List of exoplanet firsts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of exoplanet discoveries that were the first by several criteria, including:

and others.

The first[edit]

Title Planet Star Year Notes
First extrasolar planet discovered. PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 First exoplanets discovered,[1] first pulsar planets,[1] first super-earths discovered.[1]
  • The planet around Gamma Cephei was already suspected in 1988.
  • HD 114762 b was discovered in 1989, but was not confirmed as a planet before 1996.

By discovery method[edit]

First discovery by a method
Title Planet Star Year Notes
First planet discovered via pulsar timing. PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 [2] First extrasolar planets discovered,[2] first super-earths.[1]
First planet discovered via radial velocity. 51 Pegasi b 51 Pegasi 1995 First planet found around a sun like star.[3]
First planet discovered via transit. OGLE-TR-56 b OGLE-TR-56 2002 [4] This was also the second planet detected through transiting,[4] and the then farthest planet known at time of discovery.[4] The first extrasolar planet discovered to be transiting was HD 209458 b, which had already been discovered by the radial velocity method.[4][5]
First planet discovered via gravitational lensing. OGLE-2003-BLG-235L b OGLE-2003-BLG-235L / MOA-2003-BLG-53L 2004 This was discovered independently by the OGLE and MOA teams.[6]
First planet discovered through variable star timing. V391 Pegasi b V391 Pegasi 2007 The planet was discovered by examining deviations from pulsation frequency from a subdwarf star.[7]
First exoplanet discovered by directly imaging the extrasolar planet 1RXS J160929.1−210524 b 1RXS J160929.1−210524 2008 [8] Revised mass places it at or above the deuterium-burning limit. May be a sub-brown dwarf instead of a planet, depending on formation mechanism and definitions chosen.
First extrasolar planet discovered by indirect imaging (visible light) Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut 2008 Discovered by a light reflecting off of a dust cloud surrounding the planet. First planet orbiting an ABO star.
First extrasolar planet discovered by astrometric observations HD 176051 b HD 176051 A or HD 176051 B 2010 Orbits around one of the stars in a binary star system although it is not known which component it is orbiting around.
First exoplanet discovered by orbital perturbations of another planet Kepler-19c Kepler-19 (KOI-84, TYC 3134-1549-1) 2011 Detected through transit-timing variation method. Its existence was inferred by the gravitational influence it had on the orbital periodicity of Kepler-19b.[9][10]
First exoplanets discovered by orbital phase reflected light variations Kepler-70b, Kepler-70c [11] Kepler-70 2011
First exoplanet discovered by transit-duration variation method Kepler-88c Kepler-88 (KOI-142) 2013 Both transit timing variation and transit-duration variation was measured to measure deviations from regular orbit of Kepler-88b. Deviations of the planet's transit duration and timing helped to discover Kepler-88c.[12]

By detection method[edit]

First detection by a method
Title Planet Star Year Notes
First planet detected via pulsar timing. PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 [2]
First planet detected via radial velocity. 51 Pegasi b 51 Pegasi 1995 [3]
First planet detected by transit method HD 209458 HD 209458 b 1999 This first exoplanet found to be transiting had already been discovered by the radial velocity method. This is also the first planet that has been detected through more than one method.[4][5]
First directly imaged extrasolar planet. (infrared) 2M1207 b 2M1207 2004 May be a sub-brown dwarf instead of a planet, depending on formation mechanism and definitions chosen. If it is a planet, it is the first known planet around a brown dwarf.
First planet with observed secondary eclipse. (infrared) HD 209458 b HD 209458 2005 Planet was discovered in the year 1999. This is the first direct detection of light from object with a clear planetary origin.
First extrasolar planet detected through polarimetry. HD 189733 b HD 189733 2008 HD 189733 b was discovered in 2005.
First directly imaged extrasolar planet orbiting a 'normal' star. (infrared) 1RXS J160929.1−210524 b 1RXS J160929.1−210524 2008 [8]
First planets directly characterized through astrometric observations. Gliese 876 b and Gliese 876 c Gliese 876 2009
First planet detected by orbital phase reflected light variations in visible light CoRoT-1b[13] CoRoT-1 2009 The planet in question had already been discovered with transit method.
First planets detected through ellipsoidal light variations of the host star HAT-P-7b HAT-P-7b 2010 [14]
First planets detected through transit timing variation method Kepler-9b, Kepler-9c Kepler-9 2010 Transit-timing variation was used to confirm both planets detected through transit method.[15]
First planet detected through transit duration variation method Kepler-16b Kepler-16 2011 Orbital motion of the stars causes transits of both components of Kepler-16 to deviate significantly.
First planet detected with eclipsing binary timing with well-characterized orbit Kepler-16b Kepler-16 2011 Kepler-16b itself was detected through transit method. There are stars with earlier detections through eclipsing binary timing. However, those signals have matched with unstable orbits or simply the exact orbits are not known.[16]
First planet detected by light variations due to relativistic beaming. TrES-2b TrES-2 2012 [17]

By system type[edit]

First discovery by system type
Title Planet Star Year Notes
First extrasolar planet discovered in a solitary star system. PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 First extrasolar planets discovered.[1]
  • HD 114762 b was discovered in 1989, but was not confirmed as a planet before 1996.
First "free-floating" planet discovered [NB 1] S Ori J053810.1-023626
(S Ori 70)
N/A 2004 [18] Has a mass of 3 MJupiter, needs confirmation.
First planet discovered in a multiple main-sequence star system. 55 Cancri b 55 Cancri 1996 55 Cnc has distant red dwarf companion.
First planet discovered in a circumbinary orbit. PSR B1620-26 b PSR B1620-26 1993 Orbits a pulsar and a white dwarf. Discovery confirmed in 2003.
First multiple planet extrasolar system discovered. PSR B1257+12 A
PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 First pulsar planetary system.
First multiple planet system in a multi-star system where multiple planets orbit multiple stars Kepler-47b
Kepler-47c
Kepler-47 2012 [19][20] NN Serpentis cataclysmic variable is suspected to have at least 2 planets at least in the year 2009.[21]
First planet discovered in globular cluster. PSR B1620-26 b PSR B1620-26 1993 Located in Messier 4
First binary star system where both components have separate planetary systems. HD 20781 b
HD 20781 c
HD 20782 b
HD 20781
HD 20782
2011
Title Planet Star Year Notes
No star system
First non-stellar planet. S Ori J053810.1-023626
(S Ori 70)
N/A 2004 [18]
Single star system
First planet in a solitary star system. PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 [1]
Binary star system
First planet in a binary star system. 55 Cancri Ab 55 Cancri 1996
First planet in a single-star orbit in a binary star system. 55 Cancri Ab 55 Cancri 1996
First planet in a circumbinary orbit in a binary star system. PSR B1620-26 b PSR B1620-26 1993 The existence of the planet was confirmed in 2003.
First planet in a circumbinary orbit in a binary star system around main-sequence stars. Kepler-16b Kepler-16 2011 The stars have spectral classes K and M.
Trinary star system
First planet in a trinary star system. 16 Cygni Bb[22][23] 16 Cygni 1996 The stars in this system are 16 Cygni A, 16 Cygni B and 16 Cygni C.
First planet in a single star orbit in a trinary star system. 16 Cygni Bb[22][23] 16 Cygni 1996 16 Cygni A and Cygni C form a main pair with the semi-major axis being 73 AU. 16 Cygni B orbits 877 to 15,180 AU from the barycenter of the A and C pair.
First planet in a multi-star orbit in a trinary star system.
First planet in a circumbinary orbit in a trinary star system.
First planet in a triple-star orbit in a trinary star system.
Quadruple star system
First planet in a quadruple star system. PH1 or Kepler-64b Kepler-64 2012 [24]
First planet in a multi-star orbit in a quadruple star system. PH1 or Kepler-64b Kepler-64 2012 [25]
First planet in a single-star orbit in a quadruple star system.
First circumbinary planet discovered in a quadruple star system. PH1 or Kepler-64b Kepler-64 2012 [25]

By star type[edit]

First discovery by star type
Title Planet Star Year Notes
First pulsar planet discovered. PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 [1][2]
First known extrasolar planet orbiting a main sequence star. (Sun-like) 51 Pegasi b 51 Pegasi 1995 [1] First hot jupiter.
First known planet orbiting an ABO star. (blue-white star) Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut 2008 First extrasolar planet discovered by visible light image.
First known planet orbiting a red dwarf. Gliese 876 b Gliese 876 1998
First known planet orbiting a giant star. Iota Draconis b Iota Draconis 2002
  • Aldebaran b was announced in 1997, but has not been confirmed.
First known planet orbiting a white dwarf. PSR B1620-26 b PSR B1620-26 1993
  • GD 66 b was announced in 2007, but has not been confirmed
First known planet orbiting a brown dwarf. 2M1207 b 2M1207 2004 May in fact be a sub-brown dwarf instead of a planet, depending on formation mechanism and definitions chosen. First directly imaged planet.
First "free-floating" planet discovered [NB 1] S Ori J053810.1-023626
(S Ori 70)
N/A 2004 [18] Has mass of 3 MJupiter, needs confirmation.

By planet type[edit]

Firsts by planet type
Title Planet Star Year Notes
First hot Jupiter. 51 Pegasi b 51 Pegasi 1995 First planet discovered orbiting a main sequence star.
First extrasolar terrestrial planet orbiting a main sequence star. Mu Arae c Mu Arae 2004 Terrestrial nature of this planet is not confirmed, as no radius measurements are available so the density is unknown. The minimum mass is comparable to that of Uranus in our own solar system, which is not a terrestrial planet. The first extrasolar planet known to have a density compatible with being a rocky planet is CoRoT-7b.
First super-earth discovered[NB 2] PSR B1257+12 B
PSR B1257+12 C
PSR B1257+12 1992 [1] First planets discovered[1]
First super-earth orbiting a main sequence star.[NB 2] Gliese 876 d Gliese 876 2005 Orbits a red dwarf star.
First icy extrasolar planet orbiting a main sequence star. OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb OGLE-2005-BLG-390L 2006 Orbits a red dwarf star. The icy nature of this planet is not confirmed, as no radius measurements are available so the density is unknown. The first extrasolar planet known to have a density compatible with being an icy planet is GJ 1214 b, though even for this case there are other possibilities for the composition.
First evaporating planet discovered HD 209458 b HD 209458 1999 [1] First transiting planet.
First ocean planet candidate; also first Goldilocks planet. Gliese 581 d Gliese 581 2007 Orbits a red dwarf star. This planet orbits a little too far from the star, but the greenhouse effect would be enough to make this planet habitable. The other ocean planet candidate GJ 1214 b was detected by transit in which the density was calculated and determined that this planet is an ocean planet.
First "free-floating" planet discovered [NB 1] S Ori J053810.1-023626
(S Ori 70)
N/A 2004 [18] Has mass of 3 MJupiter, needs confirmation.

Other[edit]

Other firsts
Title Planet Star Year Notes
First extrasolar transiting planet. HD 209458 b HD 209458 1999 [5] OGLE-TR-56 b is the first planet found by transit method.[4]
First map of an extrasolar planet released HD 189733 b HD 189733 2007 The map in question is a thermal emission map.[26]
First multi-planet extrasolar system directly imaged. HR 8799 b
HR 8799 c
HR 8799 d
HR 8799 e
HR 8799 2008
First planet discovered with a retrograde orbit. WASP-17b WASP-17 2009 The planet HAT-P-7b was discovered before WASP-17b, but its retrograde nature was announced after that of WASP-17b.
First extrasolar planet with serious potential to support life. Gliese 581 g Gliese 581 2010 This planet may be tidally locked to its parent star, but there could be a habitable band along the terminator. The other one is Kepler-22b.
First planet discovered orbiting a Sun-like star in a star cluster Pr0201b
Pr0211b
Pr0201
Pr0211
2012 Beehive Cluster star cluster [27]
First recorded planet-planet transit Kepler-89d
Kepler-89e
Kepler-89 2012 Kepler-89e was partially transiting Kepler-89d.[28]
First transiting planet discovered in a star cluster Kepler-66b
Kepler-67b
Kepler-66
Kepler-67
2013 NGC 6811 star cluster; These two planets, were at the time of discovery, only two of six total planets known in star clusters.[29]
First map of cloud coverage of an extrasolar planet Kepler-7b Kepler-7 2013 Observations indicate cloud coverage in the west and clear skies in the east.[30]
First not tidally locked extrasolar planet to have its day length measured Beta Pictoris b Beta Pictoris 2014 Rotation speed was calculated to be 8.1 hours.[31]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Free-floating objects are not usually considered planets
  2. ^ a b The mass range of Super-Earths is disputed

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Space.com, "Out There: A Strange Zoo of Other Worlds", Charles Q. Choi, 14 February 2010 (accessed 2010-10-20)
  2. ^ a b c d Space.com, "Earth-Sized Planets Confirmed, But They're Dead Worlds", Robert Roy Britt, 29 May 2003 (accessed 20-10-2010)
  3. ^ a b Nature, "Extrasolar planets: Light through a gravitational lens", Didier Queloz, 26 January 2006, Vol.439, Issue 7075, pp.400-401, doi:10.1038/439400a, Bibcode2006Natur.439..400Q
  4. ^ a b c d e f SpaceDaily.com, "Farthest Known Planet Opens the Door For Finding New Earths", 10 January 2003 (accessed 2010-10-24)
  5. ^ a b c PhysOrg.com, "New Era in Planetary Science", 23 March 2005 (accessed 2010-10-24)
  6. ^ Sky and Telescope, "First Planet Found by Microlensing", Alan M. MacRobert, 16 April 2004 (accessed 2010-10-24)
  7. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7159/abs/nature06143.html
  8. ^ a b Exoplanet 'circles normal star', BBC News Online, September 15, 2008
  9. ^ TG Daily, "'Invisible' planet detected", Kate Taylor, 9 September 2011
  10. ^ Time, "Found: A (So Far) Invisible World", Michael D. Lemonick, 9 September 2011
  11. ^ Charpinet, S. and Fontaine, G. and Brassard, P. and Green, EM and Van Grootel, V. and Randall, SK and Silvotti, R. and Baran, AS and Østensen, RH and Kawaler, SD and others (2011). "A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star". Nature 480 (7378) (Nature Publishing Group). pp. 496–499. doi:10.1038/nature10631. 
  12. ^ http://arxiv.org/pdf/1304.4283v1.pdf
  13. ^ Ignas A. G. Snellen; Ernst J. W. de Mooij; Simon Albrecht (2009-05-28). "The changing phases of extrasolar planet CoRoT-1b". Nature 459 (7246): 543–545. arXiv:0904.1208. Bibcode:2009Natur.459..543S. doi:10.1038/nature08045. PMID 19478779. 
  14. ^ Discovery of Ellipsoidal Variations in the Kepler Light Curve of HAT-P-7: William F. Welsh, Jerome A. Orosz, Sara Seager, Jonathan J. Fortney, Jon Jenkins, Jason F. Rowe, David Koch, William J. Borucki
  15. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/news/releases/2010/10-73AR.html
  16. ^ Overbye, Dennis (2011-09-15). "NASA Detects Planet Dancing With a Pair of Stars". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  17. ^ Photometrically derived masses and radii of the planet and star in the TrES-2 system: Thomas Barclay, Daniel Huber, Jason F. Rowe, Jonathan J. Fortney, Caroline V. Morley, Elisa V. Quintana, Daniel C. Fabrycky, Geert Barentsen, Steven Bloemen, Jessie L. Christiansen, Brice-Olivier Demory, Benjamin J. Fulton, Jon M. Jenkins, Fergal Mullally, Darin Ragozzine, Shaun E. Seader, Avi Shporer, Peter Tenenbaum, Susan E. Thompson
  18. ^ a b c d Space.com, "Mysterious Object Might be First Extrasolar Planet Photographed", Robert Roy Britt, 22 May 2002 (accessed 2010-10-24)
  19. ^ Space.com, "Newfound 'Tatooine' Alien Planet Bodes Well for E.T. Search", Charles Q. Choi, 4 September 2012 (accessed 5 September 2012)
  20. ^ SpaceDaily, "Astronomers Find First Multi-Planet System Around a Binary Star", 3 September 2012 (accessed 5 September 2012)
  21. ^ http://www.aanda.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/aa/abs/2010/13/aa15472-10/aa15472-10.html
  22. ^ a b BUTLER P. & MARCY G., The Lick Observatory Planet Search in: Astronomical and Biochemical Origins and the Search for Life in the Universe, IAU Colloquium No. 161, Capri 1–5 July 1996, eds. C.B. Cosmovici, S. Bowyer, and D. Werthimer
  23. ^ a b E. Plávalová, N. A. Solovaya (2012). "Analysis of the motion of an extrasolar planet in a binary system". Astronomy & Astrophysics. arXiv:1212.3843. Bibcode:2012arXiv1212.3843P. 
  24. ^ NASA JPL, "Citizens Discover Four-Star Planet with NASA's Kepler", Whitney Clavin, 15 October 2012 (accessed 20 October 2012)
  25. ^ a b PlanetHunters.org, "PH1 : A planet in a four-star system", 15 October 2012 (accessed 20 October 2012)
  26. ^ Knutson, Heather A.; David Charbonneau, Lori E. Allen, Jonathan J. Fortney, Eric Agol, Nicolas B. Cowan, Adam P. Showman, Curtis S. Cooper & S. Thomas Megeath (10 May 2007). "A map of the day–night contrast of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b". Nature 447 (7141): 183–186. arXiv:0705.0993. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..183K. doi:10.1038/nature05782. PMID 17495920. 
  27. ^ ScienceDaily, "First Planets Found Around Sun-Like Stars in a Cluster", 14 September 2012
  28. ^ http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.5771
  29. ^ SpaceDaily, First Transiting Planets in a Star Cluster Discovered, 27 June 2013
  30. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/spitzer/news/spitzer20130930.html#.Uko8mrOXuPI
  31. ^ Cowen, R. (2014-04-30). "First exoplanet seen spinning". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15132.  edit