November 5, 1849|
Salvador, Bahia, Empire of Brazil
|Died||March 1, 1923
Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
|Occupation||Writer, jurist, politician, diplomat|
Born in Salvador da Bahia, he was a federal representative, senator, Minister of Finance and diplomat. For his distinguished participation in the 2nd Hague Conference, he earned the nickname "Eagle of the Hague". He ran unsuccessfully for the Presidency of Brazil in 1910 and again in 1919.
Rui Barbosa gave his first public speech for the abolition of slavery when he was 19. For the rest of his life he remained an uncompromising defender of civil liberties. Slavery in Brazil was finally abolished by the Lei Áurea ("Golden Law") in 1888. Part of Barbosa's legacy to history is that he authorised, as minister of finance on December 14, 1890, the destruction of most government records relating to slavery. The avowed reason for this destruction, which took several years to be enacted and was followed by his successors, was to erase the "stain" of slavery on Brazilian history. However, historians today agree, that Barbosa aimed to impede any possible indemnization of the former slave-owners for this liberation. Indeed, eleven days after the abolition of slavery, a law project was deposed at the Chamber, proposing some indemnization to the slave owners.
Barbosa's liberal ideas were influential in drafting of the first republican constitution. He was a supporter of fiat money, as opposed to a gold standard, in Brazil. During his term as finance secretary, he implemented far-reaching reforms of Brazil's financial regime, instituting a vigorously expansionist monetary policy. The result was chaos and instability: the so-called fiat experiment resulted in the bubble of encilhamento, a dismal politic-economic failure. Due to his controversial role during it, in the following administration of Floriano Peixoto, he was forced into exile until Floriano's term ended. Years later, after his return he was elected as a Senator. He headed the Brazilian delegation to the 2nd Hague Conference and was brilliant in its deliberations. As candidate of the Civilian Party in the presidential election of 1910, Barbosa waged one of the most memorable campaigns in Brazilian politics. He was not successful and lost to Marshal Hermes da Fonseca. He ran again in the elections of 1914 and 1919, both times losing to the government candidate.
- "Population, Citizenship and Human Rights in Brazil: Elements for a System of Indicators", Conference (paper), International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), 2005, retrieved March 2007.
- van Deursen, Felipe, Escravos: povo marcado, Aventuras na História (in Portuguese), BR: Abril.
- Turner, CW (2005) , Ruy Barbosa: Brazilian crusader for the essential freedoms, New York: Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1‐419‐10424‐1, originally Abingdon-Cokesbury Press.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rui Barbosa.|
- Mendes Silva, Professor Raul, "Haia: Rui Barbosa e a delegação brasileira à segunda conferência de paz" [The Hague: Rui Barbosa and the Brazilian Delegation to the Second Peace Conference], Missões de Paz [Peace Missions] (in Brazilian Portuguese), Brazil: Ministério das Relações Exteriores.
- Fundação Casa de Rui Barbosa [Rui Barbosa House Foundation], BR: Brazilian government.
Evaristo da Veiga (patron)
Brazilian Academy of Letters — Occupant of the 10th chair
Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis
|President of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
Domício da Gama