Sella turcica and pituitary gland.
|Anatomical terms of bone|
The sella turcica (Turkish Chair) is a saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone of the human skull and of the skulls of other Hominidae including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. It serves as a cephalometric landmark.
The seat of the saddle is known as the hypophyseal fossa, which holds the pituitary gland. The hypophyseal fossa is located in a depression in the body of the sphenoid bone. Located anteriorly to the hypophyseal fossa is the tuberculum sellae.
Completing the formation of the saddle posteriorly is the dorsum sellae, which is continuous with the clivus, inferoposteriorly. The dorsum sellae is terminated laterally by the posterior clinoid processes.
|This section requires expansion. (March 2014)|
The sella turcica forms a bony seat for the pituitary gland.
Empty sella syndrome is the condition of a shrunken or flattened pituitary gland.
Since the sella turcica forms a bony caudal border for the pituitary gland, a pituitary tumor usually extends upward in the rostral direction into the suprasellar region. This can result in compression of the optic chiasm, which lies on top of the pituitary, enveloping the pituitary stalk. Compression of the optic chiasm can lead to bitemporal hemianopsia, and, when there is no relevant trauma, this clinical finding is pathognomonic for a pituitary tumor.
Some pituitary adenomas can extend inferiorly, growing downward and invading the sphenoid bone and cavernous sinus. Adenomas greater than 10mm (macroadenomas) can cause remodeling of the underlying sphenoid bone altering the shape of the sella turcica.
- This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.
Sphenoid bone seen from above. Sella turcica shown in red.
Human skull seen from top (parietal bones have been removed). Sella turcica shown in red.
Sphenoid bone. Upper surface. (There is no label for "Sella turcica", but "Tuberculum sellae" and "Fossa hypophyseos" are visible near center.)
- Knosp E, Steiner E, Kitz K, et al. Pituitary adenomas with invasion of the cavernous sinus space: a magnetic resonance imaging classification compared with surgical findings. Neurosurgery. 1993 Oct;33(4):610-7; discussion 617-8. PMID 8232800
- Proffit, William R.. Contemporary Orthodontics, 4th Edition. C.V. Mosby, 122006. 126.96.36.199). vbk:978-0-323-04046-4#outline(188.8.131.52)
- Marieb, Elaine Nicpon (2004). Human Anatomy & Physiology (6th ed.). Pearson Education. p. 209. ISBN 0-8053-5462-X.
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