Roman Catholicism in South Korea
The Roman Catholic Church in South Korea (called Cheonjugyo, Hangul: 천주교; Hanja: 天主教; literally, "Religion of the Lord of Heaven") is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. The history of Catholicism (and Christianity in general) in Korea began in 1784 when Yi Seung-hun was baptized while in China under the Christian name of Peter. He later returned home with various religious texts and baptized many of his fellow countrymen. The Church in Korea survived without any formal missionary priests until clergy from France (the Paris Foreign Missions Society) arrived in 1836 for the ministry.
During the 19th century, the Catholic Church suffered persecution by the government of the Joseon Dynasty, chiefly for the religion's refusal to carry out ancestral worship, which it at first perceived to be a form of idolatry, but which the State prescribed as a cornerstone of its culture. Despite the century-long persecution that produced thousands of martyrs, 103 of whom were canonized by Pope John Paul II in May 1984, including the first Korean priest, St. Andrew Taegon Kim, who was ordained in 1845 and martyred in 1846 - the Church in Korea expanded. The Apostolic Vicariate of Korea was formed in 1831, and after the expansion of the Church structure over the next century, the current structure of the three Metropolitan Provinces, each with an Archdiocese and several suffragan Dioceses, was established in 1962.
The Roman Catholic Church in South Korea has seen prodigious growth in recent years, increasing its membership by 70% in the past ten years. Part of this growth can be attributed to the Church's relatively positive perception by the general public for its role in the democratization of South Korea, its active participation in various works of social welfare, and its respectful approach to interfaith relationship and matters of traditional Korean spirituality. As of December 31, 2011 the church has 5,309,964 Catholics in South Korea — 10.3% the population. South Korea (and by extension the Catholic Church in all Korea, north and south) has the fourth largest number of saints in the Catholic Church since 1984 as categorized by nation. There are 15 dioceses including three archdioceses of Seoul, Daegu and Gwangju, and the military ordiniate. The North Korean Catholic Church is ecclesiastically united with South Korea, composed of two dioceses of Pyongyang and Hamheung (suffragan to the Metropolitan of Seoul) and the only territorial abbey outside Europe, that of Dokwon.
South Korea has fifteen territorial dioceses (three archdioceses and twelve dioceses) and one military diocese. The list is as follows.
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Daegu ; 대구대교구
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gwangju ; 광주대교구
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seoul ; 서울대교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Andong ; 안동교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Cheongju ; 청주교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Ch'unch'on ; 춘천교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Daejeon ; 대전교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Incheon ; 인천교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Jeju ; 제주교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Jeonju ; 전주교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Masan ; 마산교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Pusan ; 부산교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Suwon ; 수원교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Uijeongbu ; 의정부교구
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Wonju ; 원주교구
- Military Ordinariate of South Korea ; 군종교구
Catholicism in South Korea is unique in that it has syncretized with traditional Mahayana Buddhist and Confucian customs that form an integral part of traditional Korean culture. As a result, South Korean Catholics continue to practice ancestral rites and observe many Buddhist and Confucian customs and philosophies.
- The Liturgy of the Hours Supplement (New York: Catholic Book Publishing Co., 1992), pp. 17-18.
- GCatholic.org: Catholic Dioceses in South Korea
- Catholic-Hierarchy: Current Dioceses in South Korea
- Park, Chang-Won (10 June 2010). Cultural Blending in Korean Death Rites. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-1-4411-1749-6.
- The Founding of Catholic Tradition in Korea
- The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea: An Examination of Popular and Governmental Responses Catholic Missions in the Late Chosôn Dynasty
- 백과사전 "Catholicism" entry in Naver Encyclopedia Dictionary
- "Sŏhak" entry in Encyclopædia Britannica
- History of the Asian Missions - Introduction of Catholicism into Korea
- Chon Jin Am, The Birthplace of the Catholic Church in Korea