List of nearest terrestrial exoplanet candidates

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This list of nearest terrestrial exoplanets candidates contains possible terrestrial ("rocky") exoplanets at a distance of up to 50 light-years from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance.[1][2][3]

They may be composed primarily of silicate rocks and/or metals. Within the Solar System, the terrestrial planets are the inner planets closest to the Sun.

There is no scientific consensus about terrestrial composition of most of the planets in the list. Sources in the "Main source" column confirm the possibility of terrestrial composition.

Incompleteness of the list[edit]

This list is incomplete, currently containing 23 exoplanets, 8 of which probably lie inside their star's habitable zone.

There are roughly 2000 stars at a distance of up to 50 light-years from the Solar System[4] (64 of them are yellow-orange "G" stars like our Sun[5]). As many as 15% of them can have Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones.[6]

On November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of sun-like stars and red dwarf stars within the Milky Way Galaxy.[7][8] 11 billion of these estimated planets may be orbiting sun-like stars.[9] The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists.[7][8]

Table[edit]

Name Image
(artist concept)
Mass (M) Radius (R) Surface gravity (g) Surface temperature Semi-major axis (AU) Eccen-
tricity
Earth Similarity Index Habitability Main
source
Distance from the Sun (ly)
Alpha Centauri Bb
Artist’s impression of the planet around Alpha Centauri B (Annotated).jpg
≥1.1 1200 K 0.04 Orbits too close to the star 4.23
Tau Ceti e ≥4.3 ≥1.6 343 K 0.552 ± 0.02 0.05±0.02 0.77 Thermoplanet Orbits on inner edge of habitable zone 11.90
Tau Ceti f ≥6.6 233–323 K 1.35 ± 0.1 0.03 ± 0.3 0.71 Psychroplanet Orbits on outer edge of habitable zone 11.90
GJ 180 b ≥2.3 Lies within the habitable zone [6] 12.12
Gliese 876 d[10]
Artist’s view of an exoplanet inspired by the discovery of Gliese 876 d.jpg
6.8 157

377°C[11]
0.021 0.21 Too hot [12] 15
Gliese 682 b ≥2 Lies within the habitable zone [6]
[13]
16
82 G. Eridani b ≥2.7 0.1207 0 Orbits too close to the star [2] 19.71
82 G. Eridani c ≥2.4 0.2036 0 Orbits too close to the star [2] 19.71
82 G. Eridani d ≥4.8 388 K[1] 0.3499 0 Orbits too close to the star [2] 19.71
Gliese 581 e
Planet Gliese 581 e.png
≥1.7 0.029 0 It is unlikely to possess an atmosphere due to its high temperature [14] 20
Gliese 581 c [15]
Planetary System in Gliese 581 (artist's impression).jpg
≥5.6 0.072 0 Thermal planet lies on inner edge of habitlezone[16]}} [17] 20
Gliese 581 d [18]
Planet Gliese 581 d.png
≥5.6 2.34[19] 1.27[19] 233 K[19] 0,218 0 0.69[19] Psychroplanet.[19] Lies within the habitable zone[20] [21] 20
Gliese 667C b
Gliese 667.jpg
6.30 1.44 445 K 0.05 0.09 Too hot [19] 22
Gliese 667C c[22][23] 5.24 1.32 302 K 0.13 0.34 0.82 Mesoplanet [19] 22
61 Virginis b[24]
Artist concept 61vir b.png
≥5.1 0.050 0.12 Orbits too close to the star [25] 28
HD 85512 b[26]
HD 85512 b (Artists's impression).jpg
≥3.6 1.74[19] 1.33[19] 351 K[19] 0.26 0.11 0.76[19] Thermoplanet.[19] Was considered to be the best candidate for habitability[27] until discovery of Gliese 667C c. [27] 36
55 Cancri e
Newneptune nasa big.jpg
8.6 0.016 0.17 Orbits too close to the star [28] 40
HD 40307 b[29] ≥4.2 0.047 0.2 Orbits too close to the star [30] 42
HD 40307 c[29] ≥6.8 0.081 0.06 Orbits too close to the star [30] 42
HD 40307 d [31]
A Trio of Super-Earths (artist's impression).jpg
≥9.2 0.134 0.07 Orbits too close to the star [32] 42
HD 40307 e ≥3.5 0.1886 0.15 Orbits too close to the star [3] 42
HD 40307 f ≥5.2 385°K 0.247 0.02 Orbits too close to the star [3] 42
HD 40307 g ≥7.1 279 K[33] 0.600 0.29 0.79[34] Mesoplanet [3] 42

In September 2012, the discovery of two planets orbiting Gliese 163[35] was announced.[36][37] One of the planets, Gliese 163 c, about 6.9 times the mass of Earth and somewhat hotter, was considered to be within the habitable zone, but is probably not terrestrial.[36][37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pepe, F. et al. (2011), The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone: I – Very low-mass planets around HD20794, HD85512 and HD192310, arXiv:1108.3447, Bibcode:2011yCat..35349058P, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117055 
  2. ^ a b c d Schneider, Jean, "Star: HD 20794", Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia (Paris Observatory), retrieved 2011-12-05 
  3. ^ a b c d Tuomi, Anglada-Escude, Gerlach, Jones, Reiners, Rivera, Vogt, Butler, Mikko, Guillem, Enrico, Hugh R. R., Ansgar, Eugenio J., Steven S., R. Paul (2012). "Habitable-zone super-Earth candidate in a six-planet system around the K2.5V star HD 40307". arXiv:1211.1617v1 [astro-ph].
  4. ^ http://www.atlasoftheuniverse.com/50lys.html
  5. ^ http://www.solstation.com/stars3/100-gs.htm
  6. ^ a b c http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.0430
  7. ^ a b Overbye, Dennis (November 4, 2013). "Far-Off Planets Like the Earth Dot the Galaxy". New York Times. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Petigura, Eric A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W. (October 31, 2013). "Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319909110. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  9. ^ Khan, Amina (November 4, 2013). "Milky Way may host billions of Earth-size planets". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  10. ^ Fogg, M. J.; Nelson, R. P. (2005). "Oligarchic and giant impact growth of terrestrial planets in the presence of gas giant planet migration". Astronomy and Astrophysics 441 (2): 791–806. arXiv:astro-ph/0507180. Bibcode:2005A&A...441..791F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053453. 
  11. ^ Rivera, E. et al. (2005). "A ~7.5 M⊕ Planet Orbiting the Nearby Star, GJ 876". The Astrophysical Journal 634 (1): 625–640
  12. ^ Eugenio J. Rivera, Gregory Laughlin, R. Paul Butler, Steven S. Vogt, Nader Haghighipour, Stefano Meschiari (2010). \"The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration\".
  13. ^ http://www.hpcf.upr.edu/~abel/phl/tuomi/hec_orbit_GJ_682_b.png
  14. ^ Vogt, S. S.; et al. (2010). \"The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A 3.1 M_Earth Planet in the Habitable Zone of the Nearby M3V Star Gliese 581
  15. ^ Valencia et al.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; O'Connell, Richard J. (2006). "Radius and Structure Models of the First Super-Earth Planet". The Astrophysical Journal 656 (1): 545–551. arXiv:astro-ph/0610122. Bibcode:2007ApJ...656..545V. doi:10.1086/509800. 
  16. ^ von Bloh et al. (2007). "The Habitability of Super-Earths in Gliese 581". Astronomy and Astrophysics 476 (3): 1365–1371.
  17. ^ Vogt, S. S.; et al. (2010). \"The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A 3.1 M_Earth Planet in the Habitable Zone of the Nearby M3V Star Gliese 581\".
  18. ^ von Bloh, W.; Bounama, C.; Cuntz, M.; Franck, S. (2007). "The Habitability of Super-Earths in Gliese 581". Astronomy & Astrophysics 476 (3): 1365–1371. arXiv:0705.3758. Bibcode:2007A&A...476.1365V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077939. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog. The values are just the best estimates and are subject to change.
  20. ^ M. Mayor, X. Bonfils, T. Forveille, X. Delfosse, S. Udry, J.-L. Bertaux, H. Beust, F. Bouchy, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, C. Perrier, D. Queloz, N. C. Santos (2009). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets,XVIII. An Earth-mass planet in the GJ 581 planetary system".
  21. ^ Vogt, S. S.; et al. (2010). \"The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A 3.1 M⊕ Planet in the Habitable Zone of the Nearby M3V Star Gliese 581
  22. ^ Bonfils; Delfosse; Udry; Forveille; Mayor; Perrier; Bouchy; Gillon et al. (2011). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXI. The M-dwarf sample". arXiv:1111.5019 [astro-ph.EP].
  23. ^ A Potential Habitable Exoplanet in a Nearby Triple Star System
  24. ^ Vogt, Steven; Wittenmyer; Paul Butler; Simon O'Toole; Henry; Rivera; Stefano Meschiari; Gregory Laughlin et al. (2009). "A Super-Earth and two Neptunes Orbiting the Nearby Sun-like star 61 Virginis". arXiv:0912.2599v1 [astro-ph.EP].
  25. ^ Vogt, Steven (2009). \"A Super-Earth and two Neptunes Orbiting the Nearby Sun-like star 61 Virginis
  26. ^ Kaltenegger, L; Udry, S; Pepe, F (2011). A Habitable Planet around HD 85512? 1108. p. 3561. arXiv:1108.3561. Bibcode:2011arXiv1108.3561K. 
  27. ^ a b Kaltenegger, L.; Udry, S.; Pepe, F. (2011). A Habitable Planet around HD 85512?
  28. ^ Rebekah et al.; Fabrycky (2010-05-21). \"Radial velocity planets de-aliased. A new, short period for Super-Earth 55 Cnc e\". The Astrophysical Journal 722: 937–953
  29. ^ a b M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, D. Segransan (2009). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A planetary system with 3 Super-Earths (4.2, 6.9, & 9.2 Earth masses)". Astronomy and Astrophysics 493 (2): 639–644. arXiv:0806.4587. Bibcode:2009A&A...493..639M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810451. 
  30. ^ a b M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, D. Segransan (2009). \"The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A planetary system with 3 Super-Earths (4.2, 6.9, & 9.2 Earth masses)\". Astronomy and Astrophysics 493 (2): 639–644
  31. ^ Barnes, R., Jackson, B., Raymond, S., West, A., Greenberg, R. (2009). "The HD 40307 Planetary System: Super-Earths or Mini-Neptunes?". The Astrophysical Journal 695 (2): 1006. arXiv:0901.1698. Bibcode:2009ApJ...695.1006B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/1006. 
  32. ^ M. Mayor, S. Udry, C. Lovis, F. Pepe, D. Queloz, W. Benz, J.-L. Bertaux, F. Bouchy, C. Mordasini, D. Segransan (2009). \"The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A planetary system with 3 Super-Earths (4.2, 6.9, & 9.2 Earth masses)\". Astronomy and Astrophysics 493 (2): 639–644.
  33. ^ "HEC: Data of Potential Habitable Worlds". University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (Planetary Habitability Laboratory). November 12, 2012. 
  34. ^ http://phl.upr.edu/press-releases/firstpotentialhabitableexoplanetinasix-planetstarsystem
  35. ^ Staff (September 20, 2012). "LHS 188 -- High proper-motion Star". Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg(Strasbourg astronomical Data Center). Retrieved September 20, 2012. 
  36. ^ a b Méndez, Abel (August 29, 2012). "A Hot Potential Habitable Exoplanet around Gliese 163". University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (Planetary Habitability Laboratory). Retrieved September 20, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b Redd, Nola Taylor (September 20, 2012). "Newfound Alien Planet a Top Contender to Host Life". Space.com. Retrieved September 20, 2012.