The Perils of Pauline (1914 serial)
|The Perils of Pauline|
|Directed by||Louis J. Gasnier
|Written by||Charles W. Goddard
George B. Seitz
|Cinematography||Arthur C. Miller|
|Distributed by||General Film Company & Eclectic Film Company|
|20 chapters (total of 410 minutes)|
The Perils of Pauline is a 1914 American film serial shown in weekly installments, featuring Pearl White as the title character. Pauline has often been cited as a famous example of a damsel in distress, although some analyses hold that her character was more resourceful and less helpless than the classic damsel stereotype.
Pauline is menaced by assorted villains, including pirates and Indians. Neither Pauline nor its successor, The Exploits of Elaine, used the so-called "cliffhanger" format in which a serial episode ends with an unresolved danger that is addressed at the beginning of the next installment. Although each episode placed Pauline in a situation that looked sure to result in her imminent death, the end of each installment showed how she was rescued or otherwise escaped the danger. Despite popular associations, Pauline was never tied to railroad tracks in the series, an image that comes instead from contemporary films such as Barney Oldfield's Race for a Life.
The serial had 20 episodes, the first being three reels (30 minutes), and the rest two reels (20 minutes) each. After the original run, it was reshown in theaters a number of times, sometimes in edited, shortened versions, through the 1920s. Today, The Perils of Pauline is known to exist only in a shortened 9-chapter version (approximately 214 minutes), released in Europe in 1916. '
- Pearl White as Pauline
- Crane Wilbur as Harry Marvin
- Paul Panzer as Koerner / Raymond Owen
- Edward José as Sanford Marvin
- Francis Carlyle as Owen's Henchman, Hicks
- Clifford Bruce as Gypsy Leader
- Donald MacKenzie as Blinky Bill
- Jack Standing as Ensign Summers
- Eleanor Woodruff as Lucille
The premise of the story was that Pauline's wealthy guardian Mr. Marvin, upon his death, has left her inheritance in the care of his secretary, Mr. Koerner, until the time of her marriage. Pauline wants to wait a while before marrying, as her dream is to go out and have adventures to prepare herself for becoming an author. Mr. Koerner, hoping to ultimately keep the money for himself, tries to turn Pauline's various adventures against her and have her "disappear" to his own advantage.
Behind the scenes
Pearl White was hesitant to accept the title role, but signed up for $250/week and lots of publicity.
William Randolph Hearst was involved in plot development. He was also present at the premiere at Loew's Broadway Theatre, on 23 March 1914. According to "The Truth About Pearl White" by Wallace E. Davis, the general release was approximately 1 April 1914.
E. A. McManus, head of the Hearst-Vitagraph service organization, was the person who proved how successful a serial could be. He co-operated with the largest film equipment and production company in the world at that time, a France-based company named Pathé, to produce this serial, which was Pathé's first entry into the medium. George B. Seitz tried to follow the cliffhanging pattern of The Adventures of Kathlyn but each chapter was mostly self-contained.
After retiring from law enforcement, former FBI Director William J. Flynn, through his acquaintance with the actor King Baggot (who in 1917 was considered the greatest film star in the country), became a scenario writer for the motion picture industry; producers Theodore and Leopold Wharton commissioned him to write story lines for their films. The Whartons also adapted Flynn's experiences into a 20-part spy thriller titled The Eagle's Eye (1918), starring Baggot.
Surviving chapters of Pauline are noteworthy for their unintentionally funny title cards and dialogue captions, filled with misspellings, poor punctuation, terrible grammar, and odd expressions. This happened when Pathé, the theatrical distributor, exported the film to France. The film was recut and adapted for home-movie use, and all of the printed captions were translated into French. Later, when the American home-movie industry beckoned, the original English titles had been scrapped, so the French technicians tried to translate the titles back into English. These errors have also been blamed on Louis J. Gasnier, director and supervisor of the production. Gasnier, as explained by Crane Wilbur, made linguistic mistakes that confused the French-speaking crew. In either case, current prints of The Perils of Pauline contain these badly re-translated title cards. Thus, in "The Pirate's Treasure", Pauline detects a time-bomb and says, "What is that tic-tac I can hear." In the same episode, she spies one of the quaint locals and observes, "Here is an original old man." The new title cards also renamed the villain's character: "Raymond Owen" was now called "Koerner," in reference to German "villainy" during World War I.
Much of the film was shot in Fort Lee, New Jersey when many early film studios in America's first motion picture industry were based there at the beginning of the 20th century. Scenes were also filmed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The term "cliffhanger" may have originated with the series, owing to a number of episodes filmed on or around the New Jersey Palisades—though it is also likely to refer to situations in stories of this type where the hero or heroine is hanging from a cliff, seemingly with no way out, until the next episode or last-minute resolution.
Pearl White performed her own stunts for the serial. Considerable risk was involved. In one incident, a balloon carrying White escaped and carried her across the Hudson River into a storm, before landing miles away. In another incident her back was permanently injured in a fall.
One of the more famous scenes in the serial was filmed on the curved Ingham Run trestle in New Hope, Pennsylvania on the Reading Company's New Hope Branch (now the New Hope and Ivyland Railroad line). The trestle still stands, just off Ferry Street, and is now referred to as "Pauline's Trestle". The railroad is a tourist attraction and offers rides from New Hope to Lahaska, Pennsylvania, crossing over the original trestle.
Milton Berle (1908-2002) claimed The Perils of Pauline as his first film appearance, playing the character of a young boy, though this has never been independently verified. The serial did mark one of the early credits for the cinematographer Arthur C. Miller, who was transferred to the project from the Pathé News department.
Pathé established an American factory and studio facility in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1910, and also established the Eclectic Film Company as a subsidiary distribution company for both its American and European products. Although the Jersey City plant produced moderately popular comedies, dramas, and newsreels largely directed at the US market, Pauline was the first American-made Pathé effort to achieve worldwide success under the Eclectic banner.
Sequels and remakes
The title The Perils of Pauline was reused by Universal Studios for a 1933 sound serial with a different plot, by Paramount Pictures as the Betty Hutton vehicle The Perils of Pauline (1947), and by Universal again in 1967 as an updated comedy.
An abortive mixed-media musical was planned to be based on the film, called Who's That Girl?, meant to premiered by The Boys From Syracuse producer Richard York on Broadway in 1970, with a book written by Lewis Banchi and Milburn Smith, and with the planned participation of the songwriting duo Ray Evans and Jay Livingston.
The Perils of Pauline is the prime example of what author Ben Singer has called the "serial-queen melodrama," noted as a typification of damsel in distress cinema, as well as for its extensive use of the cliffhanger technique in film serials.
There has been a recent reassessment of Singer's model in the light of broader film forms.
In feminist film theory, it has become a byword for the negative archetype of the vulnerable woman requiring male rescue; in the first episode, for example, Pauline is bound and gagged and left in a burning building until a man saves her. However, the character of Pauline was also distinctive in her time as an unmarried New Woman who was free to engage in adventure, and her adventures proved themselves an early commercial success, primarily among women film audiences.
The film's style was later subject to nostalgic caricature in many forms (e.g. Dudley Do-Right), but the original heroine was neither as helpless as the caricatures, nor did the original film include the much-parodied "tied to railroad tracks" or "tied to buzzsaw" scenarios which appeared in later films in this vein. Even the title phrase "Perils of" was often adopted by later serials, for example, in Universal's Perils of the Secret Service, Perils of the Wild, and Perils of the Yukon.
- Singer, Ben (February 1999). "Female Power in the Serial-Queen Melodrama: The Etiology of An Anomaly". In Richard Abel. Silent Film. Continuum International Publishing Group - Athlone. pp. 168–177. ISBN 0-485-30076-1.
- Harmon, Jim; Donald F. Glut (1973). "1. The Girls "Who Is That Girl in the Buzz Saw?"". The Great Movie Serials: Their Sound and Fury. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7130-0097-9.
- Lahue, Kalten C. "1. A Bolt From The Blue". Continued Next Week. pp. 8–10.
- Stedman, Raymond William (1971). "1. Drama by Instalment". Serials: Suspense and Drama By Installment. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 11–14. ISBN 978-0-8061-0927-5.
- Dash, Mike (2009). The First Family: Terror, Extortion and the Birth of the American Mafia. London: Simon & Schuster. p. Epilogue, page 10. ISBN 978-1-84737-173-7.
- Miller, Arthur C.; One Reel a Week 
- Koszarski, Richard (2004). Fort Lee: The Film Town. Rome, Italy: John Libbey Publishing -CIC srl. ISBN 0-86196-653-8
- "Studios and Films". Fort Lee Film Commission. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
- Fort Lee Film Commission (2006). Fort Lee Birthplace of the Motion Picture Industry. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-4501-5
- Tiech, John (2012). Pittsburgh Film History. Charleston: The History Press. p. 8. ISBN 9781609497095.
- "New Hope & Ivyland Railroad". newhoperailroad.com. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- <New York Daily News. October 22, 1969.
- Ben Singer; Female Power in the Serial-Queen Melodrama: The Etiology of an Anomaly (PDF)
- Shane Denson; Rethinking the Serial-Queen Melodrama: Serial Narration and Medial Self-Reflexivity in Transitional-Era Cinema
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