Podujevo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Podujevo
Podujevë
Municipality and city
Podujevo (also Podujevë and Подујево)
Podujevo center
Podujevo center
Podujevo  Podujevë is located in Kosovo
Podujevo  Podujevë
Podujevo
Podujevë
Location in Kosovo
Coordinates: 42°54′N 21°11′E / 42.900°N 21.183°E / 42.900; 21.183
Country Kosovo[a]
District District of Pristina
Government
 • Mayor Agim Veliu (LDK)
Area
 • Total 63.25997 km2 (24.42481 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 88,499 (municipality)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 11000
Area code(s) +381 38
Car plates 01
Website Municipality of Podujevo

Podujevo (Albanian: Besiana, Podujevë, Podujeva, Serbian: Подујево, Turkish: Poduyeva) is a city and municipality located in the district of Pristina of north-eastern Kosovo.[a]

Podujevo is situated in a strategic position due to a regional motorway and railroad passing through it which links surrounding regions. Pristina, the capital of Kosovo, is located some 35 km (22 mi) to the south. The total population of the municipality is estimated at 88,499 (in 2011).[1]

Geography[edit]

Podujevo is located in the northeastern corner of Kosovo,[a] situated near a regional motorway and railroad which links it to surrounding regions. Pristina, the capital of Kosovo, is located some 35 km (22 mi) to the south. It consists of Llapi’s hollow, Albanik mountains in the west and eastern Kosovo’s mountains in the east.[2] Llapi’s valley is placed between the village of Repa and that of Barileva with a 35 km distance and between Batllava and Llapashtica e Eperme with 12–15 km.[3] Llapi’s jaw is located between Repa and Murgulla (14 km) and from Bellasica to Uglar’s Cape (14 km).[4] Gallapi is placed between Batllava and Metergoc in latitude and from Turiqica to Koliq in longtitude.[5] Podujevo is the largest municipality of Kosovo since it covers 633 m².[6] Since its territory is compact, it represents a microgeographical entirety.[3]

Bounded with Length/km Length/%
Serbia 90.9 51.9
Pristina 37.39 21.3
Vushtrri 18.9 10.8
Mitrovica 17.52 10.0
Leposavic 7.7 1.6
Obiliq 2.8 1.6

Waters[edit]

Podujevo counts several ravines, small rivers, water springs and rivers.[7] The most notable river is Llapi which runs through what is pretty much the middle of Podujevo’s territory.[8] This river springs from Albanik mountains[8] and is the main branch of Sitnica.[8] As the source of Llapi river is considered the place where Murgulla’s and Sllatina’s rivers are joint in Pollata village.[9] In the upper part of it, the river runs through steep places but when it enter Llapi’s hollow, its speed is moderated.[9] Llapi river is 82.7 km long up to Sitnica river[9] while most of the river passes through Podujevo’s lands, in a 61 km length.[9] This river is wide from 9 to 12 meters[9] and deep up to 1.2 meters.[9] The river brings an average of 4.9 m³ per second,[10] however, there are considerable variations with the maximum going up to 25m³ per second.[10]

A picture of Llapi river, taken from the center of Podujevo.
Llapi river.

There are other rivers also. Dumnica river is 25.5 km long and filles 87 km² and it is used for irrigating.[10] Kaqanolli’s river is Llapi’s most important right branch and it is 32.5 km long, filling 193.6 km2.[10] Batlava river fills 315 km² and it also flows into Llapi river.[10] In 1965 a cascade 40.5 m high was built in order to form an artificial lake.[10] This accumulation can handle up to 40 million m³ of water[10] and was primary built for ECK needs, to be used later for consuming purposes.[10]

Climate[edit]

The climate in Podujevo belongs to the continental zone but alike, it is colder than in other parts of Kosovo.[11] The average temperature in Podujevo is 9.6 ̊C.[12] The amplitude is 64.2 ̊C.[12]

Month Coldest/warmest month Lowest/highest temperature
January -2.1 ̊C -27.2 ̊C
August 20.1 ̊C 37.0 ̊C

The annual rate of precipitation is lower than that of Kosovo (784mm [12] ) with 697mm [12] of raining per year. The most humid month is may with 77.5mm [12] and the driest month is march with 42.3mm.[12] The average snow fal l days are 26 [12] while days with snow mantle are 48.4.[12] The maximum layer of snow is recorded to be 96 cm [12] while the month with a maximum of snow mantle days is February with 11.7 days.[12]

Flora and Fauna[edit]

Podujevo counts 29,050 acres of forests [13] most of whom are located in the western and northern part of its territory.[14] 17,600 ha are under state control[13] and the rest (11.450) are under private control.[13] Since the woods remain the main warming option of Kosovars,[13] degradation and wood cuts remain a challenge.[13] The trees which are found in this zone include:[13] beech (fagus sylvatica), hornbeam (carpinus orientalis) and ash-tree. In alluvial lands osier and poplar may be found[13] but other trees are found also. There may be found bushes such as cornel bush (Cornus Mas), haw (crataegus monogyna), canker-rose (rosa canina), elder (sambocus nigra), gooseberry (prunus spicosa), hazelnut (corylus avellana) [15] etc. The forests of Podujevo contain wolves (canis lupus), rabbits (lepus europaeus), foxes, gray bears, wild pigs and other mammals.[16] From the birds there may be found pigeons (Columbia livia), laraska (pica pica), crow, flicker (dryobates major) etc.[16] In rivers, water snake (natrix natrix), rock snake (vipera ammodytes) and random turtle (testudo bermanni) are found.[16]

Natural Monuments[edit]

In Podujevo, there are a number of Natural Monuments who are recognized by experts [17] as valuable resources. The list includes:[18]

A botanic monument in Podujevo.
Object Locality Type
Kaqanolli's Jaw Kaqanoll Locality of special interest
"Ushton Reka" Popova Locality of special interest
Batllava Lake Batllava Locality of special interest
Vrella Dobratin Water resources
Water Resource Kalatica Water resources
Populus sp Murgulla Botanic Monument
Juglans regia Murgulla Botanic Monument
Fagus Dobratin Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Obrança Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Llapashtica e epërme Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Llapashtica e epërme Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Livadica Botanic Monument
Populus sp. Orllan Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Konushefc Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Lluzhan Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Dyz Botanic Monument
Populus sp. Gerdoc Botanic Monument
Quercus sp. Halabak Botanic Monument

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

The territories of Podujevo were filled with a lake which connected the waters of Egje and Panonia until the end of dilivium and there are still clear sites of alluvium terraces who are usually formed during a lake’s pour.[19] The human life began somewhere 7000 years BC[19] and the earliest prehistorical footprints have been found near Sibofc i epërm.[19] These footprints belong to the period of neolit.[19] The material culture of this place belongs to the cultural group of Straçeva,[19] whose bearers were engaged in agriculture, hunting and fishing[19] and used hoe and bung made from hewn rock.[20] The houses were built with cane and mortar and they also used to grow sheep, cattle, goats and pigs from whom they fed and collected the wool, to use it later for making their dress.[20] In Sibovc, crocks were found.[20] Also, from the neolit period there are other dwellings such as those in Surkish, Ballovc and Gllamnik, Barileva and Lupç.[20] Some of them were settled at the side of Llapi river.[20] From the copper period there is a cover made of clay who was found in Barileva.[21] Concerning the bronze period, there are clear sights of the Illyrian culture.[21] Trails are found in Berrnica, Kulina and Barileva.[21] Dardan graveyards in Berrnica were settled in the place of a former settlement[21] where dishes and other ornaments were found.[21] Such Illyrian culture belongs to 14th to 9th centuries BC.[21] In the Iron period the residents saw an economic prospect.[22] That happened between the 9th and 1st centuries BC where in these territories traces of Iron usage were found.[22] During this time there were built several towns and fortresses such as those in: Kulina, Gradina, Pollata, Lauca, Laberion, Braina (fortress), Labuca, Surkish, Sibovc, Batlava and Keqekolla.[22] The oldest writing in Podujevo territories was found in Kulina’s Castle.[23]

Antiquity[edit]

The Dardanian Kingdom, established in 4th century BC included Podujevo’s territories.[24] Galabrians also used to live in these territories, specifically, in the land that today is called Gallap (or: Gollak).[25] Dardania was conquered by Romans 29 years BC when they lost a battle against them.[25] During the Roman Period, several places were used for mining.[25] The list includes Labuca, Bedariana, Quka of Batllava and Keqekolla.[25] Agriculture and farming were considered important also.[25] Across Podujevo used to pass one of the most important roads on that time which connected Naissus and Lissus.[26] Across the zone where this road passed, there are found small dwellings (vici), hostess (mansiones) and places to exchange horses (mutationes).[26] From the most important dwellings of this kind is station Vendenis.[26] In Podujevo, Sibofc, Lupç and Gllamnik several objects which belong to this period were found, including an altar made of rock, a kennel, a milarium and the altar of the Dardanian Goddess.[26] During the Roman time, Illyrians were influenced by the cult of Magna Mater[27] and other Greek, Roman and Oriental traditions.[27] Snake, particularly, was considered saint and he should not be killed.[27] Christianity started to spread in the 1st century AD and when the Roman Empire guaranteed the rights of the converts, Christianity became the dominant religion among Dardans.[27] Base grounds of old bazilika were found in the south-western part of Laberion’s fortress and near Pollata village also.[28] The most famous towns during that era include Vendenis, Besiana, Laberion, Labuca, Bederiana, Kulina while the most famous fortresses include that of Teneshdoll, Quka and Gradina.[28] Vendenis is found near Gllamnik near the old Naissus-Lissus road.[29] It was first mentioned by Ptoleme in the 2nd century AD in “Geographia” [29] and was also mentioned by Antonim of Raven as Vindenis.[29] Many objects dating back to the Roman Era were found including ceramic, gold, silver, altars, sarcophagus, vessels, a statue of Venus and a mosaic of Orfe among others.[30] Besiana is found near the village of Besia.[31] Among the important discoveries is a sculpture dating back to the neolithic period and is considered a unique exemplar of European art.[32] This settlement was firstly mentioned by Procuplus.[32] Laberion is found in the territories where today is the village of Ballofc.[32] It was mentioned by Kanitz and Garashanin[32] who say that this castle was built to protect the Hammeum-Vicianum road.[32] It was also mentioned by Procopus.[32] Labuca is found near the source of Llapi river.[32] Procopus mentions it.[32] This city was an important asset for mining activities of the Romans.[33] Bederiana is found in Braina and was enclosed by 2 meters thick walls made by rocks and mortar[33] and was protected by several towers.[33] An earthquake ruined the town in 518 AD[33] and was later rebuilt during Justinian's period.[33] The city was supplied with water from a source who was 2 km away.[33] The town near Batllava by its buildings resembles to that of Bederiana.[34] The town is found near a mining zone[34] and from its heights the whole territories around can be seen.[34] Like these, there are other towns and fortresses who prove a well-established civilization during that era.[35] Moreover, very few archaeological exploatations were made in Podujevo[35] and in many villages[35] there are signs such as vessels and bowls that more settlement can be found.[35]

Roman period[edit]

The archaeological site at Glavnik, a village five kilometres south of Podujevo, might have been ancient Vindenis.[36] A luxurious Roman villa rustica from the late 3rd and early 4th centuries was found at the site, including a mosaic panel of Orpheus (which today is in the Museum of Kosovo).[37]

Middle Ages[edit]

During the 9th century, the Byzantine Empire made some structural changes in order to centralize its jurisdiction.[38] Podujevo’s territories were included into the Thema of Scopje.[38] Later, at the end of the 9th century and at the beginning of the 10th century, Bulgarian Kingdom occupied those lands[38] but later, when Vasili II came to power he retrieved those lands and extinguished the Bulgarian Kingdom.[38] The lands remained under the rule of Byzantine until Stefan Nemanja came to power at Rashka.[39] The state Rashka occupied Kosovo, at the end of the 12th century[39] and it remained so until 1371[40] although, the territories of Podujevo remained controlled by Serbian rulers afterwards. Llapi region had a large number of population during this time.[41] During this time, the Albanian catholic clergy was banished in order to be replaced by the Serbian Orthodox one.[40] At 28 June of 1389, near the coasts of Sitnica and Llapi rivers, the battle of Kosovo was fought.[42] Filip Mezieri mentions that the battle was fought in Albanian lands[42] and hence the theory that Kosovo is the heart of Serbia is proven false.[42] This territory felt under Ottoman Rule in 1455[43] The region was part of Medieval Serbia. In 1355, Emperor Stefan Dušan gave the village of Braina to Mount Athos. In 1381, Prince Lazar gave Orlane (a village in Podujevo) to his endowment, the Ravanica monastery. Ruins of old Serbian monasteries and churches exist at Orlane, Murgula (destroyed in the 15th century), Palatna, Slatina, Svetlje, Rakinica, Metohija (2), Donje Ljupce (destroyed in the 15th century), Gornja Pakastica (destroyed in the 15th century), Brevnik, Braina (3) and graveyards exist in most of these villages. The village of Brevnik had a notable medieval mine, and a fort with a church.

Ottoman period[edit]

Considering the fact that Kosovo was under Ottoman Rule, also Podujevo remained under Ottoman Rule from 1455 to 1912.[44] After that, Ottomans declared the territories as lands of the state or Mirije. In the beginning, Podujevo was organized as a Nahije, the largest one of Vushtrria.[45] During the 15th to 18th centuries Ottomans attempt to develop agriculture, farming, vineyards, beekeeping and handicrafts.[46] Also, mining activities were present, especially in Bellasica[47] who was recognized as one of the most important mining areas in Balkan[48] In the defter of jizya of 1485, Llapi had 5.952 Christian families[48] while in 1488 and 89 Llapi had 7.399 households.[47] In the 18th century the Nahije of Llapi was part of Pristina’s Sanxhak.[46] At this time, Llapi lost many residents due to two plagues who stroke the place.[49] During the Austro-Ottoman war the Austrian army destroyed and robbed the city twice.[50] Later, the region was against Ottomans.[51] During the first Serbian Revolt, the Serbian army got into the village of Reçica and killed 30 people including Demë Ahmeti,[52] an Albanian national hero who is later mentioned in songs.[53] This happened at 28 June 1811, during the feast of Eid.[52] The rebellion against Ottomans started when Sulltan Abdyl Mejid proclaimed “The Saint Decree of Julhane” in 1839[54] which increased taxes and so it brought many rebellions.[54] The population of Llapi fought against these reforms and during 1843 the Ottomans temporary left Llapi and started to organize the reoccupation.[54] The rebels gathered many soldiers from the surrounding region and they won the battles against Ottomans, conquering Pristina[55] and stimulating a bigger rebellion in other regions.[55] This rebellion was extinguished in 1847.[56] When Serbia conquered the Sanjak of Nis in 1877, many Albanians started to leave their houses and to come to the other parts of Kosovo, where Llapi was tone of their first destinations.[57] There is not a single village in Podujevo where Muhajirs or migrants cannot be found,[57] furthermore, they established new villages.[57] Albanians of Llapi, since the First League of Prizren did not pay taxes to the Ottomans.[58] Afterwards, the Ottomans built a military cantonment during 1892 and 1899[59] since they detected Serbian Army movements near the border.[60] The Albanian rebellion against Ottomans during 1906 was primary organized in the Llapi region.[61] Another rebellion was that of 1910 which started in the Llapi region.[62] The relationships between the residents and The Higher Port were becoming very fraught and when Sulltan Mehmed Reshid V came to visit Kosovo, very few Llapi residents were present.[63] Llapi is also known for its cooperation with Isa Boletini,[64] who during 1911 operated around this zone.[64] Many soldiers from around the villages of Llapi and Gallapi testified loyalty to Isa Boletini in 1912, in the Bradash pledge.[65] Their goal was to initiate the general Albanian rebellion against Ottoman Rule[66] and they were part of the rebellion until it ended.[67] In the 1455 Ottoman defter (tax registry), villages in the Podujevo region were inhabited solely by ethnic Serbs, Christians: Podujevo had 43 houses (including a priest), Murgula 15 (a priest), Palatna 8, Slatina 18, Svetlje 55 (with a church, priest and three monks), Metohija 51 (with two priests and a monk), Donja Dubnica 9 (a priest), Pakastica 33 (a priest), Braina 67, Bradaš 36 (two priests). Podujevo is also mentioned in the 1487 defter of the Sanjak of Vučitrn.

1912 until World War I[edit]

When the neighbor countries formed the Balkanian Alliance, Albanians felt the risk of being conquered.[68] Serbia started to attack across the border where 16.000 Albanian forces were placed.[68] The largest battle was fought in Merdare and lasted three days[69] with the Serbian army who had up to 70.000 soldiers.[69] Soon they took Merdare and the war continued in other fronts.[70] From that time the region remained under Serbian Rule who started to organize the government over these lands.[71] Llapi remained a region as part of Pristina.[71] In 1913, Llapi counted for 27.081 residents while 10 years ago 38.520 residents were living here.[71] At 20 August 1914, the Decree about the colonization of the lands conquered by Serbia was announced.[72] This, and the process of disarmament[72] were key factors who initiated the Kaçak guerillian movement.[72]

World War I and World War II[edit]

During the First World War, the most of the Serbian army lead by the Serbian king Petrin I, draw back through Llapi region where they destroyed, robed and killed a lot.[73] Llapi was later conquered by Bulgaria which, from time to time, organized grain and cattle requisition.[73] Many people were deported starting from 1916 and were sent to work in different countries, most of them never returned.[74] After the Bulgarian surrounder, Bulgarian soldiers, drawing back to Bulgaria, killed a lot of people and especially they robbed many places.[75] Later, Albanians formed their own military formations and set their own power for a short time of two months.[76] The region felt under the power of Yugoslavian Kingdom.[77] At the beginning, the Llapi region had 12 municipalities with 27.084 residents.[78] Later, the number of municipalities was reduced[79] From 1929 to 1941, Podujevo was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Between the two World Wars, Albanians living here had no political rights.[80] They were poor, heavenly taxed, corruption was evident in the administration but the main problem was colonization, by those in power claimed to be an agricultural reform.[81] Albanian language was not used at all in the public administration and schools[81] and between the two wars, only a doctor worked.[82] Many residents were forced to migrate in Turkey, while their land was given to Serbian and Montenegrin colonists[83] who had taken 62% of infields.[84] Even mosques were controlled by the state.[82] The armed resistance was mostly pushed by Kaçak movements[85] since there was impossible to organize large groups of people.[86] They managed to scare out the Serbian colonists[87] but the consequences were far greater since at the beginning of 1921 many massacres were made.[88] In Sharban, 35 people were killed and 28 houses were burned,[89] in Bellopoja 40 people were killed and 57 houses were damaged,[90] in Keqekolla 490 people were killed and 40 houses were burned,[90] in Prapashtica, 1011 people were killed and 80 houses were burned,[91] in Nishevc 150 cattles were robbed,[91] In Orllan 14 people were killed, in Kushevica over 12 people were killed, in Repa over 12 people were killed, in Popova 573 people were killed and 55 houses were burned,[92] in Velikoreka 2 houses were burned,[93] in Gerdoc 27 people were killed and 2 houses were burned,[93] in Lupç 11 people were killed and in Lepaja 5 houses were burned.[93] Justin Godard, at the Paris Peace Conference defended “the rights of life for the Albanian population.”.[94] From 1912 to 1918, around 8000 Albanians were forced to leave their lands in behalf of migration to Turkey[95] while during 1920-1924,280 Albanian families were forced to leave*.[96] In parallel, 420 Slavic families were settled in the territory between 1920-1928[97] and until 1932, 3.474 ha were given to colonists[97] and 756 houses were built[97] During World War II, Llapi was conquered by German army.[98] The residents of Llapi did not respond to the Serbian call for mobilization and fled to mountains, and so did before the Yugoslavian army.[99] Germany conquered Podujevo with two tanks.[99] Under the German administration this region was called Llapi’s nenprefektura.[99] Albanians were striving to convince the authorities for unifying the Albanian regions under one administration but failed so.[100] Llapi during that time had 42.942 residents.[101] At the end of World War II, Serbia, Germany and Bulgaria were struggling to get the control of the city.[102] Military troops around Podujevo were more in number than residents[103] who later fleed to Pristina in a 5 km convoy during October 1944.[103] Earlier, the Germans gave Jahja Fusha the authority upon the city.[103] 5000 Albanian soldier were fighting to protect the city against Serbians and Bulgarians.[104] and the war ended at 8 November 1944, after a long battle.[105] The residents were required to come back to the city, afterwards some 500 men were killed without prior judgement.[105] 10 places are recorded to be massive graveyards.[105] Starting grom December 1994, Albanians were recoired to mobilized and they were sent to fight in other part in Yugoslavia.[106]

Serbian Rule[edit]

After World War II Llapi remained under Serbian Rule.[105] Serbian administrate collected 11.297.067 dinars pretending it to be a punishment for illegal enrichment of some people.[107] During 1950-1955 the Serbians were concerned with administration, such that many directorate were founded.[108] When the constitution of 1963 was approved the municipalities were in a better situation.[109] In 1966 Podujevo had 58.604 citizens.[110] These improvements were ruined by Serbian authorities in 1990.[111] Before this, their five years plan of 1981-1985 did not offer a solution for the economic problems of resident.[112] During 1981-1991 fifty one Albanian soldiers were unjustly murdered during their service in the Yugoslavian army.[113] The most notable event of the time were the demonstration of 1981, organized in Pristina but who were later followed by massive demonstrations around Kosovo.[112] The city of Podujevo during that time was blocked except Medical Center.[112] The route near the border was blocked and so was the route to Pristina.[112] The police was shoot with gun fires while they were driving tanks.[114] Some thousands of people were in prison.[114] During the Serbian Rule, Albanians were organized into several political parties such as “NDSH” or Albanian National Democratic Party,[115] Albanian Youth National Democratic Committee,[116] in The Albanian League [116] and so on. Demonstrations were organized in March 1989 and 1990.[117] During this decade many workers were expelled from their jobs and the funds were stopped for educational institutions.[118] That continued for a while, but Albanians were organized and they offered private funds themselves, in that way the education process did not stop.[119] During 1989-1997, 22 people were killed from this region.[120] These actions motivated the Albanian populations such that they started to mobilize and resolve their disputes. During 1990-1992 114 blood sheet issues and 60 other disputes were resolved.[121]

Modern history[edit]

In 1997 the Kosovo Liberation Army was formed so Milosevic started a brutal campaign against it in 1998.[122] For such reason NATO started Military campaign so it could protect the civilian population from Milosevic.[122] In March 1999 the scorpions killed 14 Albanian civilians.[123] After the war, the process of establishing Municipal Assembly began in 2002.[124] Later in 17 of February 2008 Kosovo declared its independence.[122] During the Kosovo War (1998-1999), the town was the site of the Podujevo massacre, on March 28, in which 14 Kosovo Albanian women and children were executed by Serbian paramilitary forces.

Podujevo is known for its cattle trade and for its battlefields during the Kosovo War. Podujevo is not one of the major cities of Kosovo, but has a good potential to invite tourists from around Kosovo and other foreign places for its beautiful mountains and Lake Batlava.

The road coming into Podujevo from the city of Niš[125] was the site of the 2001 Podujevo bus bombing, in which a bus carrying Serb pilgrims traveling to the Gračanica monastery site was bombed. Twelve Serb pilgrims were killed and dozens more were injured by the bomb-blast.[126] Kosovo Albanian extremists have been blamed for the attack.[127]

Demographics[edit]

While the urban population is estimated to consist of 23.453 citizens,[128] the rural population lives in 77 villages with a total number of 65.046 residents.[128] From the overall population, Albanians are 87.523, Ashkali 680, Roma 75, Bosniaks 33, Serbs 12, Turks 5, Egyptians 2 and the other 43 and not specified.[124] The city faces a low ratio of internal migration [129] but a high rate of commuting.[130] 98% of the residents are Muslim.[131] The illiteracy ratio is lower than 5%.[132] The average years of schooling is 9.0 to 9.2.[133] Labor force is smaller than 40.1% [134] and the employment rate is lower than 20.1%[135] while the unemployment rate is between 45 and 51%.[136] The average size of the households is between 6 and 7%.[137] The usage of internet is Between 50.1% and 57%.[138]

Year Population [139]
1948 43.783
1953 48.272
1961 53.480
1971 62.324
1981 77.423
1991 94.943
2011 88.499 [128]

Villages[edit]

Podujevo counts 77 villages.[128] In these villages reside 65,046 people[128] or 73.49% of the total population of 88,499 inhabitants. Families in rural areas have an average of 9.8 members per family.[140]

Name [141] Territory/km² [141] Residents[141] Built Area/m³ [142] Density [142] Neighborhoods [142] Type [142]
Bajçinë 9.1 1896 79 24 16 Diffused
Ballofc 10.32 1778 46.4 38.3 7 Diffused
Barainë 5.91 175 4 43.7 11 Cumulated
Batllavë 17.26 2892 66.4 43.5 13 Cumulated
Bellopojë 5.8 1887 42.3 44.6 14 Cumulated
Bërvenik 4 342 13.2 25.9 7 Diffused
Bllatë 2.19 67 2.6 25.8 5 Dense
Bradash 15.3 2752 71.7 38.4 3 Cumulated
Brainë 16.65 682 30.7 22.2 4 Diffused
Brecë 9.55 285 6.9 41.3 4 Cumulated
Burincë 2.74 377 9.4 40.1 4 Cumulated
Dobërdol 6.5 1592 46.5 34.2 8 Cumulated
Dobratin 15.68 1824 55.4 32.9 9 Diffused
Dumnica e Epërme 7.44 724 23.1 31.3 9 Cumulated
Dumnica e Poshtme 19.78 2978 109.1 27.3 7 Dense
Dumosh 3.43 1502 47.8 31.4 0 Cumulated
Dvorishtë 5.9 384 8.2 46.8 8 Diffused
Dyz 9.12 973 24.9 39.1 9 Dense
Gërdoc 5.9 1582 31.4 50.4 3 Extended
Gllamnik 9.37 4803 99.3 48.4 16 Cumulated
Godishnjak 2.6 584 12.5 46.7 7 Diffused
Halabak 6.56 1084 22.2 48.8 8 Cumulated
Herticë 22.59 1024 23.9 42.8 9 Diffused
Kaçybeg 1.36 764 11.3 67.6 0 Cumulated
Kalaticë 3.27 397 8.6 46.2 5 Cumulated
Kërpimeh 6.03 808 22.2 36.4 4 Cumulated
Konushefc 5.26 478 44.8 22.1 9 Dense
Kushevicë 4.13 989 16 29.9 7 Diffused
Letanc 3.15 2384 59.1 40.3 8 Cumulated
Livadhicë 2.35 348 13.5 25.7 7 Dense
Lladofc 4.7 1092 20.5 53.3 2 Cumulated
Llapashtica e Epërme 21.71 1992 89.5 22.3 15 Diffused
Llapashtica e Poshtme 8.03 1164 62.5 18.6 8 Dense
Llaushë 9.99 1068 32.1 33.3 2 Diffused
Llugë 3.16 1316 41.2 31.9 9 Dense
Lluzhan 4.44 775 36.4 21.3 8 Dense
Lupç i Epërm 7.45 620 13.1 47.3 8 Cumulated
Lupç i Poshtëm 8.23 2564 62.5 41 10 Cumulated
Majac 14.35 1885 53 35.6 12 Extended
Merdarë 3 27 9.5 2.8 5 Diffused
Metehi 6.87 1605 39.7 40.4 3 Cumulated
Metergoc 16.37 78 13.5 5.7 3 Diffused
Miroc 3.65 252 7.1 35.5 8 Diffused
Muhazob 4.35 13 2.5 5.2 11 Diffused
Murgullë 37.53 330 9.3 35.5 2 Cumulated
Obrançë 5.84 2429 138.8 17.5 12 Diffused
Orllan 17.47 1286 51.8 24.8 10 Dense
Pakashticë e Epërme 15.3 1082 30 36.1 5 Cumulated
Pakashticë e Poshtme 0.9 474 6.2 76.4 2 Cumulated
Penuhë 4.34 688 21.5 32 3 Dense
Peran 3.35 1578 29.1 54.2 8 Cumulated
Përpellac 5.57 0 2.4 0 0 N/A
Pollatë 6.9 624 12.2 51.1 6 Cumulated
Popovë 17.59 432 14 30.6 12 Extended
Potok 3.05 262 14 18.7 4 Extended
Radujevc 1.92 144 6.2 23.2 0 Diffused
Rakinicë 4.16 12 0.3 40 9 Cumulated
Reçicë 10.38 87 3.2 27.2 4 Dense
Repë 11.79 783 16.5 47.4 2 Cumulated
Revuçë 7.92 1181 34 34.7 5 Diffused
Sallabajë 2.5 987 20.5 48.1 4 Cumulated
Sfeçël 5.54 2688 55.1 48.8 7 Cumulated
Shajkoc 9.45 1869 64.4 29 2 Cumulated
Shakovicë 1.64 762 16.9 45.1 3 Cumulated
Shtedim 3.4 1302 18.1 71.9 10 Cumulated
Siboc i Epërm 5.8 1086 45.9 23.7 10 Cumulated
Siboc i Poshtëm 1.42 632 7.5 84.3 2 Cumulated
Sllatinë 13.47 452 9.1 49.7 3 Cumulated
Surdull 2.6 187 18 10.4 4 Diffused
Surkish 2.18 1087 19.6 55.5 2 Cumulated
Sylevicë 10.43 131 7.2 18.2 5 Diffused
Tërrnavë 9.03 972 38.8 25 8 Cumulated
Tërrnavicë 6.31 247 4.9 50.4 2 Cumulated
Turuçicë 15.33 378 10.8 35 2 Diffused
Velikarekë 6.58 1078 20.9 51.6 0 Cumulated
Zakutë 2.23 836 19.8 42.2 2 Cumulated
Zhiti 12.34 284 5.7 49.8 2 Cumulated

Economy[edit]

The biggest expansion on the economy of Podujevo occurred during the 80s.[143] At that time, there were 16 social organizations that have developed their economic activities, with altogether 2.500 employees.[143] The beginning of the 90s is characterized with a growing of private businesses, in particular in trade and services.[143] During the war of 1999 all of these businesses were destroyed by Serbian military forces, so the period of renewal was long and difficult.[143] After the war, the private sector was the main bearer of economical development with a continual growth.[143] According to the Businesses Office, there are around 3.122 registered businesses, mostly in trade section.[143]

Agriculture[edit]

Podujevo is mostly a rural area.[144] Podujevo has extraordinary resources regarding the agriculture field, since there are sufficient lands and water.[144] Historically, the agriculture was cultivated only for family needs, as it has been considered as a secondary sector, but recently it has began to be used also for other needs and requests, which could be beneficial and profitable.[144] Other relevant sectors which belong to the agriculture, are: farming, beekeeping, poultry, vegetable, arboriculture, land cultivation, and so forth.[145]

Mining[edit]

From the most common minerals extracted for industrial usage are silicates (Si), carbonates (Ch), gravel (Gs), clay (Cl), nickel (Nl), lead (Pb) zinc (Zn) and aluminum (Al).[146] There is no clear data regarding to the quantity of these reserves.* There are two companies who use surface mineral resources, one in Murgulla and the other one in Turuqica.[13]

Industry[edit]

After the 1999, the development of the secondary sector or industry is accompanied with the development of small and medium enterprises in the production field.[147] Currently, the industry plays an important role in the economical development of Podujevo city.[147] There are 116 industrial buildings with 290 employees.[147] Former public enterprises have been privatized.[148] Some of the most important enterprises include: Construction Armory Factory “FAN”, Brick Factory “Euro Block”, Recycling Enterprise “Plastika”, Factory for processing mushrooms “Agro-Product”, Factory for production of juices “Dona”, Factory for production of juices and vegetable oil “Pajtimi Company”, etc.[149]

Trade[edit]

Trade take an important place in all businesses from the percentage of participation of enterprises and employees with 53%.[150] Considering some strategic elements, as nearness of the urban center Pristina, streets with national character, and the others advantages have made the trade sector dominant in the last 10 years.[150] In Podujevo, there are 1316 businesses registered, and in total 3290 employees.

Marketplace of Podujevo.
Marketplace of the city.

Infrastructure[edit]

The water supply system in Podujevo dated back from 1956[151] and a part of the supply system is quite old[152] therefore considerable investments are being made.[153] The water supplied fulfills the standards of WHO,[151] while sometimes Podujevo faces water shortages.[154] Podujevo is supplied with water from two sources; firstly, from water factory in Shajkoc throughout comes the water with a pipes of 8.22 km[151] and secondly, from pumping system of Peran. In Podujevo, the canalization system is 86.33 km long[155] and about 56000 residents use this system.[155] Most of the black waters of canalization system flows into Llapi river with no prior intervention,[155] while there is no any sprinkler.[156] Podujevo counts 1225.2 km of roads who cover 497.7 acres.[157] That includes highway, regional, local and uncategorized roads.[157] While some roads still remain without asphalt,[158] 92.7% of the residents have access to the highroads[159] and 76.89% have access to highways and regional roads.[160] 128. Railway network in Podujevo links Kosovo to Serbia.[161] It is 22 km long[161] and 10 settlements are linked directly to this railroad[158] while 45.08% of Podujevo’s citizens have direct access to it.[158] At the moment, this railway is inoperative.[162] There are 102 bridges in Podujevo, 96 of whom belong to roadways and the other 6 belong to railways.[163] From the bridges in the roadway, 6 are in highways, 9 in regional roads, and the rest are found in local and uncategorized roads.[163] Also, there is a subway in Merdare which is 1500 m long and belongs to the railway network.[163] The public transport in Podujevo is organized through buses, small buses and other vehicles since there are many villages penetrating in Podujevo.[164] Since some of the villages are in deep areas of Podujevo and they have a small number of residents, they do not have access to the public transportation.[165] Podujevo is supplied with electric energy through Pristina line with a capacity of 220 kW[165] and from Mazgit line with a capacity of 35 kW.[165] Through Podujevo’s territory pass other lines also, but they have international connection purposes such as the 400 kW line which goes to Nis.[165] 100% of Podujevo’s citizens have access to electric energy,[166] where 66 settlements have a normal distribution and the rest 12 do not.[166] Public lighting covers 4150 m in urban areas.[167] This network covers these roads: “Zahir Pajaziti”, “28 nëntori”, “Hakif Zejnullahu”, “Skenderbeu” and “Abdyl Lahu” .[168]

Tourism[edit]

Podujevo has its potentials concerning the tourism. It is characterized by many and various potentials for development of weekend and rural tourism as well.[169] The geomorphology of Podujevo territory is quite rich.[169] Two massive mountains, such as Albaniku and Gollaku mountains are located in Podujevo.[169] Moreover, Llapi valley together with Llapi river, and the Batllava Lake provide incontestable values regarding the tourism.[169]

One of the tourist places is the Batllava Lake.[169]

A picture of Batlava lake.
Batllava Lake.

During the summer season this lake attracts thousand of visitors around Kosovo, who come to spend holidays in spaces, as beaches which are offered there.[169] Batllava has six beaches in good condition.[170] These beaches offer spaces for familiar relaxation, which provide the visitors with sandy football and volleyball grounds, and also playgrounds for children.[170] Parkings, floors, umbrellas, sunshades, boats and seats are available around the lake.[171] Sometimes Batllava Lake is manifested with environmental problems.[172] Except the Batllava Lake, tourism is also characterized with hotel industry, which is developed in other places of Podujevo.[172] There are around 280 hotel businesses with around 700 employees.[172] Other important values which can be found in Podujevo are cultural heritage monuments, created in certain historic periods.[172] The most outstanding monument is the fortress of the national martyr and hero Zahir Pajaziti.[172] Among architectural and cultural monuments of local and national importance are also: Two towers in Hertica, the one of Sali Aga and Ajet Muçolli, Complex in Reçica, the Monument of Tabet Llapashtica, House Museum of the national martyr Hasan Ramadani, and the Tower of Demë Ahmeti.[173] According to the Institutional for Protection of Kosovo Monuments, the number of monuments in Podujevo is around 60.[173]

Education[edit]

In Podujevo there are 68 educational objects, including 39 schools.[174] There is only one Daycare Center namely "DRITA", 35 primary schools and 3 high schools.[175] 24 Settlements do not have a school at all.[176] There are 1549 people working in the educational system, while the number of students is 23.811 which means that there is a teacher for every 18.24 students.[175]

The school of Orllan.
The school, Orllan.

The condition of the schools is not that good since 14 school are in a very bad situation while 24 schools need some of basic investments.[177] Seven schools work in three tours while the rest work into or one tour.[178] Is worth mentioning that there is a school in Gllamnik named "Kongresi i Manastirit" which offers a special class for people with disabilities which has 27 students and 2 teachers.[179]

Health[edit]

The medical object which operate in Podujevo include the main Center of Family Healthcare and 14 family healthcare centers and 7 ambulances.[180] 246 People work on these objects, the average distance from a settlement to a healthcare institution is 0–3 km while the largest distance is 8 km.[181] After the 1999 war WHO, IBRD and European Union helped the health system.[182] During 2008 525.866 medical services had been offered by republic medical system.[182] In the private sector there are 25 medical institutions mostly found in the urban area.[183] These are mostly small ordinances which offer specialize services.[183]

Culture[edit]

Podujevo’s residents have shown a high interest to contribute for culture, although they did not have the proper conditions to participate.[184] In fact, the requirements for fulfillment of various cultural and art projects are higher in comparison with the conditions offered by the Management of Culture, Youth and Sport.[185] The lack of space and adequate infrastructure have impacted the developing of cultural live in general.[185] In Podujevo city are located a certain number of different organizations and artistic associations which are concentrated particularly in drama, comedy, sportive competitions and other cultural activities.[186] These activities are organized in the City Theater, Sport Hall with only 800 seats, City Stadium, and City Library, even though with an insufficient area.[186] City Theater has been the most common place of several cultural activities and exhibitions, which became very popular in Podujevo and elsewhere.[186] City Theater of Podujevo was established in 1994.[185] Its main purpose is to prepare, exhibit and organize the theatrical showings.[185] This theater is the most successful artistic institution so far.[185] Some of the activities which take part in this theater include “The Independence Day”, “The Martyrs Day”, “The Hopefulness Day”, “The Youth Month”, “The Teacher Holiday”, “Woman’s Day”, cultural meetings of “Kadri Kadriu”, and other major events.[186] The Dances Ensemble called “The Downtown Dancers” is also an important part of the cultural live in Podujevo, which was found in 2002.[185] This Dances Ensemble is an important part of the cultural center in Podujevo.[185] It is designated to show traditional folk dances, and modern dances as well.[185] The ensemble is successfully presented in the international area, and also in some folk festivals in Kosovo.[185] In its all structure it counts over 50 members.[185] Historically, before 1999 The Municipality of Podujevo has had 14 public libraries in total with 143.067 books.[187] During the war period of 1999, 10 libraries were burned by Serb occupant, including also The City Library which contained 124.977 books.[187] After 1999, Podujevo Municipality has only three libraries with around 18.090 books, though not in good condition[187] The fund of these copies are mainly in the Albanian language, and a small part consists in the English and German language.[187] The main library is the City Library, meanwhile there are two other libraries; one located in Orllan, whereas the other one in Lluzhan.[187] With regard to media in Podujevo, which is related with the cultural life of the city, in Podujevo there is not any local newspaper that is published.[188] But, there are two radio stations, which were found in 2000. These local radio stations are “Vision Radio” and “Llap Radio”.[188] Since 2000 these two radios have been informing the citizens of Podujevo with the daily occurrences, news, annunciations, and have been entertaining their audience with different programs.

Cultural-Artistic Society “Josip Rela”[edit]

A great contribution for the culture of Podujevo has given the Cultural-Artistic Society “Josip Rela” from Podujevo.[189] This dancing association was found in the 1966 and it has represented Podujevo in different competitions with extraordinary interpretations.[189] Its first initiator for the forming of this dramatic group was Mr. Bislim Aliu. Some of the famous members of the group were Dr. Abdullah Vokrri, Dr. Rifat Blaku, Mr. Bislim Aliu, Skënder Hyseni, and the others.[189] “Josip Rela” has won a considerable number or prizes, as “The First Prize” for the best dancing, “Public Prize”, “The Second Prize”, “The Prize for the best orchestra”, and so forth.[189] Other prizes were won in Kaçanik, Gjilan, and outdoors of Kosovo.[189]

“Teatri Ndryshe”[edit]

Culture in Podujevo is also characterized through different festivals. One of these festivals that take an important place in the cultural events in Podujevo, is the international festival called “Teatri Ndryshe”. This festival is available for the audience since 2009 and is attended during the summer.[190] It is organized by the Management of Culture, Youth and Sport in Podujevo.[190] Various theatrical groups from Kosovo, Albania, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and other regional countries participate in this festival with their demonstrations.[190] “Teatri Ndryshe” usually is organized in the City Theater and the City Square.[190]

Festival of Literature in Orllan[edit]

Another popular and well-known festival not only in Podujevo, but in Kosovo as well, is the international Festival of Literature in Orllan.[191] The Literature Festival was established in 2011 by the Batllava Lake, in order to unite together in a unique event the Kosovar artists, writers, musicians, and other artists from regional countries.[191] The Festival of Literature in Orllan is considered to be rather a successful event from 2011 at now, considering that in the first two editions it has unified together famous and well-known writers from Kosovo and region.[191] Writers from UK, Cyprus, Japan and Syria, also took part in the daily sessions, and were presented to the audience during this Literature Festival.[191] To make more interesting and attractive to the audience the literary events, the organizers of the Literature Festival have jointed the literature with music, therefore the festival offers live music performances also.[191]

Sports[edit]

Podujevo is known for its sports.[192] Some of the sportsmen who have contributed for Kosovo and Albania, originate from Llapi. In the early 30s the competitions with horses were known for all Albanian territories.[192] In these competitions participated people from different Albanian places.[192] They became traditional meetings.[192] The Fusha family had organized these meetings. From this family originated Jahja Fusha, who was former major of Podujevo Municipality and an outstanding sportsman.[192] The first football team was found in 1928, and was named “Sloga”. However, its existence extended very shortly, because was closed in 1931.[193] In Podujevo are present two stadiums. One of FC Llapi with 2000 seats, and the other of the former FC Hysi with 5000 seats in Merdare.[194] Besides these football areas, the youth of Podujevo can use also the City Hall, and other private covered football areas as well.[192] Furthermore, there are other clubs in different sports areas, such as: “KK Llapi”, “KK Besa”, “HK Llapi”, “BK Llapi”, “KFF Llapi”, “Ping Pong Club Llapi”, “Ches Club Llapi”, and some others.[194]

F.C. Llapi[edit]

In 1932 was formed the Football Club “Llapi”.[193] At the same time, FC Llapi is the oldest football club in Podujevo. This club was a member of Sportive Confederate of Nish.[193] From this club became popular some eminent footballers as: Fadil Vokrri, one of the greatest Albanian footballers of all times, Selatin, Adil, and Muhamet Vokrri, Mikan Bojçiq, Perica Mlladenoviq, Favzi Rama, Esat Mehmeti, and others.[193] FC Llapi today plays in the second division of Kosovo.

Gallery[edit]

Pictures of Podujevo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 107 out of 193 United Nations member states.

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] Kosovo agency of statistics Archived October 14, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 19.
  3. ^ a b Agjencia e Kosovës për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit, Instituti për Mbrojtjen e Natyrës së Kosovës (August 2004): "Raport nga Rekognosimi i Terrenit në Territorin e Komunës së Podujevës", "Bill Clinton" st., Pristina. Page 7.
  4. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page 12.
  5. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page 13.
  6. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 19.
  7. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 23.
  8. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 23.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 92.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 93.
  11. ^ Agjencia e Kosovës për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit, Instituti për Mbrojtjen e Natyrës së Kosovës (August 2004): "Raport nga Rekognosimi i Terrenit në Territorin e Komunës së Podujevës", "Bill Clinton" st., Pristina. Page 9.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 20.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 21.
  14. ^ Agjencia e Kosovës për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit, Instituti për Mbrojtjen e Natyrës së Kosovës (August 2004): "Raport nga Rekognosimi i Terrenit në Territorin e Komunës së Podujevës", "Bill Clinton" st., Pristina. Page 10.
  15. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 87.-
  16. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 87.
  17. ^ Agjencia e Kosovës për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit, Instituti për Mbrojtjen e Natyrës së Kosovës (August 2004): "Raport nga Rekognosimi i Terrenit në Territorin e Komunës së Podujevës", "Bill Clinton" st., Pristina. Page 15.
  18. ^ Agjencia e Kosovës për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit, Instituti për Mbrojtjen e Natyrës së Kosovës (August 2004): "Raport nga Rekognosimi i Terrenit në Territorin e Komunës së Podujevës", "Bill Clinton" st., Pristina. Page 15-72.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 24.
  20. ^ a b c d e Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 25.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 26.
  22. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 27.
  23. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 28.
  24. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 29 .
  25. ^ a b c d e Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 29.
  26. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 30.
  27. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 31.
  28. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 32.
  29. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 33.
  30. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 34-35.
  31. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 35.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 36.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 37.
  34. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 38.
  35. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 39.
  36. ^ Papazoglu, Fanula (1978). The Central Balkan Tribe in Pre-Roman Times Triballi, Autariatae, Dardanians, Scordisci and Moesians. Hakkert. p. 201. ISBN 978-90-256-0793-7. 
  37. ^ Serbian Studies. North American Society for Serbian Studies. 1999. p. 104. 
  38. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 42.
  39. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 43.
  40. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 44.
  41. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 47.
  42. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 46.
  43. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 50.
  44. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 52-53.
  45. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 53.
  46. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 57.
  47. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 58.
  48. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 56.
  49. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 58-59
  50. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 59.
  51. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 66.
  52. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 70.
  53. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 71.
  54. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 74.
  55. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 75.
  56. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 76.
  57. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 79.
  58. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 82.
  59. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 87.
  60. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 85.
  61. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 89.
  62. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 91.
  63. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 94.
  64. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 95.
  65. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 99.
  66. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 99-100.
  67. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 102.
  68. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 107.
  69. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 108.
  70. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 109.
  71. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 111.
  72. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 112.
  73. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 114.
  74. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 114-115.
  75. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 116.
  76. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 116-117.
  77. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 117.
  78. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 118
  79. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 119.
  80. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 120.
  81. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 121.
  82. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 124.
  83. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 122.
  84. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 123.
  85. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 125.
  86. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 147.
  87. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 128.
  88. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 129.
  89. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 129-130.
  90. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 130.
  91. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 131.
  92. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 131-132.
  93. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 132.
  94. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 132-133.
  95. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 136.
  96. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 137-138.
  97. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 141.
  98. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 149.
  99. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 151.
  100. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 154.
  101. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 159.
  102. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 186.
  103. ^ a b c Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 187.
  104. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 188.
  105. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 189.
  106. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 190.
  107. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 201.
  108. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 202.
  109. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 205.
  110. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 206.
  111. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 207.
  112. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 237.
  113. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 347.
  114. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 238.
  115. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 245.
  116. ^ a b Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 257.
  117. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 337.
  118. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 338.
  119. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 309.
  120. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 348-349.
  121. ^ Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 370.
  122. ^ a b c "Kosovo". Archived from the original on 2014-01-15. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  123. ^ "Podujevo massacre survivor testifies". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  124. ^ a b "Podujevo". Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  125. ^ "Seven killed, 10 severely injured in Kosovo bus explosion". AZ Daily Sun. 12 February 2001. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  126. ^ "12th anniversary of terrorist attack on bus carrying Serbs". B92. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-03-05. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  127. ^ "2001: Serbs killed in Kosovo pilgrimage". BBC. Archived from the original on 2012-10-23. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  128. ^ a b c d e Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 10.
  129. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 22.
  130. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 23.
  131. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 38.
  132. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 46.
  133. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 48.
  134. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 49.
  135. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 50.
  136. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 51.
  137. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 58.
  138. ^ Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4. Page 60.
  139. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 26.
  140. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 75.
  141. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 27-29.
  142. ^ a b c d Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 68-69.
  143. ^ a b c d e f Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page 22.
  144. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page 25.
  145. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page 26.
  146. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 122.
  147. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Zhvillimor Urban (2011-2021)”, Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 44.
  148. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page24.
  149. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 24.
  150. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Zhvillimor Urban (2011-2021)”, Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 42.
  151. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page 15.
  152. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page 16.
  153. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page 118.
  154. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page 18.
  155. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page 21.
  156. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page 23.
  157. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 124.
  158. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 133.
  159. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 132.
  160. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo. Page
  161. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 32.
  162. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 134.
  163. ^ a b c Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 135.
  164. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 136.
  165. ^ a b c d Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 140.
  166. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 141.
  167. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 143.
  168. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 143-144.
  169. ^ a b c d e f Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 27.
  170. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës: “Zhvillimi, përmirësimi dhe promovimi I turizmit në Liqenin e Batllavës”. Fotostudio NIKON, Podujevë. Page 8.
  171. ^ Komuna e Podujevës: “Zhvillimi, përmirësimi dhe promovimi I turizmit në Liqenin e Batllavës”. Fotostudio NIKON, Podujevë. Page 5.
  172. ^ a b c d e Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 28.
  173. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 36.
  174. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 34.
  175. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 24.
  176. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 24.
  177. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 35.
  178. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 36.
  179. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 40.
  180. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page17.
  181. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page 17.
  182. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 41.
  183. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 47.
  184. ^ Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page35.
  185. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina. Page18-19.
  186. ^ a b c d Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Zhvillimor Urban (2011-2021)”, Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 31.
  187. ^ a b c d e Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo. Page 54.
  188. ^ a b "Podujevo". Archived from the original on 2014-03-03. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  189. ^ a b c d e "SHKA "Josip Rela" e Podujevës e festoi 45 vjetorin e themelimit". Archived from the original on 2014-03-06. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  190. ^ a b c d "Në Podujevë filloi festivali "Teatri Ndryshe"". Archived from the original on 2014-03-03. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  191. ^ a b c d e "Festival of Literature in Orllan, Kosovo, 28-30 August 2013". Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  192. ^ a b c d e f "Komuna e Podujevës shquhet me traditë sportive". Archived from the original on 2014-03-06. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  193. ^ a b c d Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina. Page 323.
  194. ^ a b Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina. Page 35.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Komuna e Podujevës (2012): "Plani Lokal i Veprimit në Mjedis 2012-2017". Rrjeti, Pristina.
  • Agjencia e Kosovës për Mbrojtjen e Mjedisit, Instituti për Mbrojtjen e Natyrës së Kosovës (August 2004): "Raport nga Rekognosimi i Terrenit në Territorin e Komunës së Podujevës", "Bill Clinton" st., Pristina.
  • Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Strategjia e Zhvillimit Ekonomik Lokal 2011-2014". Pristina.
  • Komuna e Podujevës (2010): "Plani Zhvillimor Komunal". Gis Consulting, Podujevo.
  • Pushkolli, Fehmi (1998): "Llapi gjatë historisë", Interpress R. Company, Pristina.
  • Agjencia e Statistikave të Kosovës (2011): "Kosovo Census Atlas", Pristina. ISBN 978-9951-22-019-4.
  • Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Zhvillimor Urban (2011-2021)”, Gis Consulting, Podujevo.
  • Komuna e Podujevës (2011): “Plani Investiv në Infrastrukturën e Ujësjellësit dhe Kanalizimit në Komunën e Podujevës”. Podujevo.
  • Komuna e Podujevës: “Zhvillimi, përmirësimi dhe promovimi I turizmit në Liqenin e Batllavës”. Fotostudio NIKON, Podujevë.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°55′N 21°12′E / 42.917°N 21.200°E / 42.917; 21.200