TAI Anka

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TAI Anka UAV
TAI-ANKA-UAV-FAR14-3659.JPG
Role Unmanned aerial vehicle and Unmanned combat air vehicle
National origin Turkey
Manufacturer Turkish Aerospace Industries
First flight 30 December 2010
Introduction April 2013
Status Flight tests complete, about to enter mass production[1]
Primary user Turkish Air Force
Produced 2010-present
Number built 5 prototypes[1]

The TAI Anka is a family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) developed by Turkish Aerospace Industries for the requirements of its Turkish Armed Forces. Basic Anka-A is classified as Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Envisioned in the early 2000s for tactical surveillance and reconnaissance missions, the Anka has made progress towards the integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar and combat systems. Anka has made Turkey the 3rd country in the world that can design and produce MALE UAV's after USA and Israel. The name of the drone is inspired from a phoenix-like mythological creature Angha.


Design[edit]

A TUAV system consists of three air vehicles (A/V), Ground Control Station (GCS), Ground Data Terminal (GDT), Automatic Take-off and Landing System (ATOLS), Transportable Image Exploitation System (TIES), Remote Video Terminal (RVT) and various Ground Support Equipment (GSE).

The TUAV system, which is designed for night and day missions including adverse weather conditions, performs real time image intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, moving/stationery target detection, recognition, identification and tracking missions.[2]

While the TIHA system has an open architecture to support other potential payloads and missions, within the context of the existing project the air vehicle is configured to carry the following payloads onboard:[3]

  • Electro-optic Color Day Camera (EO Day TV)
  • Electro-optic/Forward Looking Infrared/Laser Range Finder/Laser Designator and Spotter Camera (EO/FLIR/LRF/LDS)
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI)
  • Inverse SAR (ISAR)

The whole composite airframe is composed of a monoblock fuselage, detachable wing and V-Tail, retractable landing gear, redundant control surfaces, avionics and payload bays and service doors. The sandwich skin structure is reinforced by composite or metallic frames, ribs and supports. Propelled by a pusher type heavy fuel engine, the aircraft is furnished with fuselage fuel tanks and fuel system, ice protection system, environmental control system, lighting system, redundant electrical system with battery backup and harness system.

The platform is also equipped with a digital flight control system, electro-mechanical actuators, and flight control sensor systems such as GPS, pitot-static, air data computer, navigation sensor, transducers, temperature, pressure, displacement sensors, etc.[4] Various tasks are distributed along flight management computers and auxiliary control boxes. Identification and communication units and interface computers are employed in order to establish real time wide band communication and provide test and diagnostics functions. An air traffic radio is also integrated in the communication system for the integration of the aircraft into the civilian airspace. All flight critical equipment are dual or triple redundant and emergency modes of operational scenarios are taken into consideration for fail safe design.

All airborne and ground based flight control software is developed by TAI while payload hardware and software items are aimed to be developed by national sub-contractors, such as Aselsan and Milsoft.

UAV operations are supported by highly sophisticated ground control system with complete redundancy, developed by a domestic defence company Savronik.[5] Whole mission segments of the air vehicle can be managed, monitored and controlled by a GCS. A pre-programmed mission plan can be loaded before the flight begins or can be altered during the flight. All the imagery stream of the payloads can be displayed and recorded in real time and all the payloads can be controlled from the GCS. ATOLS allows the air vehicle to perform its operation without operator intervention, including the most critical phases which are landing and take-off.

In TIES, valuable intelligence information can be obtained by the analysis of bulky imagery data. TIES operators can initiate intelligence missions prior to or during flight. Refined information flows to the upper command layer in order to assist the headquarters to monitor a network of TUAV systems and benefit from the gathered intelligence information. Another interface of the TUAV system is the RVT, with which other friendly units who are close to the target area can utilize the real time imagery that TUAV air vehicle broadcasts.

Development[edit]

The contract regarding the development of an indigenous Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for the reconnaissance requirements of the Turkish Armed Forces became effective on 24 December 2004. Within the framework of the program, a total of three prototypes and ground systems will be designed, developed, manufactured and tested by mid-2011 as part of the prototype development phase. Subsequently in 2012, the serial production phase of Anka-A would be launched and additional 10 systems (meaning 30 air vehicles) built for the Turkish Air Force.

  • On 30 December 2010, the first TAI Anka unmanned aerial vehicle completed its debut flight, with 14 minutes of cruising, at 15:45 local time.[6] Defence Minister Vecdi Gönül confirmed the flight.[7]
  • On 5 May 2011, TAI released the test flight video of Anka.[8] Anka-A flew a test and calibration mission of 2h 30m.
  • Turkish Aerospace Industries announced on the 25th of October 2011 that the ANKA had successfully completed its subsequent flight and landing tests and that it will now be in the Turkish Air Force inventory in 2012 that is much earlier than expected. Footage released by TAI also shows the ANKA landing successfully putting all speculation abouts its crash landings to rest.[9]
  • On November 22, 2011, the Anka held the follow-up test flight for 6 hours at 20,000 ft. The vehicle demonstrated its automatic take-off and landing system for the first time.[10][11]
  • On January 5, 2012, Defence Industry Executive Committee authorized Undersecretariat for Defence Industries to commence talks with Turkish Aerospace Industries for the serial production of 10 Anka vehicles.[12]
  • On September 27, 2012, an Anka prototype crashed during a flight test due to a technical problem.[13]
  • On January 20, 2013, Anka completed acceptance tests by the Turkish Air Force. The final acceptance tests were conducted near Ankara, and involved an 18 hour long, 200 km ring flight. The tests also included a night landing in adverse weather conditions. The Anka has flown more than 140 hours and reached and altitude of 26,000 feet.[1][3][14]
  • On May 13, 2013, the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra handed over the first batch of Anka UAV parts to Turkish Aerospace Industries during IDEF 2013 at Istanbul, Turkey.[15][16]

Development of Anka +A[edit]

On the 19th of July 2012, the Turkish Defense Industry Executive Committee (SSIK) announced that Turkish Aerospace Industries had commenced research and development for the design and development of a "hunter killer" High Altitude Long Endurance version of the ANKA UAV, named the Anka +A. It is planned that Anka +A will carry Cirit missiles of Turkey's Roketsan. The engines of Anka +A UCAV has not yet been determined. It may have more powerful turbo engines or it could have gas turbine engine. The weight of Anka +A UCAV will be more than 4 tons compared to Anka UAV's 1.5 tons. It is highly expected that the UCAV will be presented to public in the events of IDEF'13 on may 7-10 2013.[17][18][19][20]

Variants[edit]

Future variants of Anka will have larger payload capacity extending its current capabilities under the following features:

The TAI Anka will also eventually have an indigenous 155 hp Turbo prop engine developed by Tusaş Engine Industries (TEI) with cooperation with other Turkish companies in the future.

ANKA-TP (SIHA- Strategic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)[edit]

A 5+ Ton, Turbo-prop powered, High Altitude Long Endurance version of the ANKA is also being planned.

TAI officials have announced that the Strategic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle version named ANKA-TP will feature a new mission computer, airframe and have the ability to carry between 1 to 1.5 Tons in armament. It will have a span of 23 meters, speed of between 200 to 250 knots and a cruising altitude of 40,000+ ft.

Export[edit]

On 23 November 2012, Egypt contracted with Turkish Aerospace Industries to purchase 10 Anka UAV's.[21][22]

In April 2013, Saudi Arabian officials expressed interest in the Anka UAV.[23]

Specifications (Anka-A)[edit]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

  • ASELFLIR-300T, SAR/GMTI, ISAR payload
  • INS/GPS and air data sensor suite system[4]

See also[edit]

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Soncan, Emre (January 24, 2013). Mass production of Turkey's first national UAV imminent. Today's Zaman Newspaper. Retrieved January 24, 2013. 
  2. ^ "TAI Unveils ANKA Unmanned Airplane". trDefence. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Turkish Indigenous MALE UAV (Anka)". TAI. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Rockwell Collins selected to provide guidance and navigation system for Turkish Aerospace Industries’ Anka Unmanned Aerial Vehicle". Rockwell Collins. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  5. ^ Unmanned Air Vehicle Ground Control Station Shelter, Savronik. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  6. ^ Eksi, Ozgur. "Hürriyet: Ve ANKA uçtu" (in Turkish). Retrieved 4 January 2011. 
  7. ^ "First flight of Anka took place last week, on Thursday", stated Defence Minister Vecdi Gonul, Zaman, Retrieved 4 January 2011
  8. ^ "TAI Anka Test Flight". Anatolian Agency. See the bottom of the cited webpage. [dead link]
  9. ^ "Domestic unmanned aerial vehicle to spot PKK in Turkey". World Bulletin. 25 October 2011. 
  10. ^ Anka 6 saat havada kaldı (in Turkish). Dogan News Agency. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  11. ^ "20 bin fitte 6 saat kaldı" (in Turkish). Anatolian Agency. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011. [dead link]
  12. ^ "SSM press release" (in Turkish). Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (SSM). 5 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  13. ^ "ANKA UAV Prototype Crashes During Test Flight". Suasnews.com. October 3, 2012. 
  14. ^ ANKA Passed the Test. HaberTurk.com. October 24, 2013. 
  15. ^ "PAC Kamra delivers first batch of UAV parts to Turkey". Associated Press of Pakistan. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "Pakistan builds parts for Turkey drones". The Express Tribune. 13 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Turkey Set to Produce its own Armed UAVs. 
  18. ^ "Turkey to manufacture armed version of national drone" (in English). Sunday's Zaman. July 18, 2012. 
  19. ^ Zaman Anka UAVs are getting armed
  20. ^ Anka MURAD BAYAR TRT AVAZ KANALINA KONUK OLDU. 
  21. ^ "TAI to sell Anka UAVs to Egypt". 
  22. ^ "Egypt to Buy Anka UAVs". 
  23. ^ "Saudi Arabia could be interested to buy the future Turkish main battle tank Altay and UAV Anka". Armyrecognition.com. April 28, 2013. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System Anka, Official Brochure". TAI. May 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  25. ^ "Farnborough 2010: TAI details MALE UAV offering". www.shephard.co.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  26. ^ "Head of SSM Murad Bayar explains the road map" (in Turkish). Zaman Newspaper. 17 July 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2010. 
  27. ^ "Anka MALE UAV System". 

External links[edit]