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Vassa (Pali: vassa-, Sanskrit: varṣa-, both "rain"; Burmese: ဝါတွင်း, [wàdwíɴ]; Khmer: វស្សា or ព្រះវស្សា; Lao: ພັນສາ [pʰán sǎː], sometimes ວັດສາ [wāt sǎː]; Thai: พรรษา phansa or วรรษา watsa) is the three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners. Taking place during the wet season, Vassa lasts for three lunar months, usually from July (the Burmese month of Waso, ဝါဆို) to October (the Burmese month of Thadingyut သီတင်းကျွတ်).
For the duration of Vassa, bhikkhus and bhikkhunis remain inside monasteries and temple grounds. In some monasteries, monks dedicate the Vassa to intensive meditation. Some Buddhist lay people choose to observe Vassa by adopting more ascetic practices, such as giving up meat, alcohol, or smoking. While Vassa is sometimes casually called "Buddhist Lent", others object to this terminology. Commonly, the number of years a monk has spent in monastic life is expressed by counting the number of vassas he has observed.
Most Mahayana Buddhists do not observe Vassa, though Vietnamese Thiền and Korean Seon monastics observe an equivalent retreat of three months of intensive practice in one location, a practice also observed in Tibetan Buddhism.
Vassa begins on the first day of the waning moon of the eight lunar month, which is the day after Asalha Day or Asalha Uposatha (Dhamma day). It ends on Pavarana day, when all monastics come before the community of monks (the Sangha) and atone for an offense he may have committed during the Vassa.
The Vassa tradition pre-dates the time of the historical Buddha. It was a long-standing custom for mendicant ascetics in India not to travel during the rainy season as they may unintentionally harm crops, insects or even themselves during their travels. The observation of vassa is said to originate with the Buddha himself. Gautama Buddha ordered his disciples to observe a pre-existing practice whereby holy men avoided travel for a three-month period during the rainy season, in order to avoid damaging crops
- Vassa at About.com
- Thein, Cherry (July 14–20, 2008). "Shwedagon Pagoda marks the start of Buddhist Lent this week". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
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- Was (Thai) Vassa
- Vassa (Rains Retreat) and Kathina (Robe Offering) Ceremony
- Vassa, The Rains Retreat
- Kathina at BBC
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