Renato Augusto was hailed as one of the best products of Flamengo's youth academy in recent years, and had been close to a deal with Palermo in 2007. His style of play, combining decisive passes with good control of the ball, pace and dribbling efforts, have led him to being capped for the national team at the under-20 level; his career with Flamengo had nevertheless been plagued by injuries. Renato Augusto signed for Bayer Leverkusen for an unknown fee, thought to be worth some 10 million euro, 60% of which retained by Flamengo. The remaining 40% were owned by the Traffic and MFD investment groups, that paid 1.5 million euros each for a share in Renato Augusto's transfer fee, earlier in 2008.
Renato Augusto made an immediate impact, becoming one of the fan favorites very quickly with his swiftness, awareness, teamwork, and his technical abilities. He usually plays on the right side however as Leverkusen is plagued by injuries very often, he plays in the hole, just behind the striker. He is the player that dictates the tempo, and a really irreplaceable player for keeping the ball in possession. In summer of 2010, it was reported that Manchester City was very interested in the talented Brazilian, but the reported fee of £14M was too small to interest Leverkusen staff in selling one of their key players. Although the season 2010–11 was not injury free, just like the previous ones in Germany, Renato Augusto maintained a stellar form, scoring three times for a one-goal lead victory, harassing opposition defenders and making vital assists. A memorable goal was scored by Renato on 13 March, where he scored a match-winner in 82nd minute against FSV Mainz. Following poor performance of both teams, Renato Augusto's corner kick went far above the goal. However, as Christian Wetklo was preparing to pass the ball to Bo Svensson, Renato was still in the corner, lurking unnoticed by any of the opposition players. When Svensson received the ball, it was too late for a good reaction as Renato stormed onto the ball and scored a well-struck effort from 20 meters. This gave Bayer Leverkusen a valuable victory, putting Bayer 04 squad into the title race once again as league leaders Borussia Dortmund lost the game the night before.
On 20 December 2012, through their official website, Leverkusen confirmed that Augusto would leave for Sport Club Corinthians Paulista. The Brazilian side paid a fee of €3.5 million.