SS Caribou

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Career
Name: SS Caribou
Owner: Newfoundland Government Railway
Route: Port aux Basques, Newfoundland to Nova Scotia
Ordered: 1925
Builder: Goodwin - Hamilton S. Adams Ltd. Rotterdam, Netherlands
Launched: Schiedam Netherlands 9 June 1925
In service: 1928—1942
Out of service: 14 October 1942
Fate: Sunk by German U-boat in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 14 October 1942
Status: sunk
General characteristics
Tonnage: 2,200 short tons (2,000 t)
Length: 265 feet (81 m)
Speed: 14.5 knots (16.7 mph; 26.9 km/h)
Capacity: 3,000 horsepower (2.2 MW)
Crew: 46
Notes: Information about ship specifications from Gibbons (2006)[1]

SS Caribou was a Newfoundland Railway passenger ferry that ran between Port aux Basques, in the Dominion of Newfoundland, and North Sydney, Nova Scotia between 1928 and 1942. During the Battle of the St. Lawrence the ferry was attacked and sunk by the Nazi German submarine U-69 in October 1942, while traversing the Cabot Strait as part of her three weekly SPAB convoys. As a civilian vessel, she had women and children on board, and many of them were among the 137 who died. Her sinking, and large death toll, made it clear that the war had really arrived on Canada's and Newfoundland's home front, and is cited by many historians as the most significant sinking in Canadian-controlled waters during the Second World War.[2]

Construction[edit]

Caribou was built in 1925 at Rotterdam, the Netherlands, for the Newfoundland Railway.[1] Launched in 1925, she had a capacity of 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) and was able to reach a speed of 14.5 knots (26.9 km/h) when fully loaded.[1] She also had steam-heat and electric lights in all of her cabins, which were considered to be a luxury at the time. Also, due to her ice-breaking design, Caribou also assisted during the seal hunt along the Newfoundland coast each spring.

Sinking[edit]

Map of Atlantic Canada
Map of Atlantic Canada
SS Caribou
Magnify-clip.png
Site where Caribou sank in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 14 October 1942.[3]

On 13 October 1942, Caribou was part of the Sydney-Port aux Basque (SPAB) convoy, organized by the Royal Canadian Navy base HMCS Protector. The SPAB series of convoys usually occurred three-times a week, and was carried out in darkness.[4] HMCS Grandmère, a Bangor class minesweeper was the naval escort vessel on this ill-fated voyage.

Unfortunately for the convoy, Nazi German submarine U-69 was patrolling the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It was a dark evening, and the heavy smoke from Caribou's coal-fired steam boilers silhouetted her against the nighttime horizon.[4] At 3:51 a.m. Newfoundland Summer Time, on 14 October 1942,[4] she was torpedoed approximately 37 km (20 nmi) southwest of Port aux Basques and sunk five minutes later.[5] Grandmère spotted the submarine and tried to ram her, but, U-69 quickly submerged. Over the next two-hours, the minesweeper launched six depth charges, but did not damage the submarine, and U-69 crept away into the Atlantic undetected.[6] Following procedure, Grandmère then went back for survivors.[6] In the days after the sinking, the Canadian naval vessel was criticized in the media[examples needed] for not immediately stopping and helping save survivors, but that was against operating procedures, and would have placed her in immediate danger of being sunk as well.[4] After picking up survivors, Grandmère sailed for Sydney because she had better hospital facilities than Port aux Basques.[6]

Caribou was carrying 46 crew members and 191 civilian and military passengers.[2] The ship's longtime Captain, Benjamin Taverner, was commanding the boat as she was struck, and perished along with his sons who served as crew members.[4] Of the deceased, two were rescued at first, but they later died from exposure to the cold water.[4] 137 people died that morning, and the passenger and crew totals were broken down as follows: of 118 military personal, 57 died; of 73 civilians, 49 died; of the 46 crew members, 31 died.[7] 34 bodies were found and brought to Port aux Basques by fishing schooners chartered by the Newfoundland Railway Company.[8] To prevent rumours, the Royal Canadian Navy allowed the Sydney Post-Record and other media outlets to report the sinking, almost as soon as it happened, one of the few times that war censorship was temporarily lifted in this period.[9][10] The sinking made front page news in both the The Toronto Daily Star and The Globe and Mail newspapers later that week.[11][12]

Memorialized[edit]

In 1986, the CN Marine/Marine Atlantic ferry MV Caribou was named after the SS Caribou.[13] She plied the same route as the original ferry, travelling between North Sydney and Port aux Basques.[13] On her maiden voyage, 12 May 1986, the ship stopped at the location where its predecessor sank.[14] At approximately 5:30 a.m., survivor Mack Piercey, one of 13 survivors on board for the occasion,[15] tossed a poppy-laden memorial wreath into the ocean and then the ship continued on to Port aux Basques to complete the voyage.[14]

In 2014, as part of a special dedication service in the town of Port Hawkesbury's Veterans Memorial Park, SS Caribou's passengers and crew were honoured.[16] Part of the dedication service included the unveiling of the anchor from the decommissioned MV Caribou as a new feature for the memorial.[16]

Part of a series on the
Military history of
Nova Scotia
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Events
Battle of Port Royal 1690
Conquest of Acadia 1710
Battle of Jeddore Harbour 1722
Northeast Coast Campaign 1745
Battle of Grand Pré 1747
Dartmouth Massacre 1751
Bay of Fundy Campaign 1755
Fall of Louisbourg 1758
Headquarters established for Royal Navy's North American Station 1758
Burying the Hatchet ceremony 1761
Battle of Fort Cumberland 1776
Raid on Lunenburg 1782
Halifax Impressment Riot 1805
Establishment of New Ireland 1812
Capture of USS Chesapeake 1813
Battle at the Great Redan 1855
Siege of Lucknow 1857
CSS Tallahassee Escape 1861
Departing Halifax for Northwest Rebellion 1885
Departing Halifax for the Boer War 1899
Imprisonment of Leon Trotsky 1917
Jewish Legion formed 1917
Sinking of HMHS Llandovery Castle 1918
Battle of the St. Lawrence 1942–44
Sinking of SS Point Pleasant Park 1945
Halifax VE-Day Riot 1945
Walter Callow Wheelchair Bus established 1947
Notable military regiments
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84th Regiment of Foot 1775-84
Royal Fencible American 1775-83
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The Nova Scotia Highlanders 1954-present
Other

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Popular Culture[edit]

  • In the Canadian series Bomb Girls, Caribou is mentioned to have sunk the previous day and give the people of the home front a good shock. It is also seen in the newspapers.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Gibbons (2006), p. 9.
  2. ^ a b Tennyson & Sarty (2000), pp. 274-275.
  3. ^ Helgason (2012).
  4. ^ a b c d e f Tennyson & Sarty (2000), pp. 276-277.
  5. ^ Gibbons (2006), p. 1.
  6. ^ a b c Caplan (1987), pp. 37—41.
  7. ^ How (1988), pp. 108-109.
  8. ^ Caplan (1987), pp. 46—49.
  9. ^ Tennyson & Sarty (2000), p. 278.
  10. ^ Caplan (1975), p. 25.
  11. ^ Torstar (1942-10-17)Large Headline
  12. ^ G&M (1942-10-19).
  13. ^ a b Morgan (2009), pp. 119.
  14. ^ a b Caplan (1987), p. 49.
  15. ^ Caplan (1987), p. back cover.
  16. ^ a b Post Staff (2014), p. A3.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°19′N 59°29′W / 47.317°N 59.483°W / 47.317; -59.483