National Intelligence Organization (Turkey)
|National Intelligence Organization|
|Milli İstihbarat Teşkilatı|
|Preceding Agency||Milli Emniyet Hizmeti (MAH)|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Turkey|
|Annual budget||996 million (2013)|
|Agency executive||Hakan Fidan, Undersecretary|
The National Intelligence Organization (Turkish: Milli İstihbarat Teşkilatı, MİT) is the governmental intelligence organization of Turkey. It was established in 1965 to replace the National Security Service.
According to the former director of Foreign Operations, Yavuz Ataç, the military presence in the organization is negligible. This is a recent development, as the agency has a military heritage. In 1990, the fraction of military personnel was 35%. Today it has dropped to 4.5% in the lower echelons.
A former deputy undersecretary Cevat Öneş said that the MİT suffered with each coup, as the military junta that took over the organization had its own set of priorities.
In order to ensure reliability, the agency has historically recruited from relatives of existing employees. The former undersecretary, Emre Taner, says that this is no longer the case. He is credited with reducing the turf war between the MİT and the police intelligence, as well as infighting inside the MİT itself. Taner announced a restructuring of the MIT at the start of 2009.
The MİT co-operates with American intelligence agencies.
- Directorate of Psychological Intelligence
This directorate is in charge of psychological intelligence within and outside the country.
- Directorate of Electronic and Technical Intelligence
The main duties of this directorate are ELINT (Electronic intelligence) and SIGINT (Signals intelligence) activities. Within the framework of the duties and responsibilities as defined under the law, the MIT is successfully conducting its primary mission of counteracting all electronic and technical attacks against Turkey.
- Directorate of Intelligence
The directorate is responsible for determining the information needed on the internal and external elements threatening the national and territorial integrity, the existence, the freedom, the security, the Constitutional order and the institutions of the Republic of Turkey; for passing this need to the operational units; and for disseminating the intelligence produced after assessing the gathered information to the relevant institutions at the right time.
- The Directorate of Operations
After the intelligence requirements are determined by the Directorate of Intelligence, the Directorate of Operations will take over. This unit collects information from covert sources in Turkey and abroad for the MIT. The directorate also collects intelligence about organized crimes such as drugs trafficking, money laundering and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, either for terrorist or ideological purposes. In accordance with Law 2937, the MIT's interests include external organizations, financial resources, acts and movements of subversive or separatist elements working against the Constitutional order of the Republic of Turkey. Another duty of the directorate is to prevent the activities of foreign intelligence organizations in Turkey, such as collecting information or manipulating some individuals or groups.
The Organization owns a non-public Museum of Espionage consisting of a variety of spy equipment, which was revealed once in October 2013.
List of undersecretaries
|Name||Took office||Left office|
|1||Avni Kantan||July 14, 1965||March 2, 1966|
|2||Mehmet Fuat Doğu||March 2, 1966||March 27, 1971|
|3||Nurettin Ersin||August 2, 1971||July 25, 1973|
|4||Bülent Türker||July 26, 1973||February 27, 1974|
|5||Bahattin Özülker||February 28, 1974||September 26, 1974|
|6||Bülent Türker||September 26, 1974||November 24, 1974|
|7||Hamza Gürgüç||November 25, 1974||July 13, 1978|
|8||Adnan Ersöz||July 13, 1978||November 19, 1979|
|9||Bülent Türker||November 19, 1979||September 7, 1981|
|10||Burhanettin Bigalı||September 7, 1981||August 14, 1986|
|11||Hayri Ündül||September 5, 1986||August 29, 1988|
|12||Teoman Koman||August 29, 1988||August 27, 1992|
|13||Sönmez Köksal||November 9, 1992||February 11, 1998|
|14||Şenkal Atasagun||February 11, 1998||June 11, 2005|
|15||Emre Taner||June 15, 2005||May 26, 2010|
|16||Hakan Fidan||May 26, 2010|
- Ünlü, Ferhat (2007-07-19). "MİT'te iç çekişme entrikaya yol açtı". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-18. "Yaklaşık 5 bin kadrolu personeli bulunan kurumda (Yardımcı istihbarat elemanları ile birlikte bu sayı çok daha fazla) alt kademelerdeki ordu kökenlilerin oranının yüzde 4.5'i geçmediği belirtiliyor."
- http://www.ahaber.com.tr/Ekonomi/2012/10/20/mit-herkesi-solladi MIT Budget
- Undersecretaries, MİT official website (Turkish)
- Ünlü, Ferhat (2007-07-16). "İngiliz general Apo'nun başına beş milyon sterlin istedi". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-12-18. "Ataç, ordu kökenlilerin oranının hiçbir zaman yüzde dördü geçmediğini belirttiği MİT'te, sivilleşme olgusu ve asker-sivil sorunsalının yanlış ele alındığı görüşünde."
- "'Hiçbir darbe gizli olmadı'". 2007-07-15. Retrieved 2008-12-18. "Öneş'e göre, askeri müdahaleler MİT'i geri bırakan asıl etkenlerdi. Çünkü MİT'in güvenlik anlayışı darbelere göre şekillendi. Demokratik süreç kesintiye uğrayınca istihbarat teşkilatı da geri kaldı."[dead link]
- "Kim kimin akrabası?". Sabah (in Turkish). 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2008-12-18.[dead link]
- "MİT'te akrabalık önemli referans". Sabah (in Turkish). 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2008-12-18.[dead link]
- Sariibrahimoglu, Lale (2008-12-07). "Turkey needs an intelligence coordination mechanism, says Güven". Sunday's Zaman. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Yetkin, Murat (2009-01-01). Politika. "Mercek altındaki MİT’te köklü değişiklik yapıldı". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-01-01.
- Ünlu, Ferhat (2007-12-20). "Türki cumhuriyetlerin başkentlerini bilmiyorduk". Sabah (in Turkish). Retrieved 2008-10-22. "...ABD'den istihbarat geliyor..."
- "Intelligence profile: Turkey". 2005-01-02. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
- Ferhat Ünlü (2006). "18. The National Intelligence Organization". In Ümit Cizre. Almanac Turkey 2005 : Security Sector and Democratic Oversight. Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. ISBN 978-975-8112-79-1. (Turkish)