A super-Jupiter is an astronomical object that's more massive than the planet Jupiter. For example, companions at the planet–brown dwarf borderline have been called super-Jupiters, such as around the star Kappa Andromedae.
By 2011 there were 180 known super-Jupiters, some hot, some cold. Even though they weigh more than Jupiter, they remain the about the same size as Jupiter up to 80 Jupiter masses. This means that their surface gravity and density goes up proportionally with their mass. The increased mass compresses the planet due to gravity, thus keeping it from being larger.
Corot-3b, with a mass around 22 Jupiter masses, is predicted to have an average density of 26.4 g/cm3, greater than osmium (22.6 g/cm3), the densest natural element under standard conditions. Extreme compression of matter inside it causes the high density, because it is likely composed mainly of hydrogen. The surface gravity is also high, over 50 times that of Earth.
See also 
- Astronomers Directly Image Massive Star's 'Super-Jupiter'11.19.12
- C. R. Kitchin - Exoplanets: Finding, Exploring, and Understanding Alien Worlds (2011) - Page 167-168
- Deleuil, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Rouan, D.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Aigrain, S. et al. (2008). "Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VI. CoRoT-Exo-3b: the first secure inhabitant of the brown-dwarf desert". Astronomy and Astrophysics 491 (3): 889–897. arXiv:0810.0919. Bibcode:2008A&A...491..889D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810625.
- Baraffe, I. et al. (2003). "Evolutionary models for cool brown dwarfs and extrasolar giant planets. The case of HD 209458". Astronomy and Astrophysics 402 (2): 701–712. arXiv:astro-ph/0302293. Bibcode:2003A&A...402..701B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030252.
- Image of the "super-Jupiter" Kappa Andromedae b
Further reading 
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