List of largest hydroelectric power stations

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Three Gorges Dam (left), Gezhouba Dam (right).

This article provides a list of the largest hydroelectric power stations by generating capacity. Only plants with capacity larger than 2,000 MW are listed.

The Three Gorges Dam in Hubei, China, has the world's largest instantaneous generating capacity (22,500 MW), with the Itaipu Dam in Brazil/Paraguay in second place (14,000 MW). Despite large differences in installed capacity of these two power stations, during the course of an entire year they generate equal amounts of electrical energy - Itaipu 98.2 TWh in 2012[1] and Three Gorges 98.1 TWh in 2012,[2] because the Three Gorges experiences six months per year when there is very little water available to generate power, while the Paraná River that feeds the Itaipu has a much lower seasonal variance in flow. Power output of The Three Gorges reaches 125 TWh in years of high feed availability.

The Three Gorges (22,500 MW - 32 × 700 MW and 2 × 50 MW) is operated jointly with the much smaller Gezhouba Dam (2,715 MW), the total generating capacity of this two-dam complex is 25,215 MW. The Itaipu on the Brazil-Paraguay border has 20 generator units with overall 14,000 MW of installed capacity, however the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18 (12,600 MW).

The Jinsha River (the upper stream of Yangtze River) complex is the largest hydroelectric generating system currently under construction. It has 3 phases. Phase one includes 4 dams on the downstream of the Jinsha River. They are Wudongde Dam, Baihetan Dam, Xiluodu Dam, and Xiangjiaba Dam, with generating capacity of 10,200 MW, 13,050 MW, 13,860 MW, and 6,400 MW respectively. Phase two includes 8 dams on the middle stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 21,150 MW. Phase three includes 8 dams on the upper stream of the Jinsha River. The total generating capacity is 8,980 MW. The total combined capacity of the Jinsha complex with the Three Gorges complex will be 97,355 MW.

Preliminary plans exist for the construction of the next largest hydroelectric power station with an installed capacity of 39,000 MW.[3] The Project is called Grand Inga and is planned to be realised on the lower Congo River.[4]

Another proposal, Penzhin Tidal Power Plant, presumes an installed capacity up to 87,100 MW.

The largest hydroelectric power stations top the list of the largest power stations of any kind, are among the largest hydraulic structures and are some of the largest artificial structures in the world.

Largest power stations[edit]

This table lists currently operational power stations with an installed capacity of at least 2,000 MW. Some of these may have additional units under construction, but only current installed capacity is listed.

Rank Name Country River Installed Capacity (MW) Annual electricity production (TW-hour)[5] Years of completion Area flooded (km²)
1 Three Gorges Dam  China Yangtze 22,500 98.1[2] 2003/2012 [6] 632
2 Itaipu Dam  Brazil
 Paraguay
Paraná 14,000 98.6[1] 1984/1991, 2003[7] 1,350
3 Xiluodu  China Jinsha 13,860[8] 2014 [9]
4 Guri  Venezuela Caroní 10,235 53.41 1978, 1986 4,250
5 Tucuruí  Brazil Tocantins 8,370 41.43 1984 3,014
6 Grand Coulee  United States Columbia 6,809 20[10] 1942/1950, 1973, 1975/1980, 1984/1985[11] 324
7 Xiangjiaba  China Jinsha 6,448 2014[12]
8 Longtan Dam  China Hongshui 6,426 18.7[13] 2007/2009
9 Krasnoyarsk  Russia Yenisei 6,000 20.4 1972 2,000
10 Nuozhadu  China Mekong 5,850 2014[14]
11 Sayano–Shushenskaya  Russia Yenisei 5,760[15] 26.8 1985/1989, 2010/2014[16] 621
12 Robert-Bourassa  Canada La Grande 5,616[17][18] 26.5 1979/1981 2,835
13 Churchill Falls  Canada Churchill 5,428[19] 35 1971/1974 6,988
14 Bratsk  Russia Angara 4,500 22.6 1967 5,470
15 Jinping-II  China Yalong 4,400[20] 2014
16 Laxiwa Dam  China Yellow 4,200[21] 10.2 2010
17 Xiaowan Dam  China Mekong 4,200 [22] 19 2010 190
18 Ust Ilimskaya  Russia Angara 3,840 21.7 1980
19 Jinping-I  China Yalong 3,600[23] 2014
20 Tarbela Dam  Pakistan Indus 3,478 13 1976 250
21 Ilha Solteira Dam  Brazil Paraná 3,444 17.9 1973
22 Ertan Dam  China Yalong 3,300 17 1999
23 Pubugou Dam  China Dadu 3,300 14.6 2009/2010
24 Xingó Hydroelectrical Power Plant  Brazil São Francisco 3,162 18.7[24] 1994/1997
25 Yacyretá  Argentina
 Paraguay
Paraná 3,100 20.09 1994/1998, 2011 1,600
26 Nurek Dam  Tajikistan Vakhsh 3,015 11.2 1972/1979, 1988 98
27 Bath County PSP  United States - 3,003 3.32 1985, 2004
28 Goupitan Dam  China Wu 3,000 [25] 9.67 2009/2011 94
29 Guanyinyan Dam  China Jinsha 3,000 13.622 2014
30 Boguchany Dam  Russia Angara 2,997
(current 1,332)
17.6 2,326 -->
31 W. A. C. Bennett Dam  Canada Peace River 2,876 13.1 1968, 2012
32 La Grande-4  Canada La Grande 2,779[18] 1986 765
33 Gezhouba Dam  China Yangtze 2,715 17.01 1988
34 Manic-5 and Manic-5-PA  Canada Manicouagan 2,656[26] 1970/1971, 1989/1990 1,950
35 Chief Joseph Dam  United States Columbia 2,620 12.5 1958/73/79 34
36 Volzhskaya (Volgogradskaya)  Russia Volga 2,582.5 10.43[27] 1961
37 Niagara Falls (US)  United States Niagara 2,525 [28] 1961
38 Revelstoke Dam  Canada Columbia 2,480 1984, 2011 115
39 Paulo Afonso IV  Brazil São Francisco 2,462.4[29] 1979/1983
40 Chicoasén (Manuel M. Torres) Dam  Mexico Grijalva 2,430 1980, 2005
41 La Grande-3  Canada La Grande 2,418[18] 1984
42 Atatürk Dam  Turkey Euphrates 2,400 8.9 1990
43 Jinanqiao Dam  China Jinsha 2,400 2010
44 Sơn La Dam  Vietnam Black 2,400 10.25 2010/2012
45 Bakun Dam  Malaysia Balui 2,400 2011
46 Liyuan Dam  China Jinsha 2,400 2012
47 Guandi Dam  China Yalong 2,400 2013
48 Zhiguliovskaya (Samarskaya)  Russia Volga 2,335 8.8[27] 1957
49 Karun III Dam  Iran Karun 2,280 4.17 2005
50 Iron Gates-I  Romania
 Serbia
Danube 2,192 11.3 1970
51 John Day Dam  United States Columbia 2,160 1949
52 Caruachi  Venezuela Caroní 2,160 12.95 2006
53 Ludila  China Jinsha 2,160 2014 [30]
54 La Grande-2-A  Canada La Grande 2,106[18][31] 1992
55 Aswan  Egypt Nile 2,100 11 1970
56 Itumbiara  Brazil Paranaíba 2,082 1980
57 Hoover Dam  United States Colorado River 2,080 4 1936/1939, 1961
58 Cleuson-Dixence Complex   Switzerland - 2,069 4.51 1965, 1998
59 Cahora Bassa  Mozambique Zambezi 2,025 1975/1977
60 Bureya Dam  Russia Bureya 2,010 5.07[27] 2009
61 Lijiaxia Dam  China Yellow 2,000 1997/2000
62 Karun I (Shahid Abbaspour) Dam  Iran Karun 2,000 1976, 1995, 2006
63 Masjed Soleyman Dam  Iran Karun 2,000 3.7 2002/2007
64 Ahai Dam  China Jinsha 2,000 2014[32]

Under construction[edit]

This table lists stations under construction with expected installed capacity at least 2,000 MW.

Name Country River Expected capacity (MW) Expected completion Location
Baihetan  China Jinsha 13,050 2019 28°15′06″N 103°39′34″E / 28.25167°N 103.65944°E / 28.25167; 103.65944 (Baihetan Dam)
Belo Monte  Brazil Xingu 11,233 2015 03°17′0″S 52°12′00″W / 3.28333°S 52.20000°W / -3.28333; -52.20000 (Belo Monte Dam)
Boguchany Dam  Russia Angara River 2,997[33] 2014 58°41′41″N 99°08′56″E / 58.69472°N 99.14889°E / 58.69472; 99.14889 (Boguchany Dam)
Changheba  China Dadu 2,600 2016 30°24′13″N 102°07′07″E / 30.40361°N 102.11861°E / 30.40361; 102.11861 (Changheba Dam)
Dagangshan  China Dadu 2,600 2014 29°26′55″N 101°13′07″E / 29.44861°N 101.21861°E / 29.44861; 101.21861 (Dagangshan Dam)
Ethiopian Renaissance  Ethiopia Blue Nile 6,000 2018 11°12′51″N 35°5′35″E / 11.21417°N 35.09306°E / 11.21417; 35.09306 (Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam)
Guanyinyan  China Jinsha 3,000 2015 26°31′17″N 101°26′16″E / 26.52139°N 101.43778°E / 26.52139; 101.43778 (Guanyinyan Dam)
Diamer-Bhasha Dam  Pakistan Indus River 4,500 2020 35°32′31″N 73°36′26″E / 35.54194°N 73.60722°E / 35.54194; 73.60722 (Diamer-Bhasha Dam)
Dasu Dam  Pakistan Indus River 4,320 2019 35°19′03″N 73°11′36″E / 35.31750°N 73.19333°E / 35.31750; 73.19333 (Dasu Dam)
Jirau  Brazil Madeira 3,750[34] 2016 9°15′0″S 64°24′0″W / 9.25000°S 64.40000°W / -9.25000; -64.40000 (Jirau Dam)
Lianghekou  China Yalong 3,000 2015 30°09′46″N 101°00′49″E / 30.16278°N 101.01361°E / 30.16278; 101.01361 (Lianghekou Dam)
Myitsone  Myanmar Irrawaddy 3,600 2017 25°41′43″N 97°29′49″E / 25.69528°N 97.49694°E / 25.69528; 97.49694
Maerdang  China Yellow 2,200 2016 34°40′21″N 100°41′32″E / 34.67250°N 100.69222°E / 34.67250; 100.69222 (Maerdang Dam)
Rogun  Tajikistan Vakhsh 3,600 2015 38°41′03″N 69°46′25.8″E / 38.68417°N 69.773833°E / 38.68417; 69.773833 (Rogun Dam)
Santo Antonio  Brazil Madeira 3,580[35] 2015 8°48′6″S 63°57′3″W / 8.80167°S 63.95083°W / -8.80167; -63.95083 (Santo Antonio Dam)
Shuangjiangkou  China Dadu 2,000 2018 31°47′29″N 101°56′03″E / 31.79139°N 101.93417°E / 31.79139; 101.93417 (Shuangjiangkou Dam)
Subansiri  India Subansiri 2,000 2016 27°33′13″N 94°15′31″E / 27.55361°N 94.25861°E / 27.55361; 94.25861 (Subansiri Lower Dam)
TaSang  Myanmar Salween 7,110 2022 20°27′23″N 98°39′0″E / 20.45639°N 98.65000°E / 20.45639; 98.65000
Tocoma  Venezuela Caroní 2,160 2014 27°33′13″N 94°15′31″E / 27.55361°N 94.25861°E / 27.55361; 94.25861 (Tocoma Dam)
Wudongde  China Jinsha 8,700 2018 26°20′02″N 102°37′48″E / 26.33389°N 102.63000°E / 26.33389; 102.63000 (Wudongde Dam)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Itaipu Binacional: Energy
  2. ^ a b "2012年三峡工程建设与运行管理成效十分显著". 
  3. ^ Development of the Grand Inga, retrieved 2010-03-21 
  4. ^ "Africa plans biggest dam project, the Grand Inga", BBC News, 2008-04-21, retrieved 2010-03-21 
  5. ^ Generating capacity is not the only factor determining the amount of electricity generated, as this also depends on consistent utilization of the plant's capacity. Factors enhancing this are the free capacity of the reservoir and the consistency of water supply during and across years.
  6. ^ first 6 units installed in 2003, last 3 in 2012
  7. ^ first unit installed in 1984, 18th in 1991; in 2003 2 additional units were installed
  8. ^ 13,860 MW already installed http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2014-07/02/c_133453148.htm
  9. ^ http://energy.people.com.cn/n/2014/0702/c71661-25228009.html
  10. ^ "Generation Records Fall at Grand Coulee Dam". U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  11. ^ first unit installed in 1942, 21st in 1991; 6 units in third powerplant were installed between 1975 and 1980, 3 units of pumped-storage plant were installed in 1973, 3 more units in 1983 and 1984
  12. ^ http://www.ce.cn/xwzx/gnsz/gdxw/201406/28/t20140628_3058868.shtml
  13. ^ http://energy.people.com.cn/GB/7650064.html
  14. ^ http://yn.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2014-06/27/c_133441204.htm
  15. ^ power plat is being reconstructed after catastrophic failure in 2009 and may reach original 6,400 MW capacity in 2014
  16. ^ 10 units were installed between 1985 and 1989, after 2009 failure new units are being installed since 2010
  17. ^ Combined with adjacent La Grande-2-A the LG-2 complex has 7,722 MW of installed capacity
  18. ^ a b c d Hydro-Québec (April 2009). Powering Our Future : Annual Report 2008 (pdf). Montreal. p. 125. ISBN 978-2-550-55046-4. 
  19. ^ http://www.nalcorenergy.com/churchill-falls.asp
  20. ^ 3,600 MW already installed
  21. ^ http://www.sasac.gov.cn/n1180/n1226/n2410/n314274/7508740.html
  22. ^ http://www.yn.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2010-08/25/content_20718495.htm
  23. ^ 3,000 MW already installed
  24. ^ ELETROBRAS 2011 Form 20-F
  25. ^ http://www.hydropower.org.cn/info/shownews.asp?newsid=2122
  26. ^ Hydro-Québec (2010), Hydroelectric Generating Stations, Montreal: Hydro-Québec, retrieved 2010-08-16 
  27. ^ a b c http://www.rushydro.ru/activity/marketing/production/generation/2011
  28. ^ Combined US-CA capacity >= 1.6 MW greater than this so would be about 10th place.
  29. ^ Combined with adjacent Paulo Afonso IV, Paulo Afonso I, II, III and Apollonius Sales the Paulo Afonso Hydroelectric Complex has 4,279 MW of installed capacity
  30. ^ http://www.hydropower.org.cn/showNewsDetail.asp?nsId=13203
  31. ^ Combined with Robert-Bourassa, it would place LG-2 complex in 5th place
  32. ^ http://yn.yunnan.cn/html/2014-06/08/content_3240292.htm
  33. ^ 1,998 MW already installed
  34. ^ 525 MW already installed
  35. ^ 2,286 MW already installed