Sergey Zimov aired by Radio Svoboda on 15 December 2006 –. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
- zoologist.ru – Зоологический форум (Zoological forum) (8 December 2013). "Плейстоценовые парки - Pleistocene Parks". Private communication by Nikita Zimov, director of Pleistocene Park, quoted in an online discussion forum. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – The Park
- Mark Paricio (20 July 2012). "Pleistocene Park". The Polaris Project. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Adam Wolf (Sep–Oct 2008). "The Big Thaw". Stanford Magazine: 63–69. Article found in: www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Materials. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Fanny Kittler (17 July 2013). "Summer Blog: Chersky 2013 – Pleistocene Park". PAGE21: Summer Blog: Chersky 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Александр Марков (Aleksandr Markov) (6 December 2006). "Хороший забор — главное условие восстановления мамонтовых степей". Элементы. Article found in: www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Media about us. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- Terry Chapin: The Pleistocene Park Concept. An Illustration. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Homepage
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Reindeer
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Moose
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – the monitoring tower
- Diary of Nikita Zimov during the trip to Wrangel Island in August-September 2010 (In Russian)
- www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – News: April 24, 2011 — Wapiti and Bisons have arrived to the Park
- Наталья Парамонова (Natalia Paramonov) (27 June 2011). "Через сто лет в Якутии может сформироваться популяция зубров". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- zoologist.ru – Зоологический форум (Zoological forum) (2011). "Плейстоценовые парки - Pleistocene Parks". Comments by Nikita Zimov, director of Pleistocene Park, in an online discussion forum. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Martin W. Lewis (12 April 2012). "Pleistocene Park: The Regeneration of the Mammoth Steppe?". GeoCurrents. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- Lidia Kruglova (2 May 2011). "Pleistocene Park: so far without mammoths". Voice of Russia. Article also to be found in www.pleistocenepark.ru/en/ – Media about us. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
- Александр Марков (Aleksandr Markov), Ольга Орлова (Olga Orlova) (26 December 2006). "Сибирский парк ″мамонтового периода″". Полiт.ру. Interview with Sergey Zimov. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Richard Stone (7 November 1998). "Pleistocene Park". The Moscow Times, issue 1578. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Terry Chapin: “Pleistocene Park” and “Bison and Pleistocene Park.” Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Facebook: Pleistocene Park Movie (23 July 2014): ″Sergey Zimov and Terry Chapin arranged for Wood Bison to be shipped to Yakutia in 2006. Unfortunately the Yakutian government did not allow any bison to be released Pleistocene Park.″ Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Brad Lendon (17 January 2011). "Scientists trying to clone, resurrect extinct mammoth". CNN news blog. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- True Nature Foundation (4 March 2014): ″Professor Zimov and his team, known from Pleistocene Park, ...″ Facebook. Retrieved 5 March 2014.