Three Gorges Dam
|Three Gorges Dam
The dam in September 2009
|Location||Sandouping, Yiling, Hubei|
|Purpose||Power, flood control, navigation|
|Construction began||December 14, 1994|
|Construction cost||¥180 billion (US$26 billion)|
|Owner(s)||China Yangtze Power (subsidiary of China Three Gorges Corporation)|
|Dam and spillways|
|Type of dam||Gravity dam|
|Height||181 m (594 ft)|
|Length||2,335 m (7,661 ft)|
|Width (crest)||40 m (131 ft)|
|Width (base)||115 m (377 ft)|
|Spillway capacity||116,000 m3/s (4,100,000 cu ft/s)|
|Creates||Three Gorges Reservoir|
|Total capacity||39.3 km3 (31,900,000 acre·ft)|
|Catchment area||1,000,000 km2 (390,000 sq mi)|
|Surface area||1,084 km2 (419 sq mi)|
|Max. length||600 km (370 mi)|
|Normal elevation||175 m (574 ft)|
Rated: 80.6 m (264 ft)
|Nameplate capacity||22,500 MW|
|Annual generation||98.8 TWh (356 PJ) (2014)|
|Turbines||32 × 700 MW
2 × 50 MW Francis-type
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity (22,500 MW). The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual energy generation, generating 83.7 TWh in 2013 and 98.8 TWh in 2014, while the annual energy generation of the Itaipú Dam in Brazil and Paraguay was 98.6 TWh in 2013 and 87.8 in 2014.
Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main water turbines in the underground plant began production. Each main water turbine has a capacity of 700 MW. The dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dam's 32 main turbines with two smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW.
As well as producing electricity, the dam is intended to increase the Yangtze River's shipping capacity and reduce the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. The Chinese government regards the project as a historic engineering, social and economic success, with the design of state-of-the-art large turbines, and a move toward limiting greenhouse gas emissions. However, the dam flooded archaeological and cultural sites and displaced some 1.3 million people, and is causing significant ecological changes, including an increased risk of landslides. The dam has been a controversial topic both domestically and abroad.
|Three Gorges Dam|
- 1 History
- 2 Composition and dimensions
- 3 Economics
- 4 Power generation and distribution
- 5 Environmental impact
- 6 Floods, agriculture, industry
- 7 Navigating the dam
- 8 Relocation of residents
- 9 Other effects
- 10 Upstream dams
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
A large dam across the Yangtze River was originally envisioned by Sun Yat-sen in The International Development of China, in 1919. He stated that a dam capable of generating 30 million horsepower (22 GW) was possible downstream of the Three Gorges. In 1932, the Nationalist government, led by Chiang Kai-shek, began preliminary work on plans in the Three Gorges. In 1939, Japanese military forces occupied Yichang and surveyed the area. A design, the Otani plan, was completed for the dam in anticipation of a Japanese victory over China.
In 1944, the United States Bureau of Reclamation chief design engineer, John L. Savage, surveyed the area and drew up a dam proposal for the 'Yangtze River Project'. Some 54 Chinese engineers went to the U.S. for training. The original plans called for the dam to employ a unique method for moving ships; the ships would move into locks located at the lower and upper ends of the dam and then cranes with cables would move the ships from one lock to the next. In the case of smaller water craft, groups of craft would be lifted together for efficiency. It is not known whether this solution was considered for its water-saving performance or because the engineers thought the difference in height between the river above and below the dam too great for alternative methods. Some exploration, survey, economic study, and design work was done, but the government, in the midst of the Chinese Civil War, halted work in 1947.
After the 1949 Communist takeover, Mao Zedong supported the project, but began the Gezhouba Dam project nearby first, and economic problems including the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution slowed progress. After the 1954 Yangtze River Floods, in 1956, Mao Zedong authored "Swimming", a poem about his fascination with a dam on the Yangtze River. In 1958, after the Hundred Flowers Campaign, some engineers who spoke out against the project were imprisoned.
During the 1980s, the idea of a dam reemerged. The National People's Congress approved the dam in 1992: out of 2,633 delegates, 1,767 voted in favour, 177 voted against, 664 forfeited, and 25 members did not vote. Construction started on December 14, 1994. The dam was expected to be fully operational in 2009, but additional projects, such as the underground power plant with six additional generators, delayed full operation until May 2012. The ship lift was expected to be completed in 2014. The dam had raised the water level in the reservoir to 172.5 m (566 ft) above sea level by the end of 2008 and the designed maximum level of 175 m (574 ft) by October 2010.
Composition and dimensions
Made of concrete and steel, the dam is 2,335 m (7,661 ft) long and the top of the dam is 185 metres (607 ft) above sea level. The project used 27.2 million cubic metres (35.6×106 cu yd) of concrete (mainly for the dam wall), 463,000 tonnes of steel (enough to build 63 Eiffel Towers) and moved about 102.6 million cubic metres (134.2×106 cu yd) of earth. The concrete dam wall is 181 metres (594 ft) high above the rock basis.
When the water level is at its maximum of 175 metres (574 ft) above sea level, which is 110 metres (361 ft) higher than the river level downstream, the dam reservoir is on average about 660 kilometres (410 mi) in length and 1.12 kilometres (3,700 ft) in width. It contains 39.3 km3 (31,900,000 acre·ft) of water and has a total surface area of 1,045 square kilometres (403 sq mi). On completion, the reservoir flooded a total area of 632 square kilometres (244 sq mi) of land, compared to the 1,350 square kilometres (520 sq mi) of reservoir created by the Itaipu Dam.
The government estimated that the Three Gorges Dam project would cost 180 billion yuan (US$22.5 billion). By the end of 2008, spending had reached 148.365 billion yuan, among which 64.613 billion yuan was spent on construction, 68.557 billion yuan on relocating affected residents, and 15.195 billion yuan on financing. It is estimated that the construction cost will be recovered when the dam has generated 1,000 terawatt-hours (3,600 PJ) of electricity, yielding 250 billion yuan. Full cost recovery is expected to occur ten years after the dam starts full operation.
Funding sources include the Three Gorges Dam Construction Fund, profits from the Gezhouba Dam, loans from the China Development Bank, loans from domestic and foreign commercial banks, corporate bonds, and revenue before and after the dam is fully operational. Additional charges were assessed as follows: Every province receiving power from the Three Gorges Dam has to pay ¥7.00 per MWh extra. Other provinces had to pay an additional charge of ¥4.00 per MWh. Tibet pays no surcharge.
Power generation and distribution
Power generation is managed by China Yangtze Power, a listed subsidiary of China Three Gorges Corporation (CTGC) — a Central Enterprise SOE administered by SASAC. The Three Gorges Dam is the world's largest capacity hydroelectric power station with 34 generators: 32 main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW, and two plant power generators, each with capacity of 50 MW, making a total capacity of 22,500 MW. Among those 32 main generators, 14 are installed in the north side of the dam, 12 in the south side, and the remaining six in the underground power plant in the mountain south of the dam. The expected annual electricity generation will be over 100 TWh.
The main generators weigh about 6,000 tonnes each and are designed to produce more than 700 MW of power. The designed head of the generator is 80.6 meters (264 ft). The flow rate varies between 600–950 cubic metres per second (21,000–34,000 cu ft/s) depending on the head available. The greater the head, the less water needed to reach full power. Three Gorges uses Francis turbines. Turbine diameter is 9.7/10.4 m (VGS design/Alstom's design) and rotation speed is 75 revolutions per minute. Rated power is 778 MVA, with a maximum of 840 MVA and a power factor of 0.9. The generator produces electrical power at 20 kV. The outer diameter of the generator stator is 21.4/20.9 m. The inner diameter is 18.5/18.8 m. The stator, the biggest of its kind, is 3.1/3 m in height. Bearing load is 5050/5500 tonnes. Average efficiency is over 94%, and reaches 96.5%.
The generators are manufactured by two joint ventures. One of them includes Alstom, ABB Group, Kvaerner, and the Chinese company Haerbin Motor. The other includes Voith, General Electric, Siemens (abbreviated as VGS), and the Chinese company Oriental Motor. The technology transfer agreement was signed together with the contract. Most of the generators are water-cooled. Some newer ones are air-cooled, which are simpler in design and manufacture and are easier to maintain.
Generator installation progress
The 14 north side main generators are in operation. The first (No. 2) started on July 10, 2003. The north side became completely operational September 7, 2005 with the implementation of generator No. 9. Full power (9,800 MW) was only reached on October 18, 2006 after the water level reached 156 m.
The 12 south side main generators are also in operation. No. 22 began operation on June 11, 2007 and No. 15 started up on October 30, 2008. The sixth (No. 17) began operation on December 18, 2007, raising capacity to 14.1 GW, finally surpassing Itaipu (14.0 GW), to become the world's largest hydro power plant by capacity.
The 6 underground main generators are also in operation as of May 23, 2012, when the last main generator, No. 27, finished its final test. raising capacity to 22.5 GW. After 9 years of construction, installation and testing, the power plant is now fully operational.
By August 16, 2011, the plant had generated 500 TWh of electricity. In July 2008 it generated 10.3 TWh of electricity, its first month over 10 TWh. On June 30, 2009, after the river flow rate increased to over 24,000 m3, all 28 generators were switched on, producing only 16,100 MW because the head available during flood season is insufficient. During an August 2009 flood, the plant first reached its maximum output for a short period.
During the November to May dry season, power output is limited by the river's flow rate, as seen in the diagrams on the right. When there is enough flow, power output is limited by plant generating capacity. The maximum power-output curves were calculated based on the average flow rate at the dam site, assuming the water level is 175 m and the plant gross efficiency is 90.15%. The actual power output in 2008 was obtained based on the monthly electricity sent to the grid.
The Three Gorges Dam reached its design-maximum reservoir water level of 175 m (574 ft) for the first time on October 26, 2010, in which the intended annual power-generation capacity of 84.7 TWh was realized. In 2012, the dam's 32 generating units generated a record 98.1 TWh of electricity, which accounts for 14% of China's total hydro generation.
The State Grid Corporation and China Southern Power Grid paid a flat rate of ¥250 per MWh (US$35.7) until July 2, 2008. Since then, the price has varied by province, from ¥228.7–401.8 per MWh. Higher-paying customers receive priority, such as Shanghai. Nine provinces and two cities consume power from the dam.
Power distribution and transmission infrastructure cost about 34.387 billion Yuan. Construction was completed in December 2007, one year ahead of schedule.
Power is distributed over multiple 500 kilovolt (kV) transmission lines. Three Direct current (DC) lines to the East China Grid carry 7,200 MW: Three Gorges – Shanghai (3,000 MW), HVDC Three Gorges – Changzhou (3,000 MW), and HVDC Gezhouba – Shanghai (1,200 MW). The alternating current (AC) lines to the Central China Grid have a total capacity of 12,000 MW. The DC transmission line HVDC Three Gorges – Guangdong to the South China Grid has a capacity of 3,000 MW.
The dam was expected to provide 10% of China's power. However, electricity demand has increased more quickly than previously projected. Even fully operational, on average, it supports only about 1.7% of electricity demand in China in the year of 2011, when the Chinese electricity demand reached 4692.8 TWh.
According to the National Development and Reform Commission of China, 366 grams of coal would produce 1 kWh of electricity during 2006. At full power, Three Gorges reduces coal consumption by 31 million tonnes per year, avoiding 100 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions, millions of tonnes of dust, one million tonnes of sulfur dioxide, 370,000 tonnes of nitric oxide, 10,000 tonnes of carbon monoxide, and a significant amount of mercury. Hydropower saves the energy needed to mine, wash, and transport the coal from northern China.
From 2003 to 2007, power production equaled that of 84 million tonnes of standard coal, reducing carbon dioxide by 190 million tonnes, sulfur dioxide by 2.29 million tonnes, and nitrogen oxides by 980,000 tonnes.
The dam increased the Yangtze's barge capacity sixfold, reducing carbon dioxide emission by 630,000 tonnes. From 2004 to 2007 a total of 198 million tonnes of goods passed through the ship locks. Compared to using trucking, barges reduced carbon dioxide emission by ten million tonnes and lowered costs by 25%.
Erosion and sedimentation
Two hazards are uniquely identified with the dam. One is that sedimentation projections are not agreed upon, and the other is that the dam sits on a seismic fault. At current levels, 80% of the land in the area is experiencing erosion, depositing about 40 million tons of sediment into the Yangtze annually. Because the flow is slower above the dam, much of this sediment will now settle there instead of flowing downstream, and there will be less sediment downstream.
The absence of silt downstream has three effects:
- Some hydrologists expect downstream riverbanks to become more vulnerable to flooding.
- Shanghai, more than 1,600 km (990 mi) away, rests on a massive sedimentary plain. The "arriving silt—so long as it does arrive—strengthens the bed on which Shanghai is built... the less the tonnage of arriving sediment the more vulnerable is this biggest of Chinese cities to inundation..."
- Benthic sediment buildup causes biological damage and reduces aquatic biodiversity.
Earthquakes and landslides
Erosion in the reservoir, induced by rising water, causes frequent major landslides that have led to noticeable disturbance in the reservoir surface, including two incidents in May 2009 when somewhere between 20,000 and 50,000 cubic metres (26,000 and 65,000 cu yd) of material plunged into the flooded Wuxia Gorge of the Wu River. Also, in the first four months of 2010, there were 97 significant landslides.
The dam catalyzed improved upstream wastewater treatment around Chongqing and its suburban areas. According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, as of April 2007 more than 50 new plants could treat 1.84 million tonnes per day, 65% of the total need. About 32 landfills were added, which could handle 7,664.5 tonnes of solid waste every day. Over one billion tons of wastewater are released annually into the river, which was more likely to be swept away before the reservoir was created. This has left the water looking stagnant, polluted and murky.
In 1997 the Three Gorges area had 10% forestation, down from 20% in the 1950s.
Research by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization research suggested that the Asia-Pacific region would, overall, gain about 6,000 square kilometers of forest by 2008. That is quite a turnaround from the 13,000 square kilometers net loss of forest each year in the 1990s. The main reason is China's huge reforestation effort. This accelerated after the 1998 Yangtze River floods convinced the government that it must restore tree cover, especially in the Yangtze's basin upstream of the Three Gorges Dam.
Concerns about the potential wildlife impact of the Dam predate the National People's Congress's approval in 1992. This region has long been known for its rich biodiversity. It is home to 6,388 species of plants, which belong to 238 families and 1508 genera. Of these plant species, 57 percent are endangered. These rare species are also used as ingredients in traditional Chinese medicines. Already, the percentage of forested area in the region surrounding the Three Gorges Dam has dropped from twenty percent in 1950 to less than ten percent as of 2002, negatively affecting all plant species in this locality. The region also provides habitats to hundreds of freshwater and terrestrial animal species. Freshwater fish are especially affected by dams due to changes in the water temperature and flow regime. Many other fish are hurt in the turbine blades of the hydroelectric plants as well. This is particularly detrimental to the ecosystem of the region because the Yangtze River basin is home to 361 different fish species and accounts for twenty-seven percent of all endangered freshwater fish species in China. Other aquatic species have been endangered by the dam, particularly the Baiji, or the Chinese River Dolphin, now extinct. In fact, Government Chinese scholars even claim that the Three Gorges Dam directly caused the extinction of the Baiji.
Of the 3,000 to 4,000 remaining critically endangered Siberian Crane, a large number currently spend the winter in wetlands that will be destroyed by the Three Gorges Dam. The dam contributed to the functional extinction of the Baiji Yangtze river dolphin. Though it was close to this level even at the start of construction, the dam further decreased its habitat and increased ship travel, which are among the factors causing what will be its ultimate demise. In addition, populations of the Yangtze sturgeon are guaranteed to be "negatively affected" by the dam.
Floods, agriculture, industry
An important function of the dam is to control flooding, which is a major problem for the seasonal river of the Yangtze. Millions of people live downstream of the dam, with many large, important cities like Wuhan, Nanjing, and Shanghai situated adjacent to the river. Plenty of farm land and China's most important industrial area are built beside the river.
The reservoir's flood storage capacity is 22 cubic kilometres (18,000,000 acre·ft). This capacity will reduce the frequency of major downstream flooding from once every ten years to once every 100 years. The dam is expected to minimize the effect of even a "super" flood. In 1954 the river flooded 193,000 km2 (74,518 sq mi), killing 33,169 people and forcing 18,884,000 people to move. The flood covered Wuhan, a city of eight million people, for over three months, and the Jingguang Railway was out of service for more than 100 days. The 1954 flood carried 50 cubic kilometres (12 cu mi) of water. The dam could only divert the water above Chenglingji, leaving 30 to 40 km3 (7.2 to 9.6 cu mi) to be diverted. Also the dam cannot protect against some of the large tributaries downstream, including the Xiang, Zishui, Yuanshui, Lishui, Hanshui, and the Gan.
In early August 2009, the largest flood in five years passed through the dam site. The dam limited the water flow to less than 40,000 cubic metres (52,000 cu yd) per second, raising the upstream water level from 145.13 metres on August 1, 2009, to 152.88 on August 8, 2009. 4.27 cubic kilometres of flood water were captured and the river flow was cut by as much as 15,000 cubic metres per second.
The dam discharges its reservoir during the dry season between December and March every year. This increases the flow rate of the river downstream, and provides fresh water for agricultural and industrial usage. It also improves shipping conditions. The water level upstream drops from 175 m to 145 m, preparing for the rainy season. The water also powers the Gezhouba Dam downstream.
Since the filling of the reservoir in 2003, the Three Gorges Dam has supplied an extra 11 cubic kilometres of fresh water to downstream cities and farms during the dry season.
During the 2010 South China floods, in July, inflows at the Three Gorges Dam reached a peak of 70,000 m3/s (2,500,000 cu ft/s), exceeding the peak during the 1998 Yangtze River Floods. The dam's reservoir rose nearly 3 m (9.8 ft) in 24 hours and reduced the outflow to 40,000 m3/s (1,400,000 cu ft/s) in discharges downstream, effectively alleviating serious impacts on the middle and lower river.
The installation of ship locks is intended to increase river shipping from ten million to 100 million tonnes annually, as a result transportation costs will be cut between 30 and 37%. Shipping will become safer, since the gorges are notoriously dangerous to navigate. Ships with much deeper draft will be able to navigate 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) upstream from Shanghai all the way to Chongqing. It is expected that shipping to Chongqing will increase fivefold.
There are two series of ship locks installed near the dam ( The locks are 280 m long, 35 m wide, and 5 m deep (918 x 114 x 16.4 ft). That is 30 m longer than those on the St Lawrence Seaway, but half as deep. Before the dam was constructed, the maximum freight capacity at the Three Gorges site was 18.0 million tonnes per year. From 2004 to 2007, a total of 198 million tonnes of freight passed through the locks. The freight capacity of the river increased six times and the cost of shipping was reduced by 25%. The total capacity of the ship locks is expected to reach 100 million tonnes per year.). Each of them is made up of five stages, with transit time at around four hours. Maximum vessel size is 10,000 tons.
These locks are staircase locks, whereby inner lock gate pairs serve as both the upper gate and lower gate. The gates are the vulnerable hinged type, which, if damaged, could temporarily render the entire flight unusable. As there are separate sets of locks for upstream and downstream traffic, this system is more water efficient than bi-directional staircase locks.
In addition to the canal locks, a ship lift, a kind of elevator for vessels, is under construction. The ship lift is designed to be capable of lifting ships of up to 3,000 tons. The original plans specified a lift with the capacity to lift 11,500 ton vessels. The vertical distance traveled will be 113 metres, and the size of the ship lift's basin will be 120x18x3.5 metres. The ship lift, when completed, will take 30 to 40 minutes to transit, as opposed to the three to four hours for stepping through the locks. One complicating factor is that the water level can vary dramatically. The ship lift must work even if water levels vary by 12 meters (39 ft) on the lower side, and 30 metres on the upper side.
The ship lift was not yet complete when the rest of the project was officially opened on May 20, 2006. In November 2007 it was reported in the local media that construction of the ship lift started in October 2007 and was anticipated to be completed in 2014.
The report said the towers had reached 189 metres of the anticipated 195 metres, the towers would be completed by June 2012 and the entire shiplift in 2015.
Plans also exist for the construction of short portage railways bypassing the dam area altogether. Two short rail lines, one on each side of the river, are to be constructed. The 88 kilometer long northern portage railway (北岸翻坝铁路) will run from the Taipingxi port facility (太平溪港) on the northern side of the Yangtze, just upstream from the dam, via Yichang East Railway Station to the Baiyang Tianjiahe port facility in Baiyang Town (白洋镇), below Yichang. The 95 kilometer long southern portage railway (南岸翻坝铁路) will run from Maoping[disambiguation needed] (upstream of the dam) via Yichang South Railway Station to Zhicheng (on the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway).
In late 2012, preliminary work started along both future railway routes.
Relocation of residents
As of June 2008, China relocated 1.24 million residents (ending with Gaoyang in Hubei Province), about 1.5% of the province's 60.3 million and Chongqing Municipality's 31.44 million population. About 140,000 residents were relocated to other provinces.
Relocation was completed on July 22, 2008. Some 2007 reports claimed that Chongqing Municipality will encourage an additional four million people to move away from the dam to the main urban area of Chongqing by 2020. However, the municipal government explained that the relocation is due to urbanization, rather than the dam, and people involved included other areas of the municipality.
Allegedly, funds for relocating 13,000 farmers around Gaoyang disappeared after being sent to the local government, leaving residents without compensation.
Culture and aesthetics
The 600 km (370 mi) long reservoir flooded some 1,300 archaeological sites and altered the appearance of the Three Gorges as the water level rose over 300 ft (91 m). Cultural and historical relics are being moved to higher ground as they are discovered, but the flooding inevitably covered undiscovered relics. Some sites could not be moved because of their location, size, or design. For example, the hanging coffins site high in the Shen Nong Gorge is part of the cliffs.
The United States Department of Defense reported that in Taiwan, “proponents of strikes against the mainland apparently hope that merely presenting credible threats to China's urban population or high-value targets, such as the Three Gorges Dam, will deter Chinese military coercion.”
The notion that the military in Taiwan would seek to destroy the dam provoked an angry response from the mainland Chinese media. People's Liberation Army General Liu Yuan was quoted in the China Youth Daily saying that the People's Republic of China would be "seriously on guard against threats from Taiwan independence terrorists."
Days after the first filling of the reservoir, around 80 hairline cracks were observed in the dam's structure. The submerged spillway gates of the dam might pose a risk of cavitation, similar to that which severely damaged the poorly designed and cavitating spillways of the Glen Canyon Dam in the US state of Arizona, which was unable to properly withstand the Colorado river floods of 1983. However 163,000 concrete units of the Three Gorges dam all passed quality testing and the deformation was within design limits. An experts group gave the project overall a good quality rating.
In order to maximize the utility of the Three Gorges Dam and cut down on sedimentation from the Jinsha River, upstream of the Yangtze River before reaching Yibin in Sichuan, authorities plan to build a series of dams downstream of Jinsha, including Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, along with the now completed Xiluodu, and Xiangjiaba dams. The total capacity of those four dams is 38,500 MW, almost double the capacity of the Three Gorges. Baihetan is preparing for construction and Wudongde is seeking government approval. Another eight dams are in the midstream of the Jinsha and eight more upstream of it.
- Baiheliang Underwater Museum
- Energy policy of China
- List of largest power stations in the world
- List of largest hydroelectric power stations
- List of power stations in China
- List of dams and reservoirs in China
- Three Gorges Museum
- "Three Gorges Project". Chinese National Committee on Large Dams. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
- Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 2: Landslide Processes. Springer. 2014. p. 1415. ISBN 3319090577.
- "Generation". Itaipu Binacional. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "Three Gorges breaks world record for hydropower generation". Xinhua. 1 January 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "Drought curbs Itaipu hydro output". Business News Americas. 5 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "三峡工程最后一台机组结束72小时试运行". ctg.com.cn. Retrieved 2012-06-23.
- "Three Gorges underground power station electrical and mechanical equipment is fully handed over production" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Corporation. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Acker, Fabian (2009-03-02). "Taming the Yangtze". IET magazine.[dead link]
- 三峡工程左右岸电站26台机组全部投入商业运行 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- ":: Three Gorges reservoir raises water to target level". Xinhua. 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Final Turbine at China's Three Gorges Dam Begins Testing". Inventor Spot. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司". Ctgpc.com.cn. 2009-04-08. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司". Ctgpc.com.cn. 2009-03-10. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "一座自主创新历史丰碑 三峡工程的改革开放之路". Hb.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "重庆云阳长江右岸现360万方滑坡险情-地方-人民网". People's Daily. Retrieved 2009-08-01. See also: "探访三峡库区云阳故陵滑坡险情". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Lin Yang (2007-10-12). "China's Three Gorges Dam Under Fire". Time. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
The giant Three Gorges Dam across China's Yangtze River has been mired in controversy ever since it was first proposedSee also: Laris, Michael (1998-08-17). "Untamed Waterways Kill Thousands Yearly". Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
Officials now use the deadly history of the Yangtze, China's longest river, to justify the country's riskiest and most controversial infrastructure project – the enormous Three Gorges Dam.and Grant, Stan (2005-06-18). "Global Challenges: Ecological and Technological Advances Around the World". CNN. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
China's engineering marvel is unleashing a torrent of criticism. [...] When it comes to global challenges, few are greater or more controversial than the construction of the massive Three Gorges Dam in Central China.and Gerin, Roseanne (2008-12-11). "Rolling on a River". Beijing Review. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
..the 180-billion yuan ($26.3 billion) Three Gorges Dam project has been highly contentious.
- ""Swimming" by Mao Zedong". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Lin Yang (2007-10-12). "China's Three Gorges Dam Under Fire". Time.
- "中国国民党、亲民党、111新党访问团相继参观三峡工程_新闻中心_新浪网". News.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- John Lucian Savage Biography by Abel Wolman & W. H. Lyles, National Academy of Science, 1978.
- "China's Dream Dam." Popular Science, July 1946
- Steven Mufson (1997-11-09). "The Yangtze Dam: Feat or Folly?". Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "1992年4月3日全国人大批准兴建三峡工程". News.rednet.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Allin, Samuel Robert Fishleigh (2004-11-30). "An Examination of China's Three Gorges Dam Project Based on the Framework Presented in the Report of The World Commission on Dams" (PDF). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "三峡升船机开工建设_荆楚网 (Three Gorges ship lift operation construction)". CnHubei. 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2008-08-09. translation
- Water level at Three Gorges Project raised to full capacity
- "三峡完成172.5米蓄水 中游航道正常维护(图)-搜狐新闻". News.sohu.com. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- "Three Gorges Dam Project — Quick Facts". ibiblio.org. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "三峡水库：世界淹没面积最大的水库 (Three Gorges reservoir: World submergence area biggest reservoir)". Xinhua Net. 2003-11-21. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
- "International Water Power and Dam Construction". Waterpowermagazine.com. 2007-01-10. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "国家重大技术装备". Chinaneast.xinhuanet.com. 2009-01-11. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2003-04-20. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
- 三峡机组国产化已取得成功 (in Chinese). hb.xinhuanet.com. 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- 李永安:我水轮发电机组已具完全自主设计制造能力_财经频道_新华网 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- THREE GORGES DAM by Matthew Morioka, Alireza Abrishamkar, Yve Kay CEE 491
- "三峡工程及其水电机组概况 (Three Gorges Project and water and electricity unit survey)" (in Chinese). 中华商务网讯. 2002-07-26. Retrieved 2008-04-11. translation
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Government of China. 2006-10-18. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司 (The manufacture domestically large-scale power set stability enhances unceasingly)". ctgpc. 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-08-09. translation
- 三峡右岸电站19号机组完成72小时试运行 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司". Ctgpc.com.cn. 2008-07-04. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- 三峡23号机组进入72小时试运行 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- "三峡地下电站30号机组充水启动 (Three Gorges Underground Power Station Unit No. 30, water-filled start)". Three Gorges Corporation. Retrieved July 4, 2011.
- "Three Gorges underground power station water-filled start the third unit successfully put into operation in July plans" (in Chinese). Fenghuang Wang. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- "The last two units of the Three Gorges" (in Chinese). Xinhua. February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
- "三峡电站持续安稳运行累计发电突破5000亿千瓦时". ctgpc.com.cn. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
- 三峡工程左右岸电站26台机组全部投入商业运行 – 中国报道 – 国际在线 (in Chinese). CRI online. 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- 三峡电站月发电量首过百亿千瓦时 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-08-15. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- "三峡电站26台发电机组投产后首次满负荷发电". Hb.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司". Ctgpc.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- "国家电网公司-主要水电厂来水和运行情况". Sgcc.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "国家电网公司-国调直调信息系统". Sgcc.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-01. State Grid Corporation
- "China's Three Gorges sets new production record". Hydro World. January 10, 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-10.
- "中国电力新闻网――电力行业的门户网站". Cepn.sp.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "国家重大技术装备". Chinaequip.gov.cn. 2010-01-08. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- "Three Gorges Project Generates 78.29 Bln Kwh of Electricity in 2011".
- "三峡工程2013年建设运行情况良好 发挥综合效益".
- "China's Three Gorges dam 'breaks world hydropower record'".
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司". Ctgpc.com.cn. 2008-07-04. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Construction of the Three Gorges Project and Ecological Protection". Chinagate.com.cn. 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2014-03-24.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). National Development and Reform Commission. 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- "Three Gorges, China". ABB Group. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). Chinese Society for electrical engineering. 2006-05-25. Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). NDRC. 2007-03-07. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Country". Carbonplanet. 2006. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). TGP. 2006-06-12. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "长江电力(600900)2008年上半年发电量完成情况公告 – 证券之星 (The Three Gorges sluice year transported goods volume may amount to 100,000,000 tons)". Xinhua. 2007-01-23. Retrieved 2008-08-09. translation
- Topping, Audrey Ronning. Environmental controversy over the Three Gorges Dam. Earth Times News Service.
- Qing, Dai, 9. The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People (East Gate Book). Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
- "三峡大坝之忧". The Wall Street Journal. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Winchester, Simon (1998). The River at the Center of the World. New York: Henry Holt & Co. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8050-5508-5.
- Segers, Henrik; Martens, Koen (2005). The River at the Center of the World. Springer. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-4020-3745-0.
- Yang, Sung. "No Casualties in Three Gorges Dam Landslide". Xinhua News Network. CRIEnglish.com. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Richard Jones, Michael Sheridan (2010-05-30). "Chinese dam causes quakes and landslides". The Times (London). Retrieved 2011-01-25.
- "湖北省三峡治污项目三年内投入约23.5亿元 (In the Hubei Province Three Gorges anti-pollution project three years invest the approximately 2,350,000,000 Yuan)". Xinhua. 2007-04-19. Retrieved 2008-08-09. translation
- Peter Collins, Falling Here, Rising There, The World in 2008, The Economist, p. 63.
- Li, Long (1989). Environmental planning of large-scale water projects: The Three Gorges Dam case, China (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
- Wu, Jianguo, et al. “Three-Gorges Dam— Experiment in Habitat Fragmentation?” Science 300-5623 (May 23, 2003): 1239–1240.
- Chetham, Deirdre. “Before the Deluge: The Vanishing World of the Yangtze's Three Gorges.” New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
- Chetham, Deirdre. “Before the Deluge: The Vanishing World of the Yangtze's Three Gorges.”
- Xie, Ping. “Three-Gorges Dam: Risk to Ancient Fish.” Science 302-5648 (Nov 14, 2003): 1149.
- Mary Ann Toy, The Age AU, "Three Gorges Dam 'could be huge disaster'", 10-13-07, retrieved 10-13-07.
- "Three Gorges Dam Case Study". American University, The School of International Service. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Ethan Theuerkauf (2007-10-02). "Three Gorges Dam: A Blessing or an Environmental Disaster?". The Flat Hat, the College of William and Mary's student newspaper. Retrieved 2008-01-20.[dead link]
- "三峡工程的防洪作用将提前两年实现-经济-人民网". People's Daily. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "三峡工程防洪、通航、发电三大效益提前全面发挥". Chn-consulate-sapporo.or.jp. 2006-05-16. Retrieved 2009-08-01.[dead link]
- "39.1931、1935、1954、1998年长江流域发生的4次大洪水造成了怎样的洪水灾害??". People's Daily. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- Dai, Qing. Yangtze! Yangtze!. UK: Earthscan Ltd, 1994., 184
- "Three Gorges Dam" (in Chinese). CTGPC. 2002-04-20. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
- "经过不懈努力三峡枢纽主体工程建设任务提前完成". Gov.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "三峡水库可如期消落至145米汛限水位". Hb.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "中国长江三峡工程开发总公司". Ctgpc.com.cn. 2009-08-07. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Three Gorges Dam will meet the first large-scale flood since being completed July 20, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2010.
- 三峡迎来7万立方米/秒特大洪峰 规模超1998年 (in Chinese). SINA Corporation.
- Joseph J. Hobbs, Andrew Dolan (2008). World Regional Geography. Cengage Learning. p. 376. ISBN 978-0-495-38950-7.
- "The Three Gorges Dam". Washington Post. 1997. Archived from the original on 2011-12-14. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
A maximum depth of 574 feet. This is expected to allow 10,000-ton ocean-going cargo ships and passenger liners to navigate 1,500 miles inland to Chongqing.
- "Yangtze as a vital logistics aid" (in Chinese). China Economic Review. 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2007-06-03.[dead link]
- "Three Gorges Dam". Missouri Chapter American Fisheries Society. 2002-04-20. Retrieved 2010-11-23. mirror
- "Its Buildings with Biggest Indices". China Three Gorges Project. 2002. Retrieved 2010-11-23.mirror
- MacKie, Nick (2005-05-04). "China's west seeks to impress investors". BBC. Retrieved 2010-11-23. mirror
- "Its Buildings with Biggest Indices". China Three Gorges Project. 2002. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- MacKie, Nick (2005-05-04). "China's west seeks to impress investors". BBC. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Three Gorges dam ready to go". The Taipei Times. 2006-05-21. Retrieved 2010-11-23. mirror
- "China Completes Three Gorges Dam". CBS News. 2006-05-20. Retrieved 2010-11-23. mirror
- "Tower columns for Three Gorges shiplift to be built". YICHANG, Hubei Province: Xinhua. 2012-02-27. Archived from the original on 2013-02-27.
The entire shiplift will be completed in 2015.
- 湖北议案提案：提升三峡翻坝转运能力 ("Hubei's Proposal: raise the Three Gorges dam-bypassing transportation capacity"), 2013-03-17 (Chinese)
- 三峡翻坝铁路前期工作启动 建成实现水铁联运 (Preliminary work started on the Three Gorges Portage Railways. The project will implement a water-rail connection.) 2012-10-12
- 三峡四期移民工程通过阶段性验收 (in Chinese). China Three Gorges Project Corporation. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
- "中港台] 三峡库区城镇完成拆迁-华尔街日报". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "China dam to displace millions more". MWC News. 2007-10-13. Archived from the original on 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Liang Chao (2004-07-15). "More bid farewell to Three Gorges". China Daily. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "Millions forced out by China dam". BBC News. 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Wang Hongjiang (2007-10-11). "Millions more face relocation from Three Gorges Reservoir Area". Xinhua. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Jiang Yuxia (2007-09-26). "China warns of environmental "catastrophe" from Three Gorges Dam". Xinhua. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- Guo Jinjia, Yang Shanyin (2007-11-16). "重庆澄清"三峡库区二次移民四百万"传闻". People's Daily. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- Julie Chao (2001-05-15). "Relocation for Giant Dam Inflames Chinese Peasants". National Geographic. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Regine Debatty (2007-12-09). "Flotsam, Jetsam and the Three Gorges Dam". World Changing. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- C.Michael Hogan. Andy Burnham, ed. "Shen Nong Gorge Hanging Coffins". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "Annual report on the military power of the People's Republic of China (.pdf)". US Department of Defense. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
- "Troops sent to protect China dam". BBC. 2004-09-14. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- "Three Gorges Dam". International Rivers. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Adams, Jerry. "Three Gorges Dam". Electronic Data Interchange. Awesome Library. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- "Three Gorges Dam". Living On Earth. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Steven Hannon. The 1983 Flood at Glen Canyon
- "三峡工程质量处于良好受控状态". Aqsiq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- "中国三峡总公司拟在金沙江上建４座梯级水电站 总装机容量为３８５０万千瓦_中国电力网新闻中心". chinapower.com.cn. Retrieved 2009-08-01.
- "Beijing Environment, Science and Technology Update". U.S. Embassy in China. 2003-03-07. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "Beyond Three Gorges in China". Water Power Magazine. 2007-01-10. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Three Gorges Dam.|
- China Three Gorges Corporation
- China Yangtze Power Co., Ltd.
- Three Gorges Power Plant Animation on YouTube