United States Ambassador to the Holy See
|Ambassador of the United States to the Holy See|
Seal of the United States Department of State
|Inaugural holder||William A. Wilson
|Website||U.S. Embassy - Vatican City|
The Ambassador of the United States to the Holy See is the official representative of the United States of America to the Holy See, the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church. The official representation began with the formal opening of diplomatic relations with the Holy See by President Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II in 1984.
Before the establishment of formal diplomatic relations, President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Postmaster General James Farley was the first high ranking government official to normalize relations with the Holy See in 1933. In addition, Myron Taylor would serve during World War II as an emissary for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1951, President Harry S. Truman's pick of World War II hero Mark W. Clark was defeated.
Between 1951 and 1968, the United States had no official representative accredited to the Holy See. President Richard Nixon changed this when he appointed Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as his personal representative. President Jimmy Carter followed with the appointment of former New York City mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. Every ambassador to date has been a Roman Catholic. The post is currently held by Ambassador Ken Hackett.
List of the ambassadors
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors to the Holy See, past and present:
|Name||Years served||Pope||U.S. President|
|William Wilson||1984–1986||John Paul II||Ronald Reagan|
|Thomas Patrick Melady||1989–1993||George H. W. Bush|
|Raymond Flynn||1993–1997||Bill Clinton|
|James Nicholson||2001–2005||George W. Bush|
|Francis Rooney||2005–2008||Benedict XVI|
|Mary Ann Glendon||2008–2009|
|Miguel H. Díaz||2009-2012||Barack Obama|
History before formal diplomatic relations established
The United States had diplomatic relations with the Papal States from 1797 to 1867. The Papal States ceased to exist in 1870, when its last territory (the city of Rome) was lost to the Kingdom of Italy. After that, the international status of the Papacy was controversial until 1929, when the Italian government agreed to the establishment of Vatican City as a sovereign city-state.
The United States was slow to establish full diplomatic relations with the re-established Holy See, partly due to the prevalence of anti-Catholicism in the United States. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Postmaster General James Farley was the first high ranking government official to normalize relations with the Holy See in 1933 when the Postmaster General set sail for Europe, along with Soviet Commissar of Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinoff on the Italian Liner SS Conte Di Savoia "Count of Savoy". In Italy Farley had an audience with Pope Pius XI, and dinner with Cardinal Pacelli, who was to succeed to the papacy in 1939. Myron Charles Taylor, an industrialist, philanthropist and diplomat (starting with World War II), served from December 1939 until 1950 as an emissary[clarification needed] to Pope Pius XII for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman.
On October 20, 1951, Truman nominated Mark W. Clark, a U.S. Army general and World War II hero, to be emissary to the Holy See. Clark later withdrew his nomination on January 13, 1952, following protests from U.S. Senator Tom Connally from Texas and Protestant groups.
Between 1951 and 1968, the U.S. had no official representative accredited to the Holy See.
In 1969, President Richard Nixon changed this when he appointed — as his personal representative[clarification needed] — Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., a former U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, Nixon's 1960 Republican Vice Presidential running mate and a former U.S. Ambassador (to the United Nations, South Vietnam and West Germany).
In 2009, the seat of ambassador had remained vacant for several months because of tensions between the Vatican and the Obama administration over the issues of abortion and marriage. Three candidates were mentioned, including Caroline Kennedy and Douglas Kmiec, but they were ultimately not selected because of disagreement on these matters.
From November 2012 through mid-2013, the seat was also vacant, after Miguel Diaz left the office to teach at the University of Dayton. President Barack Obama nominated Ken Hackett, a long-time president of Catholic Relief Services, for the seat in June 2013. Ken Hackett has confirmed his position as US Ambassador to the Holy See on August 1, 2013. 
- Embassy of the United States to the Holy See
- Holy See – United States relations
- Foreign relations of the Holy See
- Ambassadors of the United States
- Mission Statement from the website of the U.S. Embassy to the Holy See
- From 1981 to 1984, Wilson was Reagan's personal representative to the Holy See.
- "Obama's candidates for Vatican ambassador failing 'simple standard'". Catholic News Agency. 2009-04-09. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- The Vatican versus the White House Irish Independent (online), April 18, 2009, Section: World News
- "Pope 'rejects Kennedy for being too liberal'" The Times (UK) April 15, 2009
- Jaweed, Kaleem. "Ken Hackett To Be Nominated As Ambassador To Vatican". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Rivera. "CRS Congratulates Ken Hackett on his Confirmation as US Ambassador to the Holy See". Catholic Relief Services. Retrieved August 2,2013.
- Gibson. "Former charity head confirmed as US ambassador to Vatican". Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2013.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).
- United States Department of State: Chiefs of Mission for the Holy See
- United States Department of State: Holy See
- United States Embassy in Vatican City
- United States Department of State: Background notes on the Holy See