Climate change in China
The position of the Chinese government on climate change is contentious. China has ratified the Kyoto Protocol, but as a non-Annex I country which is not required to limit greenhouse gas emissions under terms of the agreement.
A June 2012 study suggests that China's carbon emissions could be nearly 20% higher than thought. The national statistics show a 7.5% annual growth in emissions between 1997 and 2010. 7.69 billion tonnes of CO2 were emitted in 2010. Aggregated emissions of Chinese provinces increased 8.5% annually to 9.08 billion tonnes in 2010. By comparison, US emissions were 6.87 billion tonnes in 2010 (Environmental Protection Agency).
In 2007, on the basis of an analysis of fossil fuel consumption (including especially the coal power plants) and cement production data, that China surpassed the United States as the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide, putting out 6,200 million tonnes, in comparison with America's 5,800 million.
According to data from the US Energy Information Administration China was the top emitter by fossil fuels CO2 in 2009 China: 7,710 million tonnes (mt) (25.4%) ahead of US: 5,420 mt (17.8%), India: 5.3%, Russia: 5.2% and Japan: 3.6%.
China was also the top emitter of all greenhouse gas emissions including building and deforestation in 2005: China: 7,220 mt (16.4%), US: 6,930 mt (15.7%), 3. Brazil 6.5%, 4. Indonesia: 4.6%, 5. Russia 4.6%, 6. India 4.2%, 7. Japan 3.1%, 8. Germany 2.3%, 9. Canada 1.8%, and 10. Mexico 1.6%.
In the cumulative emissions between 1850 and 2007 the top emitters were: 1. US 28.8% 2. China: 9.0%, 3. Russia 8.0%, 4. Germany 6.9%, 5. UK 5.8%, 6. Japan 3.9%, 7. France 2.8%, 8. India 2.4%, 9. Canada 2.2% and 10. Ukraine 2.2%.
According to the Dutch environmental research organization PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), cement production is a large source of carbon dioxide emissions in China. In 2008, China produced 51% of the world’s cement which made it the biggest emitter of CO2 in 2008.
China is the largest consumer of coal in the world: in 2009 18,449 TWh of the world total 39,340 TWh.
It has been argued that the release of sulfur dioxide from burning coal has slowed global warming. China is now adding sulfur dioxide reducing technology to its power plants in order to decrease problems such as acid rains.
Effects of climate change 
The implications of climate change, indubitably, impose serious setbacks on global health and will hinder the economic development of various regions worldwide impacting countries on more than just the basic environmental scale. As in the case of China, we will see the effects on a social and economic level.
China’s first National Assessment of Global Climate Change, released recently by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), states that China already suffers from the environmental impacts of climate change: increase of surface and ocean temperature, rise of sea level. Rising sea level is an alarming trend because China has a very long and densely populated coastline, with some of the most economically developed cities such as Shanghai, Tianjin, and Guangzhou situated there. Chinese research has estimated that a one-meter rise in sea level would inundate 92,000 square kilometres of China’s coast, thereby displacing 67 million.
There has also been an increased occurrence of climate-related disasters such as drought and flood and the amplitude is growing. They have grave consequences for productivity when they occur, and also create serious repercussions for natural environment and infrastructure. This threatens the lives of billions and aggravates poverty.
Furthermore, climate change will worsen the uneven distribution of water resources in China. Outstanding rises in temperature would exacerbate evapo-transpiration intensifying the risk of water shortage for agricultural production in the North. While because of the southern region’s over abundance in rainfall, most of its water is lost due to flooding. As the Chinese government faces challenges managing its expanding population, an increased demand for water to support the nation’s economic activity and people will burden the government. In essence, a water shortage is indeed a large concern for the country.
Lastly, climate change could endanger human health by increasing outbreaks of disease and their transmission. After floods, for example, infectious diseases such as diarrhea, cholera are all far more prevalent. These effects would exacerbate the degradation of the ecologically fragile areas in which poor communities are concentrated pushing thousands back into poverty.
1°C of regional mean warming is estimated to reduce wheat yield 3 to 10 percent in China. Grain crops mature earlier at higher temperatures, reducing the critical growth period and leading to lower yields (You et al. 2009).
Some areas in China will be exposed to a 50 percent higher malaria transmission probability rate (Béguin et al., 2011).
According to IPCC (2007) from 1900 to 2005 precipitation has declined in parts of southern Asia. By the 2050s freshwater availability including large river basins is projected to decrease in Asian regions. Coastal areas, specially the delta areas in Asia are projected to have increased flooding risk. Floods and droughts are expected to increase health concerns: diseases and mortality.
Debate over China's economic responsibilities for climate change mitigation 
Climate change mitigation measures 
The People's Republic of China is an active participant in the climate change talks and other multilateral environmental negotiations, and claims to take environmental challenges seriously but is pushing for the developed world to help developing countries to a greater extent. It is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, although China is not required to reduce its carbon emissions under the terms of the present agreement.
The Chinese national carbon trading scheme was announced in November 2008 by the national government to enforce a compulsory carbon emission trading scheme across the country's provinces as part of its strategy to create a "low carbon civilisation". The scheme would allow provinces to earn money by investing in carbon capture systems in those regions that fail to invest in the technology.
In 2010, Premier Wen Jiabao promised to use an “iron hand” to make China more energy efficient. China has surpassed the rest of the world as the biggest investor in wind turbines and other renewable energy technology. And it has dictated tough new energy standards for lighting and gas kilometrage for cars. With $34.6 billion invested in clean technology in 2009, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy technologies. China produces more wind turbines and solar panels each year than any other country.
China should push electric cars to curb its dependence on imported petroleum (oil) and foreign automobile technology, although they offer smaller cuts in carbon emissions than alternatives like hybrid electric vehicles, consulting firm McKinsey & Co says.
A 2011 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report predicted that Chinese CO2 emissions will peak around 2030. This because in many areas such as infrastructure, housing, commercial building, appliances per household, fertilizers, and cement production a maximum intensity will be reached and replacement will take the place of new demand. Carbon emission intensity may decrease as policies become strengthened and more effectively implemented, including by more effective financial incentives, and as less carbon intensive energy supplies are deployed. In a "baseline" computer model CO2 emissions were predicted to peak in 2033; in an "Accelerated Improvement Scenario" they were predicted to peak in 2027.
See also 
- Chinese national carbon trading scheme
- China Carbon Forum
- China Beijing Environmental Exchange
- Coal power in China
- Environment of China
- Politics of global warming
- Renewable energy in China
- Renewable energy commercialization
- Solar power in China
- Scientific Development Concept
- Tianjin Climate Exchange
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- LexisNexis® Publisher
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- China Climate Change Information Network
- Greenpeace China's China climate change resources
- China-US Energy Efficiency Alliance: China Climate Change News & Resources