Sogamoso

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Sogamoso
City
Sogamoso, Boyacá.jpg
Flag of Sogamoso
Flag
Official seal of Sogamoso
Seal
Location of the city and municipality of Sogamoso in the Boyaca Department
Location of the city and municipality of Sogamoso in the Boyaca Department
Sogamoso is located in Colombia
Sogamoso
Sogamoso
Location in Colombia
Coordinates: 5°43′N 72°55′W / 5.717°N 72.917°W / 5.717; -72.917Coordinates: 5°43′N 72°55′W / 5.717°N 72.917°W / 5.717; -72.917
Region Andes Region
Departamento Boyacá
Founded 1810
Government
 • Mayor Miguel Ángel García Pérez
Area
 • Total 208.54 km2 (80.52 sq mi)
Elevation 2,569 m (8,428 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 106,006
 • Density 510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Demonym Sogamoseña
Time zone Eastern Time Zone (UTC-05)
Postal code 152210-19
Area code(s) 57 + 8
Website Official website (Spanish)

Sogamoso (Spanish pronunciation: [soɣaˈmoso]) is a city in the Boyacá Department of Colombia.

The origin of Sogamoso goes back in the Chibcha´s cosmogony, to the creation of the Sun. In the valley of Iraca (or Sogamoso) the Sun was born.[1] Sogamoso was a religious center of the Muiscas, Indians of the Cundinamarca and Boyaca highlands, as they reminds, it the Archaeological Park built in the place that occupied the necropolis Temple of the Sun.

The myth of Sugamuxi that recreates the origin of the two gods of the region of Iraca—Ramiriquí and Iraca- was picked up by the chronist Father Pedro Simón in his News Records of the New Reino of Granada ,[2] and the German countess summarizes this way, Gertrud von Podewils Dürniz, in her work Chigys Mie (that means last Things in language music").

It mentions "Darkness still continued reigning on the earth, and the men lived in eternal night. Iraca sent to Ramiriquí to heaven to enlighten the world, and called him Súa. But his clear light only shone by day, because running from one in the sky, the evening was hidden behind the hills, leaving the earth of the Chibcha plugged in the darkness and mourning. Seeing that, the lord of Iraca flew in person to the sky to give light on whether, and Chia calling shine at night when Shua hides. ' ".[1]

The chronist of Indias Lucas Fernández of Piedrahita, describes this way to Sogamoso for the time of the Spanish conquest:[3] It is almost entirely flat land, dilated in good proportion, and the best and more fertile the New Kingdom of Granada. Fertilize this province with its waters, and divide it in two parts, the brave river Sogamoso whose origin distributed the cities of Tunja and Toca, which recognizes its principles. This province runs for the slopes of the mountain range that it serves as boundary between the Plains and New Kingdom, with very healthy temple in which were populated different nations subject to Sogamoso, and the whole distance to reached all the way or reaching your lordship is the holy land called, dead in it, as they said, the first interpreter Bochica of their religion, leaving heirs of their power to the chiefs who succeeded him, although the Indians of that province referred to in the case of this.

Colonial time[edit]

Juan of Sanct Martin. He was the discoverer of the Valley of Iraca. When arriving the hosts of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada they found in the valley of Iraca one of the main locations chibchas. It was the most important sacred place in the required Muiscas, whose supreme priest and ruler was the cacique Suamox or Sugamuxi, name of the one which those Spanish conquerors they derived that of the city.

The Cacique's habitation Sugamuxi, the I Temper of the Sun ',' it was set on fire in required September 1537, for soldiers of Quesada. According to the legend picked up by the Hispanic columnists, the dimensions of the original temple were such that this burned during six years without they turned off it the torrential rains. Sugamuxi accepted the religion imposed by the invader and it was baptized with the name Alonso and it was ennobled with the title of Don ',' that is to say, "Of noble origin". Under the peninsular domain, the importance of its cacicazgo entered in decadence. Don Alonso died in the city of Tunja, practically in the misery.

Soon after of the Cacique's baptism Sugamuxi,los cures missionaries began the construction of a chapel that would open the way to the first Catholic church with the time, in front of the square dedicated to future market square.

The columnist Lucas Fernández of Piedrahita it picks up the discovery of Sogamoso in the chapter III of their General History of the Conquests of the New Kingdom of Granada:

"The Captain San Martin has news of Tundama: he/she discovers á Sogamoso and it returns in search of the General Quesada that, newsy of the King of Tunja, he/she heads á their guided court of an Indian that Hernán trapped Venégas [4]

Fernández of Piedrahita, in the chapter V narrates the march of Quesada á Sogamoso, the looting of the city and the fire of the temple of the Sun.[5]

In its Relationship directed to the Spanish Crown, the captains of Juan of Sanct Martin and Antonio of Lebrija, they sustain that the old inhabitants of the highland cundiboyacense were "... people that wants peace and non war, because although they are many, they are of few weapons and not offensive.[6] guarnecían their frontiers with people of war, and although they were those some in the earth of the otros,[7] they were harassed by nations barbarians , of language and different customs, as the panches, muzos, laches and colimas.

After the fire of the maximum temple of the muiscas, and the distribution of lands and natives among the Spaniards, several chapels were built.

In the beginnings of the Viceroyalty of the New Granada, the number of unoccupied Spaniards grew in an alarming way and so much in Santafé of Bogotá as in Tunja, "provoking anxiety reigned among soldiers of the old service, poor people without work and vagabonds that marauded without truce putting a note of serious bewilderment. None of them had what to eat, if it was not for the pilferages more than for the charities" (Gabriel Camargo Pérez in 1937). Template:It mentions required

To solve this problem partly, in the city of Tunja, Don Bernardino of Mojica and Guevara he/she intended to transform to the town of the Valley of Iraca into a village. Template:It mentions required The project miscarried the resources then they were dedicated to the foundation of a population to flatter to gift Andrés Díaz Worships of Leyva, giving origin, in 1572, to the Villa of Santa María of Leyva, place more near the capital of this president of the Real Audience of the New Kingdom of Granada. Template:It mentions required

Among who opposed you to the creation of the village in Sogamoso the Alcalde of Tunja, Miguel he/she stood out Sánchez, in fact the same adventurer that, with Juan Rodríguez Vine, it had fastened fire to the religious building of the theocracy muisca. Template:It mentions required

The King Carlos V gave Sogamoso a portrait to San Sebastian's oil, saint to which the city was dedicated. Template:It mentions required

Myths and legends[edit]

  • The stone of the patience : A stone of the patience "it is in The Meca and around her millions of pilgrims give turns counting him their misfortunes". The day that you/they don't fit him more misfortunes it will explode and he/she will take place the Apocalypse.[8] Other the Baron found it of Humboldt in the Mouths of the Meta river.[9] These two stones remain in their places. Another gigantic one dominated the city of Sogamoso and he had recorded this sentence: "If you turned me... you can saw" .
  • The stranger history of the transformed images of Sogamoso and of Monguí. Three historical doubts in a legend.
  • The ghost : During good part of the century nineteen scared the population, forcing her to be picked up when arriving the night... it was about to fall electrocuted...
  • The seductive tunjo : The tunjo he/she was softly a being that amid the rainbow he/she allowed to see their true face of gold, he/she lived next to a swamp, where the rainbow is born". TO that place the children neither the women should not come closer...
  • "Ángel Custodian" or the soul of the hedge : Entered the 20th century a spectrum scared the wayfarers with its wailings. One night, the soul adolorida was in a swamp, wrapped up with its white sheet, adorned with the toads, frogs and leeches.
  • The alive flame of Sacred Thursday : "In Sogamoso they believed that in Thursdays Santos at night during few minutes a mysterious flame appears in the savannas of the Tigrera...
  • Gift's treasure Lorenzo Vácarez
  • Don Jesus Bernal and the morrocotas of the guafa Macoya
  • Goblins and exorcisms : The goblins, also called you encourage , they used to make take possession of whole houses to destroy them before the astonishment of the big ones and the rejoicing of the boys...
  • Myths of the Lagoon of Tota

Historical Toponimia[edit]

The Baron Alejandro of Humboldt who visited the New Kingdom of Granada at the beginning of the 19th century, it consigns in its "Newspaper": Template:It mentions

  • Historical geography of Sogamoso.

At the end of the 19th century, the French geographer Eliseo Reclus, it presented this geographical image of Sogamoso: The city of Sogamoso (Suamox), si­tuted at the banks of the river that has received its name, was, as Tunja, one of the historical cities of the impe­rio Muisca; á 2 kilometers to the Southeast señálase the em­plazamiento of Iraca, residence of the Sugamuxi, supreme priest of the nation, and where he/she was the richest temple in the district, considerable building of had ma­dera of sheets of gold; during the pillage, some soldiers put him fire for negligence, and the in­cendio it lasted for many days, "five years, according to the chronicles. Sogamoso is not already a place of peregrina­ción á where they are taken of all parts the gold and the precious stones; on the other hand, he/she gets rich as cen­tro of trade of flocks and it overcomes á the capital in population; the surrounding countrysides, flooded small á, they are not lent for the agriculture, pear feeds much livestock that it is cared of the Plains of Casanare; it is appreciated the horsy race of Sogamoso a lot.

Their old and effective collaborator Mister D. Fran­cisco J. Vergara V Vergara clarified:

"That said on Sogamoso needs some explanation; the ciu­dad, the first mercantile center of Boyacá, is not on the river of its name, but á banks of the creek Monquirá, and its fields also give valuable and abundant crops. To the west of the city it is the celebrated field of battle of Swamp of Vargas; Fishing and their pretty valley, notable for their abundant crops and valuable properties is to the South; to the This Mongui with a celebrated sanctuary whose image is gift of the Empera­dor Carlos V. the whole table of Tunja á Sogamoso is full with small towns "pueblecillos". In the time of the muisca empire, Buscbanzá, Fishes, he/she Plays and Gámeza was im­portantes cacicazgos whose gentlemen chose the Pontiff of Suamox in individuals of Tobazá and Firavitoba, alternately. In Gámeza tam­bién there are colored stones." [2]

Geography[edit]

Sogamoso is in the oriental part of the old one Valley of Sogamoso located in the region of the High Chicamocha, in the estribaciones of the oriental brunch of the Cordillera of the Andes, he/she waters it the I laugh Chicamocha.[10]

Limits[edit]

Sogamoso limits with the following municipalities: For the north Nobsa and Tópaga; for the east with Tópaga, Monguí and Aquitania; for the south with Aquitaine, Cuitiva and Iza; for the occident with Tibasosa, Firavitoba and it Hoists.

Administrative division[edit]

According to the political Map – administrative Number 41ª,del Plan of Territorial Classification 1999–2010, in February of the year 2000, the city was conformed by 18 veredas:[11]

Neighborhoods[edit]

lamos del sur 2. Álvaro González Santana 3. Angelmar 4. Benjamín Herrera 5. Campoamor 6. Centro 7. Chapinero 8. Chicamocha 9. Colombia 10. El Cortez 11. El Diamante 12. El Durazno 13. El Jardín 14. El Laguito 15. El Nogal 16. El Oriente 17. El Prado 18. El Recreo 19. El Rosario 20. El Sol 21. El Carmen 22. Gustavo Jiménez Jiménez 23. Jorge Eliécer Gaitán 24. José Antonio Galán 25. Juan José Rondón 26. La Castellana 27. La Esmeralda 28. La Florida 29. La Isla 30. La Pradera 31. La Villita 32. Las Acacias 33. Las Américas 34. Los Alisos 35. Los Alpes 36. Los Arrayanes 37. Los Libertadores 38. Los Rosales 39. Los Sauces 40. Lunapark 41. Magdalena 42. Monquirá 43. Enrique Olaya Herrera 44. Prado Norte 45. Rafael Uribe Uribe 46. San Andresito 47. San Cristóbal 48. San Martín 49. San Martín- Centro 50. Santa Ana- Mochacá 51. Santa Bárbara 52. Santa Catalina 53. Santa Helena 54. Santa Inés 55. San Rafael 56. Santa Isabel 57. Santa Marta 58. Siete de Agosto 59. Simón Bolívar 60. Sucre 61. Sugamuxi 62. Universitario 63. Rafael Valdés Tavera 64. Veinte de Julio 65. Venecia 66. Villa Blanca 67. Villa del Sol 68. Asodea 69. Villa del Lago 70. Valdez Tavera According to the political Map – administrative of the Administrative Department of Planeación of Sogamoso, the municipality this conformed by the following ones barrios:[12]

Symbols[edit]

He says the provincial tradition that, in the 18th century, the Spanish Crown granted Sogamoso the ability to have a coat of arms. So far they have not been the parchments that you/they attest it.

By the middle of the XX one, the historian Gabriel Camargo Pérez devised the blasón in a Spanish way, party in four barracks, with crown mural and white foreign currency. In the left superior canton, have more than enough blue field the legendary sun that gives name to the city; in the opposed one, the cap frigio, symbol of the freedom on field of gold, in the inferior right three black bars (that represent the iron and the steel) it has more than enough silver field and in the left inferior canton a black head of bull, on green that you/they represent the cattle raising and the fertile one Valley of Iraca.

The Hymn of Sogamoso opened September 6, 1986 in the Square of the Villa of that city. The teacher's music Luis Antonio Escobar. the doctor's Letter Pedro Medina Avendaño.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Sogamoso leans on in the agriculture, in the trade among the center of Colombia and those oriental Plains, in the steel industry and of construction materials, and in the exploitation of limestone s, marble and coal.[13]

Also bill with variety of such chain supermarkets as:

Architecture and urbanism[edit]

Among the years 2007 and 2008, the city had a quick development as for the urban construction; However, the city has a very big difficulty for its development which is not to have the possibility to build buildings of but of 12 floors.

Transportation[edit]

Sogamoso has got an Airport called Alberto Lleras Camargo. Aerocivil lifted the restriction of air operations in September 2009.

The Terminal Intermunicipal of Passengers is the axis of the lines of buses and taxis that unite the plains of Casanare with the center of the country. It is expected that enters in operation the Regional Terminal of Load and Passengers by the middle of 2011.

Due to the increase of economic relationships with Bogotá and the rest of the region, the government realised the need to build a Highway, It the Doble calzada Briceño-Tunja-Sogamoso. This road contributes to the economic development of Sogamoso.

Climate[edit]

For their tropical location and elevation, Sogamoso enjoys a temperate climate whose average of 20°C it has been altered in recent years by the phenomenon of the global warming.

However, the region enjoys the daily cycle of the seasons. In the course of 24 hours the climatic conditions of the four annual seasons change. This way, between six in the morning and noon the climatic characteristics look like the spring; of the mid-day up to five in the afternoon the summer, of that hour up to the ten or eleven, the temperature is autumnal. The winter temperature reaches its minimum of about 0 °C around three in the morning.

Day Luz. The solar light varies very little in Sogamoso; practically it is of 12 daily hours: along the year, the sun appears before in the horizon with a maximum difference of 15 minutes or after six in the morning.


Climate data for Sogamoso
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F 75 73 72 70 70 70 68 70 70 72 73 72 75
Average high °F 66 66 66 64 64 63 61 64 64 66 66 66 64.7
Average low °F 36 36 37 37 37 36 34 32 34 36 36 36 35.6
Record low °F 28 30 30 32 32 30 27 30 28 30 27 34 27
Precipitation inches 3.15 3.07 3.5 3.62 2.95 2.17 1.57 1.5 1.65 3.54 4.33 3.23 34.28
Record high °C 24 23 22 21 21 21 20 21 21 22 23 22 24
Average high °C 19 19 19 18 18 17 16 18 18 19 19 19 18.3
Average low °C 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 0 1 2 2 2 1.9
Record low °C −2 −1 −1 0 0 −1 −3 −1 −2 −1 −3 1 −3
Precipitation mm 80 78 89 92 75 55 40 38 42 90 110 82 871
Source: [14]

Education[edit]

In the 2009 Sogamoso it has six universities, insufficient to give specialized education to the great number of students that you/they finished their secondary studies in the previous decade.

  • Technological Pedagogic university Of Colombia-U.P.T.C.
  • Open National university and to Distance-U.N.A.D.
  • University corporation Remington.
  • Polytechnic Grancolombiano.
  • University of Pamplona
  • Superior school of Public Administration E.S.A.P.

In the city great lack of public universities and privadaslo which he/she forces to the youth sogamoseña to emigrate to other cities exists.

Culture[edit]

Numerous works of the historical and cultural Patrimony of Sogamoso they have disappeared or they are about to disappear. For one decade one comes making an inventory according to the Plan of Territorial Classification (I Agree 096 of 2000). at the present time he/she is being carried out the inventory and valuation of the goods patrimonial properties that the POT points out on the part of the Office Adviser of Planeación".[citation needed]

Sites of interest[edit]

The city takes such historical places as:

  • The Archaeological Museum
  • Park of The Villa, Which is located in the city downtown
  • Square 6 September, Where is the city hall located
  • The Pile-Mochacá, from the ancient city "the old Sogamoso"
  • Morca, Where the Virgin Of Morca is venerated. Every first Saturday of the month thousands of people walk from sogamoso and other neighbor cities to pray in the church built for the Virgin.

Parties and celebrations[edit]

  • September 6: Anniversary of the city.
  • Julio: Festivities of the Sun and of the Steel.
  • Julio: Festival of the ear.
  • I wither: The Party of the Huan, recreation of the indigenous ceremony of adoration of the sun.
  • September: International Festival of The Culture.
  • October: Festival of the corn.
  • October: Festival of the mud.

Radio stations of Sogamoso[edit]

Radio stations with headquarters in the city[edit]

  • Rumba Stereo 106.1 FM. Tel. 7723888 (Sauce, meringue, reggaeton, vallenato, pop)
  • Tropicana Stereo 107.3 FM. Tel 7724242 (Sauce, meringue, reggaeton, vallenato, popular)
  • Sun Stereo 99.1 FM.Tel 7722297 (Community)
  • RCN Basic Radio 1200 AM. Tel 7703812(Noticias)
  • Snail Radio 1090 AM. Tel 7702009(Noticias)
  • RCN Antenna 2 1440 AM. Tel 7702108(Deportes, Information)
  • 96.1 FM.En process of beginning of transmissions for "Dattis Communications

Radio stations frequently in the city[edit]

  • I oxygenate 88.6 FM Headquarters-Tibasosa. Tel 7793440 ()
  • Love Stereo 93.1 FM Sede-Duitama. (Ballads and Latin pop music)
  • Colombia Stereo 90.1 FM Headquarters-Duitama I Exercise Nacional(Información, music crossover)
  • 90.6 FM Headquarters-Duitama (Community)
  • Spring F.M.103.1 FM Headquarters – Paipa (it Christens, Music Gospel)
  • Stereo costs FM FM 106.6 Headquarters-Nobsa (Community)
  • Success Stereo 98.60 FM.Sede – Firavitova (Community)
  • The Affectionate .1030AM Headquarters – Duitama (Information, Popular music)
  • National police 98.1 FM Headquarters – Sta Rosa of Viterbo (National Police)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b von Podewils Dürniz, Gertrud. Editorial Cromos of Bogotá, in 1930. pg. 8 (this work was published originally by the editorial Strecker und Schöder in Stuttgart).
  2. ^ Pedro Simón, Father . News Records of the New Reyno of Granada, Volume 2, pg, 279
  3. ^ Fernández of Piedrahita, Lucas. "General History of the Conquests of the New Kingdom of Granada". Retrieved August 31, 2009. 
  4. ^ Fernández of Piedrahita, Lucas. "General History of the Conquests of the New Kingdom of Granada". Retrieved August 31, 2009.  The Captain San Martin has news of Tundama: he/she discovers á Sogamoso and it returns in search of the General Quesada that, newsy of the King of Tunja, he/she heads á their guided court of an Indian that Hernán trapped Venégas
  5. ^ Fernández of Piedrahita, Lucas. "General History of the Conquests of the New Kingdom of Granada". Retrieved August 31, 2009. 
  6. ^ Oviedo. Edition of 1852, Takes III. pg. 91
  7. ^ Oviedo. Edition of 1852, Takes III. pg. 113
  8. ^ Summary of the book "The stone of the patience", I Reward Goncourt 2008
  9. ^ Rehearsal politician on the island of Cuba Written by Alexander von Humboldt
  10. ^ Durante several centuries the river Chicamocha was identified with the Sogamoso, but at the present time the name is limited from Sogamoso to the river that is born of the fork of the rivers Chicamocha, Fonce and Suárez, very far from the population to which owes its name. The River Chicamocha or Sogamoso, of which Humboldt wrote, Joaquín Camacho in the Physical Jeografía of Codazzi [1], Vergara, etc., is born in the union of the rivers Pimp and Tuta [it Programs of the United Nations for the Environment. Unit of Communications and Information Pública.Resumen of Prensa,12 of March 2004].
  11. ^ Governorship bigger than Sogamoso. Neighborhoods achurados
  12. ^ Map of the neighborhoods of Published Sogamoso for the Governorship bigger than Sogamoso
  13. ^ Encyclopedia Encarta. "Sogamoso" (in Spanish). Retrieved September 10, 2009. [dead link]
  14. ^ IDEAM

Bibliography[edit]

  • Camargo Pérez, Gabriel (1925). historical Geography of Sogamoso. Sugamuxi. 
  • Prints of Sogamoso. It guides historical and geographical. 1955. 
  • Camargo Pérez, Gabriel (1961). Of the Mud to the Steel in the Rome of the Chibchas. 
  • Camargo Pérez, Gabriel (July 26, 1936). "The Villa of Leyva was about to be born twin". pp. 2, 8. 

External links[edit]