Royal Danish Army
|Royal Danish Army
Logo of "Hæren"
Active: 10,560 - reserve: 4,070809 tracked and 257 wheeled armoured vehicles
|Part of||Danish Defence Command|
|Engagements||Thirty Years' War (1625-29)
Torstenson War (1643-45)
Second Nordic War (1657-60)
Scanian War (1675-79)
Great Nordic War (1700 & 1709-20)
Napoleonic Wars (1807-14)
First Schleswig War (1848-51)
Second Schleswig War (1864)
German invasion of Denmark (1940)
Operation Bøllebank (1994)
War in Kosovo (1998-1999)
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
Iraq War (2003-07)
|Chief of Defence||General Peter Bartram|
|Chief of Army Operational Command||Major-General Per Ludvigsen|
Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve
Carl af Hessen-Kassel
Frederik af Hessen-Kassel
The Royal Danish Army is the land warfare branch of the Danish Defence Forces, together with the Danish Home Guard. For the last decade, the Royal Danish Army has undergone a massive transformation of structures, equipment and training methods, abandoning its traditional role of anti-invasion defence, and instead focusing on out of area operations by, among other initiatives, reducing the size of the conscripted and reserve components and increasing the active (standing army) component, changing from 60% support structure and 40% operational capability, to 60% combat operational capability and 40% support structure. When fully implemented, the Danish Army will be capable of deploying 1,500 troops permanently on three different continents continuously, or 5,000 troops for a shorter period of time, in international operations without any need for extraordinary measures such as parliamentary approval of a war funding bill.
- 1 Brief organizational history
- 2 Recent deployments
- 3 Units of the Royal Danish Army
- 4 Structure of the Royal Danish Army
- 5 Equipment
- 6 Army air service
- 7 Insignia
- 8 Internal restructuring
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Brief organizational history
The Royal Danish Army was originally designed to prevent conflicts and war, maintain Denmark's sovereignty and protect her interest. With time, these goals have developed into also encompassing the need to protect freedom and peaceful development in the world with respect for human rights.
Originally, the Danish King commanded the Army into battle himself and fought on the battlefield. In 1815, however, as a result of continued evolution and division of command, four general commands were created with the King as the supreme authority: Zealand and adjacent islands, Funen Langeland, Jutland and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. At the same time, the need for maintenance of the army in peacetime became pertinent, and the Army Operational Command was established.
The Royal Danish Army has historically been an integral part of the defence of Denmark and thus involved in warfare, skirmishes and battles continuously to protect her interests. Most notably various territorial wars with Sweden, Russia and Prussia, the Napoleonic Wars on the side of France, and the Second World War, controversially and famously against the wishes of the Danish government, which had ordered immediate surrender to Germany. In modern times the Royal Danish Army has also become the backbone of Danish international missions, such as those in Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan.
The Royal Danish Army has been committed to a number of United Nations and NATO peacekeeping and unconventional warfare operations since becoming involved in the Yugoslav Wars under UN mandate in 1994, most notably in the famous Operation Bøllebank. The Royal Danish Army was also engaged in the Kosovo War and continues to this day to maintain peacekeeping operations in Kosovo as part of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), together with the Danish Home Guard. Furthermore, the Royal Danish Army was involved in the War in Iraq from 2003-2007 with a significant contingent of soldiers responsible for creating and maintaining peace in the province of Basra, together with the British.
Denmark lost its first soldier in Iraq on 17 August 2003: Preben Pedersen a 34-year-old Lance Corporal with the Jutland Dragoon Regiment became the first coalition soldier not from the United States or Britain to die in the Iraq War. Since 2001, the Royal Danish Army has also been involved in the War in Afghanistan. For the past few years, the Royal Danish Army and the British Army have been involved in heavy clashes with the Taliban in the Helmand Province, where about 760 Danish soldiers control a large battlegroup.
Units of the Royal Danish Army
The Danish military has recently restructured its internal organization heavily, and now relies on a more flexible and modern structure than before, geared towards upholding national sovereignty and participating in the international war on terror and international peacekeeping missions under NATO and UN mandate. In the Royal Danish Army, this has meant a restructuring where three of the most traditional and historic regiments in Europe provide the cornerstone of two cavalry and one infantry regiments, flanked by five different support regiments and an elite unit of special forces. In addition to these, Denmark also relies on a large number of Army Reserves both for domestic military training and foreign missions.
- Jydske Dragonregiment - Jutish Dragoons
- Gardehusarregimentet - Guard Hussar
- I/GHR Armoured Infantry Battalion, CV9035DK, Piranha and M113G3DK
- II/GHR Armoured Infantry Battalion, CV9035DK, Piranha and M113G3DK
- III/GHR Reconnaissance Battalion, Eagel-IV and HMMWV-"Hedgehog"
- V/GHR Basic Training Battalion
- Mounted Squadron, Royal duty
- Den Kongelige Livgarde - Royal Life Guards
- I/LG Armoured Infantry Battalion, CV9035DK, Piranha and M113G3DK
- II/LG Armoured Infantry Battalion, CV9035DK, Piranha and M113G3DK
- III/LG Basic Training Battalion
- Royal Guards Coy, Royal duty
- Hærens Kamp og Ildstøtte Center
- Combat training and course center
- 1st Danish Artillery Battalion
- Hærens Intelligence Center
- 1st Military Intelligence Battalion (incl Basic Training)
- 2nd Military Intelligence Battalion
- 1st Armoured Engineer Battalion
- 2nd EOD Battalion (incl Basic Training)
- 3rd Construction Battalion
- Joint Communication and Signal Center
- 1st HQ Battalion(incl Basic Training)
- 2nd CIS Battalion
- 1st Logistic Battalion (incl Basic Training)
- 2nd Supply Battalion
- 3rd Maintenance Battalion
- 4th Medical Battalion
- 5th Military Police Battalion
- Jægerkorpset Danish Army Special Forces
- Unconventional Warfare
- Special Reconnaissance
- Direct Action
Structure of the Royal Danish Army
The structure of the Danish army changed in 2010, leaving Danish Division without brigades or support troops directly under the CO command. The two brigades have only command over combat battalions, as all support regiments are now operational units under the Chief of Army Operational Command.
The concept is a modular army, support regiments are giving the command over their units/detachments to brigades or battalions depending on the mission or operation.
This is a list of equipment of the Royal Danish Army.
Main battle tanks, armoured vehicle-launched bridge, armoured recovery vehicle and related equipment
Main battle tanks
- Leopard 2A5DK (identical to a Leopard 2A6, but with various upgrades on the sight, target, communication and climate control systems, and without the L55 gun): (57)
Armoured recovery vehicles: (11)
- Bergepanzer 2 (ARV Leopard 1 Chassis)
Armoured vehicle-launched bridge: (10)
- Leopard 1 biber (AVLB Leopard 1 Chassis)
Mine clearing vehicles: (16)
- Hydrema 910 MCV
- Minerydningskampvogn being changed into AEV (ARV Wiesent 1 Chassis)
Infantry fighting vehicle and armoured carriers
Combat Vehicle 90:
- CV9035 MkIII infantry fighting vehicle: (45)
- Armoured personnel carrier
- Command vehicles
- Repair vehicle
- Fitters Vehicle
- TOW carrier
- Combat engineers vehicle
- Tactical air control party carrier
- Fire fighting vehicle
- Armoured personnel carrier (Lemur 12.7mm OHW)
- Armoured ambulance
- Communications and informations systems carrier
- Tactical air control party carrier
- Command and control vehicle
- Reconnaissance vehicle
Patria XA-185: (11)
- Armoured ambulance
Mowag Eagle 4x4 I and IV:
- Eagle I reconnaissance vehicle (ca. 30 in storage)
- Eagle IV Patrol vehicle (Lemur 12.7 mm OHW) (91)
Mowag Duro IIIP 6x6: (29)
- Armoured ambulance
- Fast attack vehicle
- TOW carrier
- Utility vehicle
Helicopters All army helicopters have been transferred to Helicopter Wing Karup, a joint helicopter command under the Royal Danish Air Force:
- Raven B short range tactical UAV
Field artillery, mortars, and related equipment
- 120 mm heavy mortar
Explosivos Alaveses 60 mm mortars: (90)
- 60 mm light infantry mortar
- 60 mm commando mortar
Danish Army Low Level Air Defence System (DALLADS):
- Air Defence Control Centers (Based on Termas T-Core C4I system)
- Medium Range Sensors (Thales Group RAC 3D radar, range 100 km)
- Short Range Sensors (Thales Group 2D radar, range 20 km)
- Logistics units
Trucks, lorrys, and other vehicles
Rheinmetall MAN military vehicles of various models and versions, for instance:
- MAN HX 77 Logistic vehicle (170)
- MAN SX 45 Armoured logistic vehicle (30)
- MAN 8.136 Light utility truck
- MAN 13.192 Medium utility truck
- MAN 27.314 Heavy utility truck
- MAN 26.372 Fuel truck
- MAN 25.322 Container handling truck
- MAN 27.314 Mobile communication center
- MAN 40.400 Prime MBT mover
- MAN 35.460 Heavy equipment transporter
- MAN 41.372 Heavy wrecker
- MAN 41.480 Recovery vehicle
- G240 Utility
- G270 Armoured utility
- G270 Reconnaissance vehicle et al.
- G290 Ambulance et al.
- G300 EOD
- BMW F650GS
- BMW R850RT
- KTM 450 EXC
Service rifles and carbines
All rifles, carbines, submachine guns and machine guns issued to conscripts as well as regular personnel are equipped with either a C79 optical sight or an Aimpoint CompM4 to allow the soldier to attach his night vision goggles to optic sight.
- GV M/10 5.56 mm (Colt Canada C8IUR rifle)
- GV M/95 5.56 mm (Colt Canada C7 rifle)
- K M/96 5.56 mm (Colt Canada C8 carbine)
Machine-guns and light machine-guns
- LSV M/04 5.56 mm (Colt Automatic Rifle)
- Mg M/07 5.56 mm (FN Herstal Minimi) (in limited use and under evaluation for further procurement to replace the LSV M/04)
- Mg M/50 12.7 mm (M2 Browning machine gun)
- LMG M/62 7.62 mm (Rheinmetall MG 3)
- M60E6 7.62 mm (to replace M/62)
- M/04 SAKO TRG42RH Cal. 338LM (Sako TRG)
- HK 417
- MRG M/95 12.7 mm (Barrett M95) (primary used for EOD)
Sidearms and Submachine-guns
Infantry antitank weapons
Infantry mortars and grenade launchers
- LMT M/06 60 mm Kombi mortar (Explosivos Alaveses)
- LMT M/06 60 mm Commando mortar (Explosivos Alaveses)
- TMT M/10 120 mm mortar (Soltam K6)
- GRK M/03 40 mm (Colt Canada M203A1)
- AGK 40 mm (automatic grenade launcher)
Grenades and mines
- Håndgranat M/54 (540 grams fragmentation hand grenade)
- Røghåndgranat M/57 (phosphor based grenade)
- Røghåndbombe M/77 (phosphor based grenade)
- Røghåndbombe M/93 (phosphor based grenade)
- M/05 Flashbang device
- M/05 Sting hand grenade
- M/05 CS gas hand grenade
- Alarmmine M/87 (Alarm mine, pyrotechnics)
- Alarmblus M/62 (Alarm mine, pyrotechnics)
Bayonet, field knife, and entrenching tool
- Bajonet M/95, bayonet (bayonet M7)
- Feltkniv M/96, field knife (Glock Feldmesser)
- Feltspade M/96, field shovel (Glock Feldspaten)
Uniforms, personal load-carrying equipment, and personal protection equipment
- Uniformssystem M/84, Standard uniform system in cotton and polyester, mainly used in the winter
- Uniformssystem M/01, Lightweight material in ripstop, exists in both desert camouflage and M/84 camouflage
- Oppakningssystem M/96, load carrying system (PLCE in Danish M/84 camouflage)
- Fragmentationsvest M/2000, body armour
- Hjelm M/96, helmet (SPECTRA helmet)
- Hjelm M/10, helmet (Tactical Ballistic Helmet version 2 (TBHII)
- Hjelm M/12, helmet (Batlskin Cobra)
- ABC-maske M/96, field NBC protective mask
- ABC-dragt M/96, field NBC protective suit
Tactical and communication equipment
- PRR M/07, Personnel Role Radio (Bowman)
- DA/PRC-361, Squad Radio (Racal Acoustics)
- DA/PRC-371, Platoon Radio (Racal Acoustics)
- (AN/PVS-14) Nat-brille M/03, Monocular Night Vision Device
- (AN/PVS-7) Nat-brille M/97, Binocular Night Vision Device
Army air service
The army air service was established in 1923 following the rapid development of military aircraft technology. The air service was based on two squadrons of Fokker CV reconnaissance aircraft from 1923 to 1932, when a 17 Gloster Gauntlet fighters were purchased to form two new squadrons. In 1937, 10 Fokker XXI fighters were build on licence in the army air service headquarters in Værløse. As a result of the establishment of the Danish Royal Air Force in 1950, the Army air service was closed and activities transferred to the new service.
|NATO Code||OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF(D)||Student Officer|
|Denmark (Edit)||No Equivalent|
|Denmark (Edit)||No equivalent|
|Chefsergent||Seniorsergent||Oversergent||Sergent||Korporal||Overkonstabel af 1. grad||Overkonstabel||Konstabel|
Because of the massive internal restructuring over the last decade to create an extremely modern and professional army, the Royal Danish Army no longer operates any aircraft under its own command after the last 12 helicopters of the Eurocopter Fennec AS 550 were transferred to the Royal Danish Air Force in 2004. Furthermore, a number of regiments and units have been disbanded, and instead amalgamated into other, larger divisions and units, centered in operation-specific hubs across the country.
Disbanded army regiments and units
- Danske Livregiment, (1.Regiment).
- Slesvigske Fodregiment, (2.Regiment).
- Prinsens Livregiment, (3.Regiment).
- Sjællandske Livregiment, (4.Regiment).
- Falsterske Fodregiment, (5.Regiment).
- Fynske Livregiment, (6.Regiment).
- Kongens Jydske Fodregiment, (7.Regiment).
- Dronningens Livregiment, (8.Regiment).
- Fodfolkets Pionererkommando, (9.Regiment).(Merge into 2.Regiment in 1951)
- Feltherrens Fodregiment, (10.Regiment).(Merge into 8.regiment in 1951)
- Marineregimentet, (Bornholms Værn).
- Kronens Artilleriregiment, (1.Artilleri Regiment).
- Sjællandske Artilleriregiment, (2.Artilleri Regiment).
- Nørrejyske Artilleriregiment, (3.Artilleri Regiment).
- Sønderjyske Artilleriregiment, (4.Artilleri Regiment).
- Kongens Artilleriregiment. (1982–2005)
- Dronningens Artilleriregiment. (2000–2005)
- Air Defence
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Army of Denmark.|
- International Security Assistance Force
- Equipment of the Royal Danish Army
- Royal Danish Navy
- Royal Danish Air Force
- Nørby, Søren (2006). Det danske forsvar. København: Det historiske hus. p. 39. ISBN 87-11-11853-9.
- Equipment used in the Army, retrieved June 25th 2008
- Ny Forsvarschef 20-03-2012 in Danish
- Arms and equipment of the army