Shipping (fandom)

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Shipping, derived from the word relationship or friendship, is the desire for two people, often fictional, to be in a relationship, romantic or otherwise. It is considered a general term for fans' emotional involvement with the ongoing development of a relationship in a work of fiction. Though technically applicable to any such involvement, it refers chiefly to various related social dynamics observable on the Internet, and is seldom used outside of that context. The methods of shipping can include creating images of two characters a fan wishes to be shown in a close relationship with one another or writing fan fiction stories on web-based boards in this same context.

Fans can write fan fiction to create, support, or recreate a shipping between two characters. Shipping can involve virtually any kind of relationship: from the well-known and established, to the ambiguous or those undergoing development, and even to the highly improbable or blatantly impossible.

There is also something called "friendshipping", or a "BrOTP" (a portmanteau of the terms bromance and one true pairing). When a person friendships two characters, they essentially want them to be friends. This usually implies that they are against any romantic relationship between the said characters. However, "shipping" in and of itself means any relationship, so these terms can be said to be redundant.

Anime/manga communities, shipping is more commonly referred to as pairing(s); in Filipino pop culture, it is frequently called loveteam(s). In East Asian contexts, the practice is also referred to as coupling or CP.


The activity of fans creating relationships out of some or most of the cast of characters far predates the term. Though the word "ship" evolved from "relationship", where and when it was first used to indicate involvement with fictional relationships is unclear. The first "ship" that became widely popular and accepted was the characters Kirk and Spock from the television show Star Trek. This began in the mid 1960s, and was often referred to as K/S. This is why relationships between two men are now often referred to as "slash". The actual term "shipping" was derived by internet fans of the TV show The X-Files, who believed the two main characters, Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, should be or were engaged in a romantic relationship. They called themselves "relationshippers," or "shippers" for short.

The term for a fan of shipping also evolved:[1] from relationshipper,[2][3] R'shipper,[4] 'shipper, and finally just shipper.[5]

Notation and terminology[edit]

"Ship" and its derivatives in this context have since come to be in wide and versatile use. "Shipping" refers to the phenomenon; a "ship" is the concept of a fictional couple; to "ship" a couple means to have an affinity for it in one way or another; a "shipper" is somebody significantly involved with such an affinity, and so forth.

There are a wide number of terms used among fans who practice shipping. In addition to popular terms used among shippers in general, there are other terms that only specific fandoms use, such as giving special names to the ships in question. For example, a "Sailed Ship" is a pairing that has been established as canonically true. Another common term is an "OTP", an abbreviation of "One True Pairing". To deem a ship OTP, one is declaring their deep emotional investment in it. On occasion, though, a person may not be able to decide on an OTP in a single fandom. This is when the uncommon term "TTP" is used. It simply stands for Two True Pairings.

Various naming conventions have developed in different online communities to refer to prospective couples, likely due to the ambiguity and cumbersomeness of the "Character 1 and Character 2" format. The most widespread appears to be putting the slash character (/) between the two names ("Character1/Character2"). Other methods of identifying relationships between characters often create hybrid terms such as portmanteaus and clipped compounds to abbreviate character pairings. For example, NaruHina forms a clipped compound, abbreviated from the complete names Naruto and Hinata. These combinations often follow systematic phonological principles.[6]

Many fandom-specific variants exist and often use fandom-specific terminology. These often employ words that describe the relationship between characters in the context of the fictional universe and simply add the word "Shipping" to the end. For example, MartyrShipping refers to the relationship between Ivypool and Hollyleaf from the Warriors series, because both suffered a great deal for their beliefs. Other terminology is more vague, consisting of codes for the character names. For example, according to Japanese wordplay, Takeshi Yamamoto can be represented by the number 80 and Hayato Gokudera by the number 59, thus the Reborn! pairing is referred to as "8059".

Slash and non-conventional relationships[edit]

Main article: Slash fiction

Shipping is not limited to heterosexual (or "het") relationships. In the fan fiction community, homosexual pairings are also popular (known as "slash and femslash" or by their borrowed Japanese terms yaoi, male homosexuality, and yuri, female homosexuality). A person who supports homosexual pairings and reads or writes slash fiction may be referred to as a "slasher".

The term "Slash" itself predates the use of "shipping" by at least some 20 years. It was originally coined as a term to describe a pairing of Kirk and Spock of Star Trek, Kirk/Spock (or "K/S"; sometimes spoken "Kirk-slash-Spock", whence "Slash") homosexual fan fiction.[7] For a time in the late 1970s and early 1980s, both "K/S" and "Slash" were used to describe such fan fiction, regardless of whether or not they were related to Star Trek. But as homosexuality became more accepted in society, so too did the terms lose their derogatory connotation. Thus "slash" became a universal term to describe all homosexual themed fan works.

Parallel to this development, the term "Slash" was also being used in some fandoms to denote fan fiction or other fan works depicting sexual acts with an implied rating of NC-17, whether homosexual or heterosexual. It is likely that this is the same "Slash" term born of the Star Trek fandom, but adapted to the pornographic focus that commonly dominates fanfiction and fan works in the Kirk/Spock ship, as well as the ships of other homosexual couples, (John/Sherlock, Merlin/Arthur, Erik/Charles, Draco/Harry, ...) allowing the use of the term to spread to heterosexual ships. However, this use of the term has now become largely archaic due to the standardization of terminology by large fandom sites such as "Slash" now refers only to male/male pairings. "Femmeslash" or "femslash" is for female/female pairings, and the term "smut" or in anime, "lemon" now refers to pornographic content.

Shipping may defy social standards and taboos. Some online groups support ships which constitute incest or bestiality. Characters of any age, even adults and children, may be paired together in romantic fan fiction. These ships aren't necessarily accepted even within the fandom, though.

Another example of non-conventional shipping is in the Homestuck fandom, which introduced three shipping categories based on non-romantic social relationships. This broadens the shipping landscape to include shorthand words and symbols that describe relationships such as a deep-rooted rivalry (Kismesis or hatelove), a platonic friendship (Moirail), or the relationship created between a peer mediator and those in conflict (Auspistice).

Fan works[edit]

In fan fiction circles, authors often let their shipping tendencies influence their work and espouse a certain pairing between two particular characters in their fiction. The pairings found within are considered such a defining factor that story summaries in fiction archives often notify the potential reader of them, while neglecting other important features. The extremity of this phenomenon can be found in many fan fiction archives, where fanfiction is searchable by rating, length, genre, date, language, and "pairing". While this in part reflects an emphasis on shipping by many fan fiction authors, it is also considered a useful service to those readers who only wish to read about certain pairings (or conversely, wish to avoid reading about pairings they dislike).

To a lesser degree, this influence still exists in other fan works. Since fan art, for example, is by nature more focused on a particular scene or character(s) and allows for less flexibility in terms of theme integration, it is usually either without shipping influence at all or wholly a tribute to a certain pairing.

Case studies of shipping-afflicted fandoms[edit]

Daria fandom[edit]

Daria fandom was marked through its entire run by shipper debate. From the series' first season, the main conflict was between people who thought that the title character, Daria Morgendorffer, should have a relationship with Trent Lane, a slacker rock-band frontman, whom Daria met through his sister, Jane. A common argument against this possible outcome was that such a development would signal a turn away from the more subversive aspects of Daria's character, and thus the show.

The show's writers responded by having Daria develop a crush on Trent, even having Daria go as far as to get a piercing because Trent encouraged her to, as well as having her get rashes on her head at the sight of Trent. Trent, however, remained involved with his off-and-on girlfriend Monique, who immediately became a target of shipper ire. The crush ended in the third season's finale, "Jane's Addition", when Daria realized that Trent could never satisfy her in the long run.

That same episode introduced Tom Sloane, a charming and intellectual son of privilege who nonetheless drove a Ford Pinto. Although Tom became Jane's boyfriend, threatening Daria and Jane's friendship in the process, Daria and Tom warmed up to each other throughout the fourth season, leading up to its finale, "Dye! Dye! My Darling," broadcast August 2, 2000.[8] With Jane and Tom's relationship in crisis, a heated argument between Daria and Tom led up to a kiss in Tom's car. With Daria indecisive as to whether this relationship should be pursued further, Daria and Jane's friendship was in tatters for the rest of the episode. In the made-for-TV movie "Is it Fall Yet?," Daria decided to begin a relationship with Tom, and Daria and Jane patched up their friendship.

This caused an instant uproar. The shipper faction having won the initial debate (in fair part having do with other artistic decisions Daria made after Season 1 reflecting a conceptual desire towards post-modernity, such as a musical episode, "Daria!", extended dream sequences laden with 70s–80s detective show references ("Murder, She Snored"), and human representations of the major holidays [and Guy Fawkes Day] manifesting themselves in Lawndale in "Depth Takes A Holiday"), conversation now turned to whether Tom was more appropriate than the long-dismissed Trent. The debate was satirized by the show's writers in a piece on MTV's website.[9]

In the series finale, the made-for-TV movie, "Is It College Yet?", Daria and Tom broke up over the fact that they were going to different colleges. The debate was over, and so was the series.

In interviews done after the series' run, series co-creator Glenn Eichler revealed that "any viewer who really thought that Daria and Trent could (have) a relationship was just not watching the show we were making,"[10] Tom came about because "going into our fourth year... I thought it was really pushing credibility for Daria to have only had one or two dates during her whole high school career," and "teaser" episodes like "Pierce Me" were "intended to provide some fun for that portion of the audience that was so invested in the romance angle. The fact that those moments were few and far between should have given some indication that the series was not about Daria's love life."[11]

Harry Potter fandom[edit]

The Harry Potter series' most contentious ship debates came from supporters of the prospective relationship between Harry Potter and his close female friend Hermione Granger, and supporters of Hermione ending up instead with Ron Weasley, close friend of both. Quotes from author J.K. Rowling which seemed to contradict the possibility of Harry ending up with Hermione were usually countered by claiming them to be deliberate obfuscations designed to lure astute observation off-course (though such claims were far from undisputed, given that these allegedly vague quotes included such phrases as "[Harry and Hermione] are very platonic friends").[12]

Another alternative is of Harry ending up with Ginny Weasley, Ron's younger sister, whose obvious crush on him served as a comical plot-line starting in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and apparently subsiding in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, where Hermione informs Harry that Ginny has "given up" on him. Rowling's plot for romantic development did not become clear until 2005, with the release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. The book contained a prominent sub-plot in which Harry develops a crush on Ginny, convinced that he has missed his opportunity with her. In the end Ginny turns out to never have given up on Harry after all, but merely taken Hermione's advice to try to date other boys to boost her self-confidence and be more like herself around him. Though their romantic relationship becomes one of the few sources of comfort in Harry's difficult life, he makes a decision to end it for fear that Voldemort would learn of it and target Ginny. Rowling later commented that she had planned Ginny as Harry's "ideal girl" from the very beginning.

The effect of this turnout was dramatically amplified by an interview with J.K. Rowling conducted by fansite webmasters Emerson Spartz (MuggleNet) and Melissa Anelli (The Leaky Cauldron) shortly after the book's release. During the interview Spartz commented that Harry/Hermione shippers were delusional, to which Rowling chuckled, though making it clear that she did not share the sentiment and that the Harry/Hermione fans were "still valued members of her readership". However, J.K. Rowling claimed there were "anvil-sized hints" for Ron/Hermione and Harry/Ginny, and that Harry/Hermione shippers needed to re-read the books. This incident resulted in an uproar among Harry/Hermione shippers, some of whom announced that they would return their copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince and boycott future Harry Potter books, leveling criticism at Spartz, Anelli, and Rowling herself. Many of them complained endlessly that both sites had a Ron/Hermione bias and criticized Rowling for not including a representative of their community, as a way to avoid difficult questions. The uproar was loud enough to merit an article in the San Francisco Chronicle.[13]

Rowling's attitude towards the shipping phenomenon has varied between amused and bewildered to frustrated, as she revealed in that interview. She explained:[14]

The release of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in July 2007 saw an epilogue, nineteen years after the events at the focus of the series, where Harry and Ginny are married and have three kids, Lily Luna, James Sirius, and Albus Severus, and Ron and Hermione are also married and have two, Rose and Hugo. This has been received negatively by some fans, especially those who ship non-canon pairings. A result has been the EWE tag added to the summaries of fan-fiction, meaning "Epilogue, What Epilogue?".

Harry/Hermione shippers were somewhat vindicated in an interview with Rowling in February 2014 in Wonderland Magazine that stated that she thought realistically "in some ways Harry and Hermione are a better fit" and that Hermione and Ron had "too much fundamental incompatibility." She stated the Hermione and Ron were written together "as a form of wish fulfillment" as way to reconcile a relationship she herself was once in. She went on to say that perhaps with marriage counseling Ron and Hermione would have been all right.[15]

Xena: Warrior Princess fandom[edit]

The Xena: Warrior Princess fandom saw often "shipping wars" that turned especially intense due to spillover from real-life debates about homosexuality and gay rights.

Shortly after the 1995 debut of the action/fantasy series about a woman warrior seeking redemption for a dark past, fans started discussing the possibility of a relationship between Xena and her sidekick and best friend Gabrielle. Toward the end of the first season, the show's producers began to play to this perception by deliberately inserting usually humorous lesbian innuendo into some episodes. The show acquired a cult following in the lesbian community. However, Xena had a number of male love interests as well, and from the first season she had an adversarial but sexually charged dynamic with Ares, the God of War, who frequently tried to win her over as his "Warrior Queen." Gabrielle herself once had a male husband, and his death deeply affected her.

In a 10-year retrospective of the show in, journalist Cathy Young wrote:

In 2000, during the airing of the fifth season, the intensity and sometimes nastiness of the "shipping wars" in the Xena fandom was chronicled (from a non-subtexter's point of view) by Australian artist Nancy Lorenz in an article titled "The Discrimination in the Xenaverse" in the online Xenaverse magazine Whoosh!,[17] and also in numerous letters in response.[18]

The wars did not abate after the series came to an end in 2001. With no new material from the show itself, the debates have been fueled by often contradictory statements from the cast and staff. In January 2003, Lucy Lawless, the star of Xena: Warrior Princess, told Lesbian News magazine that after watching the series finale (in which Gabrielle revived Xena with a mouth-to-mouth water transfer filmed to look like a full kiss) she had come to believe that Xena and Gabrielle's relationship was "definitely gay."[19] However, in the interviews and commentaries on the DVD sets released in 2003–2005, the actors, writers and producers continued to stress the ambiguity of the relationship, and in several interviews both Lawless and Renee O'Connor, who played Gabrielle, spoke of Ares as a principal love interest for Xena. In the interview for the Season 6 episode "Coming Home", O'Connor commented, "If there was ever going to be one man in Xena's life, it would be Ares."

In March 2005, one-time Xena screenwriter Katherine Fugate, an outspoken supporter of the Xena/Gabrielle pairing, posted a statement on her website appealing for tolerance in the fandom:


  1. ^ " Greatest Threads of All Time". 14 Aug 2001. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  2. ^ " Her *name* is *Bambi*? (use of 'relationshipper')". 7 January 1996. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  3. ^ " Expunge cleverness (use of 'relationshipping')". 6 January 1996. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  4. ^ " NEW: TITLE 17 [1/1] (use of "R'shipper")". 20 April 1996. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  5. ^ " My problem with 'anti-relationshippers'.... (use of 'shipper' in post 85)". 19 May 1996. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  6. ^ DiGirolamo, Cara M. (2012). "The Fandom Pairing Name: Blends and the Phonology Orthography Interface". Names: A Journal of Onomastics (American Name Society): 231–243. 
  7. ^ "Fanfic: is it right to write?" from The Age
  8. ^ "Episode #413: "Dye! Dye! My Darling"". Outpost Daria. 2000-08-02. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  9. ^ "DARIA Definitive Chapter 3". 2006-03-09. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  10. ^ "DVDaria Petition – Buy Daria DVDs!". 2005-03-16. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  11. ^ "DVDaria Petition – Buy Daria DVDs!". 2006-01-02. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  12. ^ "1999: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". 1999-10-20. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  13. ^ "If you’re an obsessed Harry Potter fan, Voldemort isn’t the problem. It’s Hermione versus Ginny.". San Francisco Chronicle. August 3, 2005. Retrieved December 19, 2010. 
  14. ^ "2005: Accio Quote!, the largest archive of J.K. Rowling interviews on the web". 2005-07-16. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  15. ^ West, Kelly. "What J.K. Rowling Actually Said About Hermione's Relationships With Ron And Harry", Cinema Blend, 7 February 2014. Retrieved on 2 October 2014.
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