The Qieyun or Chieh-yun (simplified Chinese: 切韵; traditional Chinese: 切韻; pinyin: Qièyùn; Wade–Giles: Ch'ieh4-yün4; literally: "cut rhymes") is a Chinese rime dictionary, published in 601 CE during the Sui dynasty. The book was a guide to proper reading of classical texts, using the fanqie method to indicate the pronunciation of Chinese characters. The Qieyun and later redactions, notably the Guangyun, are the central documentary sources used in the reconstruction of historical Chinese phonology.
The book was created by Lu Fayan (Lu Fa-yen; 陸法言; 581–618 CE). The preface of the Qieyun describes how the plan of the book originated from a discussion with eight of his friends 20 years earlier at his home in Chang'an, the capital of Sui China.
In the evening, after they had enjoyed their wine, their discussions always turned to phonology. Differences obtained between the pronunciations of the past and the present and different principles of selection were followed by the various authors. … And so we discussed the right and wrong of South and North, and the prevailing and the obsolete of past and present; wishing to present a more refined and precise standard, we discarded all that was ill-defined and lacked preciseness. … And so I grasped my brush, and aided by the light of a candle, I wrote down a draft summary, which eventually was perfected through wide consultation and penetrating research.
— Lu Fayan, Qieyun, preface, translated by William Baxter
None of these scholars was originally from Chang'an; they were native speakers of differing dialects – five northern and three southern. According to Lu, Yan Zhitui (顏之推) and Xiao Gai (蕭該), both men originally from the south, were the most influential in setting up the norms on which the Qieyun was based.
When classical Chinese poetry flowered during the Tang dynasty, the Qieyun became the authoritative source for literary pronunciations and it repeatedly underwent revisions and enlargements. It was annotated in 677 by Zhǎngsūn Nèyán (長孫訥言), revised and published in 706 by Wáng Renxu (王仁煦) as the Kanmiu Buque Qieyun (刊謬補缺切韻; "Corrected and supplemented Qieyun"), collated and republished in 751 by Sun Mian (孫愐) as the Tángyùn (唐韻; "Tang rimes"), and eventually incorporated into the still-extant Guangyun and Jiyun rime dictionaries from the Song dynasty. Although most of these Tang dictionary redactions were believed lost, some fragments were discovered among the Dunhuang manuscripts and manuscripts discovered at Turpan.
During the Tang dynasty, several copyists were engaged in producing manuscripts to meet the great demand for revisions of the work. Particularly prized were copies of Wáng Rénxū's edition made in the early 9th century by Wú Cǎiluán (呉彩鸞), a woman famed for her calligraphy. One of these copies was acquired by Emperor Huizong (1100–1026), himself a keen calligrapher. It remained in the palace library until 1926, when part of the library followed the deposed emperor Puyi to Tianjin and then to Changchun, capital of the puppet state of Manchukuo. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, it passed to a book dealer in Changchun, and in 1947 two scholars discovered it in a book market in Liulichang, Beijing. Studies of this almost complete copy have been published by the Chinese linguists Dong Tonghe (1948 and 1952) and Li Rong (1956).
The Qieyun contains 12,158 character entries. These were divided into five volumes, two for the many words of the "level" tone, and one volume for each of the other four tones. The entries were divided into 193 final rhyme groups (each named by its first character, called the yùnmù 韻目, or "rhyme eye"). Each rhyme group was subdivided into homophone groups (xiǎoyùn 小韻 "small rhyme"). The first entry in each homophone group gives the pronunciation as a fanqie formula.
For example, the first entry in the Qieyun, shown at right, describes the character 東 dōng "east". The three characters on the right are a fanqie pronunciation key, marked by the character 反 fǎn "turn back". This indicates that the word is pronounced with the initial of 德 [tək] and the final of 紅 [ɣuŋ], i.e. [tuŋ]. The word is glossed as 木方 mù fāng, i.e. the direction of wood (one of the Five Elements), while the numeral 二 "two" indicates that this is the first of two entries in a homophone group.
Later rime dictionaries had many more entries, with fully definitions and a few additional rhyme groups, but kept the same structure.
The Qieyun did not directly record Middle Chinese as a spoken language, but rather how characters should be pronounced when reading the classics. Since this rime dictionary's spellings are the primary source for reconstructing Middle Chinese, linguists have disagreed over what variety of Chinese it recorded. "Much ink has been spilled concerning the nature of the language underlying the Qieyun," says Norman (1988: 24), who lists three points of view. Some scholars, like Bernhard Karlgren, "held to the view that the Qieyun represented the language of Chang'an"; some "others have supposed that it represented an amalgam of regional pronunciations," technically known as a diasystem. "At the present time most people in the field accept the views of the Chinese scholar Zhou Zumo" (周祖謨; 1914–1995) that Qieyun spellings were a north-south regional compromise between literary pronunciations from the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
- Baxter, William H. (1992), A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-012324-1.
- Malmqvist, Göran (2010), Bernhard Karlgren: Portrait of a Scholar, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1-61146-001-8.
- Norman, Jerry (1988), Chinese, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3.
- Pulleyblank, Edwin G. (1984), Middle Chinese: a study in historical phonology, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, ISBN 978-0-7748-0192-8.
- Takata, Tokio (2004), "The Chinese Language in Turfan with a special focus on the Qieyun fragments" (PDF), in Durkin, Desmond, Turfan revisited: the first century of research into the arts and cultures of the Silk Road, pp. 333–340, ISBN 978-3-496-02763-8.
- Qieyun fragments found at Dunhuang by Paul Pelliot, now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France:
- Pelliot chinois 2019 (BNF link): prefaces of Lu Fayan (start missing), Zhangsun Neyan (complete) and Sun Mian (end missing)
- Pelliot chinois 2017 (BNF link): part of Lu Fayan's preface, rhyme index and start of the first rhyme group (東 dōng)
- Pelliot chinois 3799 (BNF link): fragment of volume 5 showing the 怗 tiē, 緝 qì and 藥 yào rhyme groups
- Qieyun fragments brought from Dunhuang by Aurel Stein, now in the British Library (only S.5980 has been scanned):
- Or.8210/S.2071: substantial portion of the level, rising and entering tones.
- Or.8210/S.2055: Zhangsun Neyan's preface (dated 677) and first 9 rhymes of the level tone, with somewhat fuller entries than S.2071.
- smaller fragments: Or.8210/S.2683, Or.8210/S.6176, Or.8210/S.5980, Or.8210/S.6156, Or.8210/S.6012, Or.8210/S.6013, Or.8210/S.6187.
- Qieyun fragments from Turfan, Tuyoq and Kucha, now in the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (in the IDP Database Advanced Search, select "Short Title" and choose "Qie yun or Rhyme dictionary"; see Takata (2004) for discussion):