Violence against women during the partition of India

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During the Partition of India violence against women was an extensive issue.[1] It is estimated that during partition between 75,000[2] and 100,000 women were kidnapped and raped.[3] The rape of Muslim women by Hindu males during this period is well documented,[4] with women also being complicit in these attacks.[5] As was the rape of Hindu and Sikh women by Muslim males.[4]


  1. ^ Žarkov, Dubravka (2007). The Body of War: Media, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Break-Up of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press. p. 172. ISBN 978-0822339663. 
  2. ^ Aftab, Tahera (30). Inscribing South Asian Muslim Women: An Annotated Bibliography & Research Guide (Annotated ed.). Brill. p. 224. ISBN 978-9004158498. 
  3. ^ Butalia, Urvashi. Harsh Dobhal, ed. Writings on Human Rights, Law and Society in India: A Combat Law Anthology. Human Rights Law Network. p. 598. ISBN 81-89479-78-4. 
  4. ^ a b Kabir, Ananya Jahanara (25). Sorcha Gunne, Zoe Brigley Brigley Thompson, ed. Feminism, Literature and Rape Narratives: Violence and Violation (1st ed.). Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-0415806084. 
  5. ^ Chowdhry, Geeta (2000). Sita Ranchod-Nilsson, Mary Ann Tétreaul, ed. Women, States, and Nationalism: At Home in the Nation? (1st ed.). Routledge. pp. 107–110. ISBN 978-0415221726. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Daiya, Kavita. Violent belongings : partition, gender and postcolonial nationalism in India. Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press. ISBN 159213744X. 
  • Khan, Yasmin (2008). The great Partition : the making of India and Pakistan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300143338. 
  • Kakar, Sudhir (1996). The colors of violence : cultural identities, religion, and conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226422852. 
  • Whitehead, Andrew Women victims of partition -- Brutalised and humiliated