Protestantism in Indonesia

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Zebaoth Church in Bogor, West Java.
Blenduk Church in Semarang, built in European architecture.

Protestantism is one of the six approved religions in the country, the others being Islam, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. According to CIA statistic, in 2000 5.7% of the population of Indonesia are Protestant.[1] Although religious freedom is guaranteed, all Indonesians must belong to one of the recognised religions.[2]

History of Protestantism in Indonesia[edit]

Protestantism arrived in Indonesia during the Dutch East Indies colonization. By the mid-1700s a significant Lutheran presence was found in Jakarta, with a Lutheran church built by the Lutheran Governor General Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff in 1749.[3] In 1817, the Dutch founded the Protestantsche Kerk in Nederlandsch-Indie ("Indische Kerk") as a union of Reformed, Lutheran, Baptists, Arminian and Mennonite denominations.[4] In 1835, the Dutch king decreed that one church council would fuse and oversee the Protestant denominations in the Dutch colony.[5]

Demographics of Protestantism in Indonesia[edit]

On the island of Sulawesi, 17% of the citizens are Protestants, particularly in Tana Toraja and North Sulawesi. Up to 65% of the Torajan population are Protestant. In some parts of the country, entire villages belong to a distinct denomination, such as Adventist, Lutheran, Presbyterian or Salvation Army. Two provinces have Protestant majorities: North Sulawesi (64%) and Papua (60%). Gereja Injili di Tanah Jawa is a Mennonite-related denomination. Huria Kristen Batak Protestant is a Lutheran denomination founded by Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen. It is the largest Protestant denomination in Indonesia and has over 4 million congregants.[6] The relatively large number of "denominations" per capita in Indonesia may be due to the significant number of different ethnic groups in Indonesia. Many Indonesian Protestants tend to congregate based more on ethnicity than liturgical differences.[7]

Reformed denominations created by Dutch Reformed missionaries[edit]

The Reformed faith bought by Dutch missionaries in the 17th century. Lots of these churches are members of the World Communion of Reformed Churches :[8]

Members of the International Conference of Reformed Churches[edit]

Members of World Reformed Fellowship[edit]

Indonesian Protestant Churches affiliated with Lutheranism[edit]

Indonesian churches recognized by the Lutheran World Federation as Lutheran or affiliated with Lutheran are:

  • Banua Niha Keriso Protestan (BNKP) – The Protestant Church in Nias Island
  • Gereja Angowuloa Masehi Indonesia Nias (AMIN)-Christian Communion of Indonesia in Nias
  • Gereja Kalimantan Evangelis (GKE) - Evangelical Church in Kalimantan. Also a member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches.
  • Gereja Kristen Luther Indonesia (GKLI) – Indonesian Christian Lutheran Church
  • Gereja Kristen Protestan Angkola (GKPA) – Christian Protestant Angkola Church
  • Gereja Kristen Protestan di Mentawai (GKPM) – Protestant Christian Church in Mentawai (fka PKPM)
  • Gereja Kristen Protestan Indonesia (GKPI) – Christian Protestant Church in Indonesia
  • Gereja Kristen Protestan Pakpak Dairi (GKPPD) – Pakpak Dairi Protestant Christian Church
  • Gereja Kristen Protestan Simalungun (GKPS) – Simalungun Protestant Christian Church
  • Gereja Masehi Injili Minahasa (GMIM) - Christian Evangelical Church in Minahasa. Also a member of the World Communion of Reformed Churches.
  • Gereja Punguan Kristen Batak (GPKB) – Batak Christian Community Church
  • Gereja Protestan Persekutuan (GPP) – The United Protestant Church
  • Huria Kristen Batak Protestant (HKBP) – Protestant Christian Batak Church
  • Huria Kristen Indonesia (HKI) – The Indonesian Christian Church (a.k.a. Christian Church in Mentawai)
  • Orahua Niha Keriso Protestan (ONKP) - Communion of Protestant Christian Church

HKI, GMB, GKPS, GKPI, GKLI, GKPA, GPP, and GKPPD all split from HKBP.[12] GKLI maintains a strong relationship with the Norwegian Lutheran Church. GKPM was founded by HKBP missionaries.[13] Although the BNKP and HKBP have historically cooperated, no official relationship exists between those entities. AMIN split from BNKP and retains more of a Lutheran identity.[14]

Gereja Lutheran Indonesia (GLI) is affiliated with the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference. GLI is closely associated with the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod in the United States. GLI has offices in Jakarta and operates a seminary, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Lutheran (STTL), in Yogyakarta. GLI has large congregations on Java and in West Timor, as well as posts in Papua and Kalimantan.[15][16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CIA Factbook
  2. ^ Indonesia
  3. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, pp. 122–123, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010 
  4. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 384, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010 
  5. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 647, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010, Protestants--European or Indonesian--living in the major cities mostly belonged to the Protestant Church in the Dutch East Indies, the Indische Kerk. The status of this church was in some respects quite different from that of the Catholic community, because it was placed more directly under government authority. By a decree of 11 December 1835 the Dutch king, Willem I, commanded the fusion of the Lutheran and Reformed denominations (only effected in 1854), and the establishment of one church council for the whole colony (realised in 1844). 
  6. ^ Muanda, Colette (January 2011). "2010 World Lutheran Membership Details" (PDF). LWF Statistics 2010. Geneva, Switzerland: [Lutheran World Federation]. p. 7. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  7. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 617, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010, It is remarkable that in the merger of the BKP with the BNKP the choice for unification was made on cultural rather than denominational grounds. While the Batunese congregations show distinctly Lutheran traits, especially in liturgical matters, the sense of communion is determined by ethno-cultural relations. Similar language and customary law, and especially family links between Nias and the Batu Islands, by far outweigh eccliastical tradition. 
  8. ^ http://www.wcrc.ch/node/164
  9. ^ International Conference of Reformed Churches
  10. ^ http://icrconline.com/members.html
  11. ^ http://wrfnet.org/web/guest/aboutwrf/membershiplist
  12. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 558, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010 
  13. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 619, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010 
  14. ^ Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008), A history of Christianity in Indonesia, Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, p. 611, ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1, retrieved 30 November 2010 
  15. ^ "Gereja Lutheran Indonesia". Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference. Retrieved 24 Oct 2014. 
  16. ^ "INDONESIA". Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Syno. Retrieved 24 Oct 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]