||This article improperly uses one or more religious texts as primary sources without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. (December 2010)|
Symbol of the triratna, as seen in the Sanchi stupa, 1st century BCE.
|IPA||[jadanà θóʊɴ bá]|
|Khmer||ព្រះរតនត្រ័យ (Preah Ratanak-trey)|
|Sinhalese||තෙරුවන් (theruwan) or තුරුණුවන් (thurunawan)|
|Sanskrit||त्रिरत्न (triratna), रत्नत्रय (ratna-traya)|
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The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, Three Refuges, Precious Triad, or most commonly the Triple Gem Pali: Tiratana, Sanskrit: त्रिरत्न (triratna), are the three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge.
The Three Jewels are:
- Sanskrit, Pali: The Enlightened or Awakened One; Chinese: 佛陀, Fótuó, Japanese: 仏, Butsu, Standard Tibetan: sangs-rgyas, Mongolian: burqan
- Sanskrit: The Teaching; Pali: Dhamma, Chinese: 法, Fǎ, Japanese: 法, Hō, Standard Tibetan: chos, Mongolian: nom
- The teachings of the Buddha, the path to Enlightenment.
- Sanskrit, Pali: The Community; Chinese: 僧, Sēng, Japanese: 僧, Sō, Standard Tibetan: dge-'dun, Mongolian: quvara
- The community of those who have attained enlightenment, who may help a practicing Buddhist to do the same. Also used more broadly to refer to the community of practicing Buddhists, or the community of Buddhist monks and nuns.
Taking refuge in the Three Jewels is central to Buddhist lay and monastic ordination ceremonies, as originated by Gautama, (The Buddha), according to the scriptures. The practice of taking refuge on behalf of young or even unborn children is mentioned in the Majjhima Nikaya, recognized by most scholars as an early text.
Taking refuge in the Three Jewels is generally considered to make one officially a Buddhist. Thus, in many Theravada Buddhist communities, the following Pali chant, the Vandana Ti-sarana is often recited by both monks and lay people:
The Burmese Pali version, which differs from traditional Pali pronunciation (to suit the Burmese language phonology), is as follows (in the Burmese script and IPA):
1ဒုတိယမ္ပိ ([dṵtḭjàɴpḭ]) and တတိယမ္ပိ ([ta̰tḭjàɴpḭ]) are prefixed to the chant when lay members seek the refuge for the second and third times respectively.
The Cambodian version, or បទសរភញ្ញ (EN: Bot Sa-Rak-Phorgn), was written by Samdech Sangha Raja Jhotañano Chuon Nath with greater descriptions of the Three Jewels with Cambodian touch at the ending.
The Mahayana Chinese/Korean/Japanese version differs only slightly from the Theravada:
The prayer for taking refuge in Tibetan Buddhism.
The Triple Gem is in the center of one of the major practices of mental "reflection" in Buddhism; the reflection on the true qualities of the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. These qualities are called the Mirror of the Dharma in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta and help the practitioner attain the true "mind like a mirror".
In the commentary on the Apannaka Jataka Buddha declares:
Disciples, nowhere between the lowest of hells below and the highest heaven above, nowhere in all the infinite worlds that stretch right and left, is there the equal, much less the superior, of a Buddha. Incalculable is the excellence which springs from obeying the Precepts and from other virtuous conduct.
By taking refuge in the Triple Gem, one escapes from rebirth in states of suffering. In forsaking such a refuge as this, you have certainly erred. In the past, too, men who foolishly mistook what was no refuge for a real refuge, met disaster.
The qualities of the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are frequently repeated in the ancient texts and are called "Mirror of the Dhamma" or "Dhamma Adassa".
- The Buddha
- "The Blessed One is an Arahant, perfectly enlightened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the world, unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of devas and humans, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One."
In some traditions the Buddha as refuge is taken to refer to the historical Buddha and also 'the full development of mind', in other words, the full development of one's highest potential, i.e. recognition of mind and the completion or full development of one's inherent qualities and activities.
- The Dharma
- "The Dhamma is well expounded by the Blessed One, directly visible, immediate (eternal or not subject to time), inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise."
Refuge in the Dharma, in the Vajrayana, tradition includes reference not only to the words of the Buddha, but to the living experience of realization and teachings of fully realized practitioners. In Tibetan Buddhism, it includes both the Kangyur (the teaching of the Buddha) and the Tengyur (the commentaries by realized practitioners) and in an intangible way also includes the living transmission of those masters, which can also be very inspiring.
- The Sangha
- "The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is practising the good way, practising the straight way, practising the true way, practising the proper way; that is, the four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals - This Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples is worthy of gifts, worthy of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential salutation, the unsurpassed field of merit for the world."
In the Vajrayana, a more liberal definition of Sangha can include all practitioners who are actively using the Buddha's teachings to benefit themselves and/or others. It can be more strictly defined as the 'Realized Sangha' or 'Arya-Sangha', in other words, practitioners and historical students of the Buddha who have fully realized the nature of their mind, also known as realized Boddhisatvas; and 'Ordinary Sangha', which can loosely mean practitioners and students of the Buddha who are using the same methods and working towards the same goal.
In Tibetan Buddhism there are three refuge formulations, the Outer, Inner and Secret forms of the Three Jewels. The 'Outer' form is the 'Triple Gem', (Sanskrit:triratna), the 'Inner' is the Three Roots and the 'Secret' form is the 'Three Bodies' or trikaya of a Buddha. These alternative refuge formulations are employed by those undertaking Deity Yoga and other tantric practices within the Tibetan Buddhist Vajrayana tradition as a means of recognizing Buddha Nature.
|Tibetan Buddhist Refuge Formulations|
|Outer or 'Three Jewels'||Buddha||Dharma||Sangha|
|Inner or 'Three Roots'||Lama (Guru)||Yidam (Ista-devata)||Khandroma (Dakini)|
|Secret or 'Trikaya'||Dharmakaya||Sambhogakaya||Nirmanakaya|
|seed syllable||blue hum||red ah||white om|
The three gems are called this because of their treasured value to Buddhists, as well as their indestructible and unchanging nature.
The Three Gems when used in the process of taking refuge, become the Three Refuges. In this form, the metaphors occur very frequently in the ancient Buddhist Texts, and here the Sangha is used more broadly to refer to either the Sangha of Bhikkhus, or the Sangha of Bhikkhunis.
I go to Master Gautama for refuge and to the Dhamma, and to the Sangha of Bhikkhus.—
Buddha's mind in his earth body or nirmanakaya is frequently associated with the greatest gem of all, the diamond, the hardest natural substance. In the Anguttara Nikaya(3:25), Buddha talks about the diamond mind which can cut through all delusion.
The expression Three Gems are found in the earliest Buddhist literature of the Pali Canon, besides other works there is one sutta in the Sutta-nipata, called the Ratana-sutta which contains a series of verses on the Jewels in the Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha.
In the Ratana-sutta, all the qualities of the Sangha mentioned are attributes of the Buddha's enlightened disciples:
- One who is irascible and very irritable, displaying anger, hatred and sulkiness; such a one is said to be a person with a mind like an open sore.
- One who understands the Four Noble Truths correctly is said to have a mind like a flash of lightning.
- One who has destroyed the mind-intoxicating defilements and realized the liberation of mind and the liberation by knowledge is said to have a mind like a diamond
Jainism and Taoism
Jainism and Taoism also use "three jewels" metaphorically. When Buddhism was introduced into China, ratnatraya was translated as sanbao (Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo; Wade–Giles: san-pao; literally: "three jewels/treasures"), a term that first occurred in the Tao Te Ching.
For the Jains, the Three Jewels are a metaphor for describing conduct and knowledge:
- samyag-darśana (correct perception or insight)
- samyag-jñāna (correct knowledge)
- samyag-cāritra (correct conduct).
The Three Jewels are also symbolized by the triratna, composed of (from bottom to top):
The Triratna can be found on frieze sculptures at Sanchi as the symbol crowning a flag standard (2nd century BCE), as a symbol of the Buddha installed on the Buddha's throne (2nd century BCE), as the crowning decorative symbol on the later gates at the stupa in Sanchi (2nd century CE), or, very often on the Buddha footprint (starting from the 1st century CE).
The triratna symbol is also called nandipada, or "bull's hoof", by Hindus.
There are a number of examples of the triratna symbol appearing on historical coins of Buddhist kingdoms in the Indian sub-continent. For example, the Triratna appears on the 1st century BCE coins of the Kingdom of Kuninda in the northern Punjab. It also surmounts the depictions of stupas, on some the coins of the Indo-Parthian king Abdagases of the 1st century, CE and on the coins of some of the Kushan kings such as Vima Kadphises, also of the 1st century CE.
- B Sangharakshita, The Three Jewels: An Introduction to Buddhism, Rider, 1967
- Hanh, Thich Nhat (1991). Old Path White Clouds: walking in the footsteps of the Buddha. Parallax Press. pp. 157–161. ISBN 0-938077-26-0.
- Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha, tr Nanamoli, rev Bodhi, Wisdom Pubns, 1995, pages 708f
- Note: English translation of this chanting song is not 100% accurate
- Bhikkhu Bodhi (2000). The Collected Discourses of the Buddha: A new translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Somerville: Wisdom Publications. pp. Sakkasamyutta, Dhajjaggasutta (3), p.319–321.
- In Sarma traditions, this root is the Chokyong (Skt: dharmapāla, Wylie: chos-kyong)
- Bhikkhu Nanamoli (1995). Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed. The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. Sutta 4, paragraph 35, p.107; Sutta 7, paragraph 21, p.121; Sutta 27, paragraph 27, p.227; Sutta 30, paragraph 24, p.297; etc.
- Anderson, Dines, & Smith, Helmer, ed. (1990). Sutta Nipata (pali). oxford: Pali Text Society. pp. 39–42.
- Victor H. Mair (1990). Tao Te Ching: The Classic Book of Integrity and the Way, by Lao Tzu; an entirely new translation based on the recently discovered Ma-wang-tui manuscripts. New York: Bantam Books. p. 110.
- Refuge : An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha. Thanissaro Bhikkhu : Third edition, revised, 2001
- "ガンダーラ美術の見方" (The art of Gandhara), Yamada Kihito, ISBN 4-89806-106-0
- Triratna on the footprints of the Buddha
- Buddhapada and Triratna
- Another triratna on Buddha's footprint.
- Cambodian Buddhist Chanting: Paying Respect to the Triple Gem on YouTube.