Trans-Mongolian Railway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Trans-Mongolian Railway
The Trans-Mongolian Railway in the Gobi Desert
The Trans-Mongolian Railway in the Gobi Desert
Line length: 2,215 km (1,376 mi)
Track gauge: 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Russian gauge
km Station
5650 Trans-Siberian at Ulan-Ude
Zaudinskiy
Sayantun
Selenga River
Ganzurino
Ubukun
Sulfat
5769 Zagustay
Gusinoye Ozero
Selenduma
5852 Dzhida
Khuzhir
5895 Naushki
Russia - Mongolia border
5925 Sükhbaatar
6023 Darkhan
Züünkharaa
6304 Ulaanbaatar
Manit
Choir
Khar Airag
6778 Sainshand
7013 Zamyn-Üüd
Mongolia - China border
7023 Erenhot
Sonid Youqi
Qahar Youyi Houqi
7356 Chinese Railway system at Jining

The Trans-Mongolian Railway connects Ulan-Ude, on the Trans-Baikal (Trans-Siberian) railway in Russia, with the Chinese city of Jining, by way of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.

Other important stops are Sükhbaatar, Darkhan, Choir, and Zamyn-Üüd/Erenhot (border crossing and gauge-changing station). The line was built between 1949 and 1961. In most of Mongolia, it is single track, and in China double track. The gauge is 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) in Russia and Mongolia and 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) in China. There are important branches leading to Erdenet and Baganuur.

History[edit]

Information board of the Beijing-Ulaanbaatar-Moscow train.

Railway development came late to Mongolia. Construction of the Trans-Mongolian line began in 1947, reaching Ulan Bator from the north in 1950 and the Chinese border in 1955. Before that the only railways in Mongolia had been a 43 km (27 mi) line (opened in 1938) connecting the coal mines at Nalaikh to the capital and a Soviet-built 236 km (147 mi) freight-only branch (completed in 1939) from Borzya on the Trans-Siberian Railway to Bayantümen, Dornod near Choibalsan in north-eastern Mongolia.[1]

Russian Irkutsk State University of Railway Engineering opened its Ulaanbaatar branch in June 2009.[2]

Operation[edit]

The Mongolian Railway company Mongolyn Tömör Zam carries 80% of all freight and 30% of all passenger transport within Mongolia. In the aftermath of the 1990 Democratic revolution freight traffic was reduced by about half, but by 2005 had almost returned to previous levels. Passenger numbers had already reached the old levels again by 2001, with 4.1 million passengers. Most trains are headed by at least two locomotives.

While Mongolian trains run on 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) (Russian gauge), China uses 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (standard gauge). For this reason through carriages between the two countries must have their bogies changed at the border. Each carriage has to be lifted in turn to have its bogies changed and the whole operation, combined with passport and customs control, can take several hours. Freight wagons likewise have their bogies exchanged at this break-of-gauge.

Ownership[edit]

While state owned, there are plans to sell 51% of the shares to investors to finance the enlarged network.

New lines[edit]

Mongolian Railway State Owned Share Holding Company has received a license to build a new railway network to allow for exports of the mining sector in 2011. First phase of the construction will be a Dalanzadgad-Tavantolgoi-Tsagaansuvarga-Zuunbayan-Sainshand-Baruun Urt-Khoot-Choibalsan alignment about 1100 km long in Russian gauge.

As of this spring 2012, MTZ SOSC will begin the construction work.

One smaller line already attaches to the Chinese network in western Mongolia from Nariin Sukhait (coal mine) to Shiveekhüren (Chinese border) for 45 km

Further lines planned are Ukhaa Khudag (part of the Tavan Tolgoi coal field) - Oyu Tolgoi (copper/gold mine) - Gashuun Sukhait (Chinese border) of ca. 260 km in Chinese gauge.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mongolia - Tourism
  2. ^ Planned students number is 50, and in main University of Railway Engineering in Irkutsk are about 100 Mongolian students [1]

External links[edit]