Shedd Aquarium

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Shedd Aquarium

Shedd Aquarium
Date opened May 30, 1930
Location 1200 South Lake Shore Drive Chicago, Illinois, USA
Number of animals 32,500[1]
Number of species 1,500
Total volume of tanks 5 million US gallons (19,000 m3)
Memberships AZA,[2] AMMPA,[3] WAZA[4]
Major exhibits Amazon Rising, Caribbean Reef, Abbott Oceanarium, Polar Play Zone, Waters of the World, Wild Reef[5]
Website www.sheddaquarium.org
Shedd Aquarium
Shedd Aquarium is located in Illinois
Shedd Aquarium
Location Chicago, Illinois
Coordinates 41°52′4″N 87°36′50″W / 41.86778°N 87.61389°W / 41.86778; -87.61389Coordinates: 41°52′4″N 87°36′50″W / 41.86778°N 87.61389°W / 41.86778; -87.61389
Built 1929
Architect Graham,Anderson,Probst & White
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference #

87000820

[6]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP February 27, 1987
Designated NHL February 27, 1987[7]

Shedd Aquarium (formally the John G. Shedd Aquarium) is an indoor public aquarium in Chicago, Illinois in the United States that opened on May 30, 1930. The aquarium contains over 25,000 fish, and was for some time the largest indoor aquarium in the world with 5,000,000 US gallons (19,000,000 l; 4,200,000 imp gal) of water. Shedd Aquarium was the first inland aquarium with a permanent saltwater fish collection. It is surrounded by Museum Campus Chicago, which it shares with the Adler Planetarium and the Field Museum of Natural History. The aquarium has 2 million annual visitors; it was the most visited aquarium in the U.S. in 2005, and in 2007, it surpassed the Field Museum as the most popular cultural attraction in Chicago.[8] It contains 1500 species including fish, marine mammals, birds, snakes, amphibians, and insects.[9] The aquarium received awards for best exhibit from the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) for Seahorse Symphony in 1999, Amazon Rising in 2001, and Wild Reef in 2004.

History[edit]

Aquarium at dawn

Shedd Aquarium was the gift of retail leader John G. Shedd, a protégé of Marshall Field (benefactor of the adjacent Field Museum), to the city of Chicago. Although Shedd only lived long enough to see the architect's first drawings for the aquarium, his widow, Mary R. Shedd, cut the ribbon at the official opening ceremony.

The aquarium cost $3,000,000 to build, and initially included 132 exhibit tanks.[10] Groundbreaking took place on November 2, 1927, and construction was completed on December 19, 1929; the first exhibits were opened on May 30, 1930. As one of the first inland aquariums in the world, the Shedd had to rely on a custom-made railroad car, the Nautilus, for the transport of fish and seawater. The Nautilus lasted until 1959.

In 1930, 20 railroad tank cars made eight round trips between Key West and Chicago to transport 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800,000 l) of seawater for the Shedd’s saltwater exhibits. In 1933, Chicago hosted its second world's fair, the Century of Progress. The Aquarium was located immediately north of the fairgrounds, and the museum gained exposure to a large international crowd.

In 1971, Shedd Aquarium added one of its most popular exhibits, a 90,000-US-gallon (340,000 l) exhibit reproducing a Caribbean coral reef. That same year, the aquarium acquired its first research vessel, a 75-foot (23 m) boat for exploring the Caribbean, manned by a crew to conduct field research and collect specimens. In 1985, this boat was replaced with the aquarium's current vessel, the Coral Reef II.

In 1987, Shedd Aquarium was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

John Shedd's grandson, John Shedd Reed, who had served as president of Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad from 1967 to 1986, was president of the aquarium's board from 1984 until 1994, and was a life trustee until his death in 2008.[11][12] Ted A. Beattie has been the president and CEO of the aquarium since 1994.

Exhibits and presentations[edit]

Chicago skyline at sunrise, viewed from the east; the Shedd is at left

There are several permanent exhibits at the Shedd: Waters of the World, Caribbean Reef, Amazon Rising, Wild Reef, Stingray Touch and the Abbott Oceanarium.

Waters of the World[edit]

The oldest galleries in the aquarium feature exhibits on Oceans, Rivers, Islands and Lakes, and Chicago's own Local Waters. Species on exhibit include Haraldmeier's mantella, a Enteroctopus dofleini, Gymnarchus, Blue iguana, Starfish, seahorses, Alligator snapping turtle, and otter.

The Caribbean Reef[edit]

The Caribbean Reef exhibit was built in 1971, on the site of the aquarium's very first exhibit, the Tropical Pool. A feature of this exhibit is a diver that interacts with the animals while talking with the people. A part of the exhibit is a 90,000-US-gallon (340,000 l) circular tank that allows for maximum walk-around viewing. The tank is near the center of the first floor. It is adjacent to Amazon Rising and Waters of the World, and above Wild Reef.

Amazon Rising[edit]

The Amazon Rising exhibit is a 8,600-square-foot (800 m2) walkthrough flooded forest recreation of the Amazon River and the surrounding jungle. This exhibit contains 250 different species, and its highest water level is 6 feet (1.8 m). Species from this area on exhibit include anacondas, piranhas, spiders, freshwater stingrays and caimans.

Wild Reef[edit]

In 2003 Shedd opened Wild Reef, a permanent exhibit located two levels below the main building. The 750,000-US-gallon (2,800,000 l) exhibit recreates a Philippine coral reef and is based on the Apo Island Marine reserve, complete with living coral, multiple species of fish and rays, and a collection of sharks. The main draw of this attraction is a 400,000-US-gallon (1,500,000 l) shark exhibit with 12-foot (3.7 m) high curved windows, allowing visitors a diver's-eye view. The Wild Reef exhibit also features a saltwater tank display area where coral is propagated and grown for conservation purposes.[13]

Oceanarium[edit]

In 1991, Shedd Aquarium opened the Oceanarium (known since 2010 as the Abbott Oceanarium), a large addition to the aquarium that features marine mammals, including Pacific white-sided dolphins, belugas, sea otters and California sea lions, as well as penguins. It holds 3,000,000 US gallons (11,000,000 l) in total; the largest single tank is the 2,000,000-US-gallon (7,600,000 l) "Whale Harbour".[14] The Oceanarium is the largest indoor marine mammal facility in the world.[15] Several of the sea otters that lived in the aquarium in the past were rescued from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989.[14] In the Fall of 2008, Shedd's Oceanarium was closed for preventive sealing as well as administrative upgrades. The animals in the exhibit area were temporarily moved to other zoos and aquariums until the exhibit reopened in May 2009.

Fantasea[edit]

Fantasea was a multiple animal show at Shedd Aquarium, running from October 16, 2009, through 2010. A holiday version is still shown in December and January. The show features sea lions, beluga whales, penguins, hawks, and dolphins.

4D Theater[edit]

The 4D Theater opened in 2009 as part of the renovation of the Abbott Oceanarium. The 4D experience includes a 3D film with interactive seats, high-tech audio and interactive elements like scents and bubbles. Films shown have included SpongeBob SquarePants, Planet Earth, Ice Age, Dora the Explorer and the Polar Express.

Current Special Exhibits[edit]

Jellies[edit]

This current exhibit opened in summer 2011 and was originally scheduled to run through May 2012 but on May 7 due to popular demand was extended through 2014. Many different species of jellies are featured throughout the exhibit. Jellies included are Atlantic Sea Nettle, Blue Blubber Jelly, Egg Yolk Jelly, Japanese Sea Nettle, Lion's Mane, Moon Jelly, Northeast Pacific Sea Nettle, Purple Striped Sea Nettle, Spotted Lagoon Jelly, Umbrella Jelly, and the Upside-down Jelly.[16]

Stingray Touch[edit]

Opened on May 17, 2013, this exhibit allows guests to touch cownose rays and yellow spotted rays as they swim around their 20,000 gallon outdoor exhibit. Located on the aquarium's South Terrace, this exhibit is open seasonally from May through October.

Animals on Exhibit Past & Present[edit]

Australian Lungfish[edit]

Walter Chute, the aquarium's director from 1928 to 1964, wanted rare fishes to attract the 10 million tourists expected to visit Chicago for the exposition in 1933. Granddad, an Australian lungfish, arrived at the Shedd in 1933, along with his mate, from Sydney during the Century of Progress world exposition. During the expo's run, they attracted about 4.5 million visitors.[17]

Although Granddad's mate died in 1980, he is still alive and is claimed by the aquarium to be the oldest fish in any aquarium in the world.[17] He is at least 86 and possibly older; he weighs 25 pounds (11 kg) and is 4 feet (1.2 m) in length. His normal behavior is to lay like a sunken log on the bottom of his habitat.

Beluga whales[edit]

Mauyak (F), Naya (F), Kayavak (F), Bella (F), Miki (M), Nunavik (M), and Kimalu (F).

In 2000, Mauyak gave birth to Qannik, who was sent to Point Defiance Zoo in Tacoma where he died in 2009. In 2006, the Beluga whale Puiji gave birth to a female calf, later named Bella. On August 16, 2007 Mauyak gave birth yet again to a male calf named Miki, the Inuit word for small, bringing the total number of successful beluga calf births at the aquarium to four since 1999.

Kayavak, a young beluga whale, is one of the most famous residents of the Oceanarium. The whale became an orphan at only five months old after her mother, Immiayuk, died. Trainers fed Kayavak fish, cared for her day and night, taught her how to "be a whale," and she thrived to be the healthy adult she is today.

Puiji, another of Shedd Aquarium's beluga whales, gave birth to a 162-pound, five-foot, four-inch male calf on December 14, 2009.[18] Although it was a difficult birth, the calf survived and debuted to the public on Sunday, January 24, 2010.[19][20] He has since been named "Nunavik" meaning "friendly, beautiful, and wild".

Naluark was transferred to Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration in Mystic, Connecticut in October 2011.

Another female Beluga, named Naya, gave birth on December 20 to a 162-pound, five-foot two-inch male calf, though the calf died two days later from complications during birth.[21] Puiji died on Wednesday, October 26, 2011 following a seizure after having been undergoing treatment for an undisclosed medical condition over the course of several months.[22]

On August 27, 2012, Mauyak gave birth to a female calf, Kimalu, bringing the total number of Belugas at Shedd to seven.[23]

Alaskan Sea Otters[edit]

Yaku (M), Mari (F), and Kiana (F)

Kenai (Exxon Valdez oil spill survivor) was euthanized on October 9, 2012 due to failing health brought on by advancing years.[24]

Kachemak (oldest sea otter in a North American Aquarium/Zoo) was euthanized on August 24, 2013 due to failing health related to age.[25]

Southern Sea Otters[edit]

Cayucos (F) [26]

Pacific White-sided Dolphins[edit]

Katrl (F), Piquet (F), Sagu (M), and Tique (F)

Kri (F) is currently at Miami Seaquarium on a breeding loan

Sagu was conceived by Li'i at the Miami Seaquarium when Piquet was on a breeding loan there

California Sea Lions[edit]

Tyler (M), Biff (M), Tanner (M), Cruz (M), and Laguna (M)

Otis, a 13-year-old male, was euthanized on March 2, 2012 due to complications related to a progressive advancement of urogenital cancer.[27]

Green Sea Turtle[edit]

Nickel

Nickel is a female Green Sea Turtle who resides at the Caribbean Reef exhibit located in the rotunda area of the aquarium. She is infamously known for her unusual swimming posture where her pelvis is constantly pointing upwards toward the surface. Nickel was first rescued at Florida's Gulf Coast area in 1998 where it was revealed that she was struck by the propeller of a speedboat, with the propeller's blades severely damaging her shell and paralyzing her from the waist down. She was taken to Shedd Aquarium in the spring of 2003 where during an X-ray examination of the turtle, it was revealed that she had swallowed a 1975 nickel in which she was named after upon having the coin removed from her throat. Since her spine paralysis is too severe for her to survive in the wild, the Shedd Aquarium is now Nickel's permanent home. She is also one of the few rehabbed turtles to be on permanent display in the United States, in order to caution visitors about how human activities can occasionally threaten the health and survival of sea turtles.[28]

North American River Otter[edit]

Rio

Euthanized on October 29, 2013 due to age related health issues. She was 21 and lived well past the median life expectancy of a North American River Otter.[29]

Sharks[edit]

Guitarfish Lucille

Sawfish Ginsu

Zebra shark Seymour, Eli, Vera & Cleo

Tarpon[edit]

Deadeye

Deadeye, a female tarpon, was the oldest fish to reside at the Caribbean Reef in the aquarium. She was first introduced to the aquarium in 1935 and died in 1998.

Grand Cayman Blue Iguanas[edit]

Bob

Architecture[edit]

Shedd Aquarium is also notable for its architecture. The basic design, by architectural firm Graham, Anderson, Probst & White,[30] is taken from classical Greek architecture, more exactly Beaux Arts, to match the other structures of the Museum Campus. The central aquarium building is octagonal, fronted by Doric columns and a formal staircase and topped by a dome. Aquatic motifs are worked in at every opportunity; tortoise shells, dolphins, octopuses, waves, and even the Trident of Poseidon can be found all over the aquarium's exterior and interior. Improving upon its predecessor inland aquarium, the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit, extensive use was made of designs by Mary Chase Perry Stratton, incorporating her custom-made Pewabic Pottery tile.[31] The Oceanarium is done in a more modern style representing the Pacific Northwest, but one that blends with the older part of the building. "Whale Harbor", the Oceanarium's 3,000,000-US-gallon (11,000,000 l) main tank, is backed by a wall of windows that look out onto Lake Michigan.

Conservation and Research[edit]

The Daniel P. Haerther Center for Conservation and Research helps to provide on-site research at the aquarium. They study topics such as animal health and behavior, nutrition, animal training, reproduction and genetics. The research done at the Shedd can be used to provide unique insight on conservation efforts around the world.

The aquarium also partners with conservation efforts in the Caribbean and Southeast Asia. The Bahamian rock iguana is one of the most endangered lizards in the world. Since 1994, the Shedd Aquarium has been studying and providing conservation plans for this iguana. The Shedd Aquarium is now recognized as the lead authority on this iguana. In Southeast Asia, the Shedd partners with Project Seahorse to monitor and map out the seahorse populations in Southeast Asia.

Since 1991, the Shedd Aquarium has been involved with research focused on beluga whales. They focus on the animal handling procedures to ensure the animals’ welfare. The aquarium does most of their beluga whale research in Bristol Bay in southwest Alaska. [32]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Shedd Aquarium - Explore by Animal
  2. ^ "List of Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. AZA. Retrieved 30 December 2010. 
  3. ^ "Our Members". ammpa.org. AMMPA. Retrieved 30 December 2010. 
  4. ^ "Zoos and Aquariums of the World". waza.org. WAZA. Retrieved 30 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "Explore by Exhibit". sheddaquarium.org. John G. Shedd Aquarium. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013. 
  6. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15. 
  7. ^ "Shedd Aquarium". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  8. ^ "Crain's List Largest Tourist Attractions (Cultural): Ranked by 2007 attendance". Crain's Chicago Business (Crain Communications Inc.). 2008-06-23. p. 22. 
  9. ^ "Shedd Aquarium Overview" (pdf). January 2006. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  10. ^ "Fish Find Comforts of Home in New Aquarium". books.google.com. Popular Science. July 1930. pp. 116–117. Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  11. ^ Associated Press (2008-03-17). "John Shedd Reed, rail executive". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  12. ^ "John G. Shedd Aquarium 2006 Annual Report". 2007-03-01. Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  13. ^ "About Shedd: History". Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  14. ^ a b Shedd Aquarium, Exhibits: Oceanarium. Retrieved 8 November 2013
  15. ^ Mullen, William (2008-05-21). "Shedd Oceanarium to close for upkeep". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  16. ^ "Jellies a Special Exhibit at Shedd Aquarium". Shedd Aquarium. May 2011. 
  17. ^ a b "Granddad: the Aquarium's Oldest Fish". Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  18. ^ Mullen, William (December 16, 2009). "Baby beluga survives rough 1st day". chicagotribune.com (The Chicago Tribune). Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  19. ^ Cancino, Alejandra (January 22, 2010). "Beluga calf thriving at Shedd". chicagotribune.com (The Chicago Tribune). Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  20. ^ "New beluga baby to make Shedd debut". abclocal.go.com. WLS-TV/DT. January 21, 2010. Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  21. ^ Mullen, William (December 23, 2009). "Beluga whale calf dies at Shedd Aquarium as Brookfield Zoo euthanizes elephant". chicagotribune.com (Chicago Tribune). Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Beluga whale dies at Shedd Aquarium". chicagotribune.com (Chicago Tribune). October 27, 2011. Retrieved July 4, 2012. 
  23. ^ "New Baby Beluga At Shedd Aquarium Makes Public Debut, Is A Girl". huffingtonpost.com (Huffington Post). October 23, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  24. ^ Furnweger, Karen (2012-10-09). "In Loving Memory of Sea Otter Kenai". Shedd Aquarium. Retrieved 2012-10-09. 
  25. ^ Furnweger, Karen (2013-08-26). "Farewell to Kachemak". Shedd Aquarium. Retrieved 2013-08-26. 
  26. ^ Smalec, Andrea (2012-01-26). "Shedd Rescues Sea Otter". Shedd Aquarium. Retrieved 2012-01-26. 
  27. ^ Smalec, Andrea (2012-03-02). "Shedd Aquarium Saddened by Death of Sea Lion". Shedd Aquarium. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  28. ^ "Nickel: Priceless Sea Turtle". Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  29. ^ http://interactive.sheddaquarium.org/2013/10/a-rio-remembrance.html#more.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ "About Shedd: Architecture Styles". Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  31. ^ "Mary Chase Perry Stratton". Craft In America, Inc. Retrieved 2007-04-17. 
  32. ^ Matthews, Meg. "THE DANIEL P. HAERTHER CENTER FOR CONSERVATION AND RESEARCH". Retrieved 13 February 2014. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]