United States House of Representatives elections, 1858

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1858
United States
1856 ←
August 2, 1858 - November 8, 1859[1]
→ 1860

All 238[2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
120 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  WmPennington.jpg ThomasSBocock.png
Leader William Pennington Thomas Bocock
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat New Jersey-5th Virginia-5th
Last election 92 seats 131 seats
Seats won 114[2] 101[3]
Seat change Increase 22 Decrease 30

  Third party Fourth party
  John Adams Gilmer - Brady-Handy.jpg Henry Winter Davis.jpg
Leader John Adams Gilmer Henry Winter Davis
Party Opposition American
Leader's seat North Carolina-5th Maryland-4th
Last election 0 seats 14 seats
Seats won 17 6
Seat change Increase 17 Decrease 8

Speaker before election

James Orr
Democratic

Elected Speaker

William Pennington
Republican

Elections to the House of Representatives for the 36th Congress were held in 1858-1859. Following these elections, the Republicans gained control of the House for the first time, benefiting from the continued breakdown in the anti-immigration and anti-Catholic American Party of the Know Nothing Movement, and from strife within the Democratic Party.

The Republicans were actually several seats short of a numerical majority and were forced to form a minority government, but were able to exercise authority by mustering support from members of smaller parties. The deeply divided Democrats continued to fall apart due to the slavery issue, losing a number of seats, and the American Party all but collapsed. A number of former Whigs who were dissatisfied with their short membership in the Republican Party, as well as some former Know Nothings, formed the Opposition Party, which generally allied more with the Republicans than Democrats.

For several states, this was the last Congressional election until the Reconstruction Era, and 29 of the Representatives elected in this election resigned near the end of the Congress following their states' secession from the Union.

Election summaries[edit]

One seat was added for the new State of Kansas,[4] which was unrepresented for most of the 36th Congress. For several Southern states, these were the last congressional elections they took part in until Reconstruction.

114 17 6 101
Republican Opp. AKN Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Republican Democratic Opposition Know-Nothing
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 2, 1858
(Election Day)[5]
1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 9 4 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 4 3 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 3 Increase1 2[6] Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 33 26 Increase5 7[7] Decrease5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 3 2 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District August 2, 1858 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 4, 1858 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District October 12, 1858 11 7 Increase2 4[8] Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District October 12, 1858 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 13, 1858 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District August 2, 1858 7 0 Decrease1 6[9] Increase2 0 Steady 1 Decrease1
Ohio District October 12, 1858 21 15 Increase2 6 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 12, 1858 25 20 Increase10 5[10] Decrease10 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District October 10–11, 1858 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 7, 1858 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
1859 elections
Alabama[11] District August 1, 1859 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large September 7, 1859 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District April 4, 1859 4 4 Increase2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia[11] District October 3, 1859 8 0 Steady 6 Steady 1 Increase1 1 Decrease1
Kansas[12] At-large December 1, 1859 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 1, 1859 10 0 Steady 5 Decrease3 5 Increase5 0 Decrease2
Louisiana[11] District November 7, 1859 4 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Maryland District November 8, 1859 6 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Minnesota At-large October 4, 1859 2 2 Increase2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi[11] District October 3, 1859 5 0 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District March 8, 1859 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina[11] District August 4, 1859 8 0 Steady 5 Decrease2 3 Increase3 0 Decrease1
Oregon At-large June 27, 1859 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 7, 1859 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 4, 1859 10 0 Steady 3 Decrease4 7 Increase7 0 Decrease3
Texas[11] District August 1, 1859 2 0 Steady 2[9] Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District May 26, 1859 13 0 Steady 12[13] Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Total[2] 238 114
47.9%
Increase22 101[3]
42.4%
Decrease30 17
7.1%
Increase17 6
2.5%
Decrease8
House seats
Republican
  
47.90%
Democratic
  
42.44%
Opposition
  
7.14%
Know-Nothing
  
2.52%

Complete returns[edit]

California[edit]

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858; in 1860 when California gained a seat in the House the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Status Candidates
California's 2 at-large seats Charles L. Scott Democratic 1856 Re-elected John C. Burch (Democratic) 28.4%
Charles L. Scott (Democratic) 28.1%

Joseph C. McKibbin (Anti-Lecompton Democratic) 21.4%
Edward D. Baker (Republican) 20.4%
S. A. Booker (Anti-Lecompton Democratic) 1.5%
P. H. Sibley (Republican) 0.1%
Joseph C. McKibbin Anti-Lecompton Democratic 1856 Lost re-election
Democratic hold

Ohio[edit]

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[14]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 2 William S. Groesbeck Democratic 1856 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 3 Clement L. Vallandigham Democratic 1856[15] Re-elected
Ohio 4 Matthias H. Nichols Republican 1852 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 5 Richard Mott Republican 1854 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 6 Joseph R. Cockerill Democratic 1856 Retired
Democratic hold
Ohio 7 Aaron Harlan Republican 1852 Lost renomination
Republican hold
Ohio 8 Benjamin Stanton Republican 1854 Re-elected
Ohio 9 Lawrence W. Hall Democratic 1856 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 10 Joseph Miller Democratic 1856 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 11 Albert C. Thompson Republican 1854 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 12 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 13 John Sherman Republican 1854 Re-elected
Ohio 14 Philemon Bliss Republican 1854 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 15 Joseph Burns Democratic 1856 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ohio 16 Cydnor B. Tompkins Republican 1856 Re-elected
Ohio 17 William Lawrence Democratic 1856 Retired
Republican gain
Ohio 18 Benjamin F. Leiter Republican 1854 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 19 Edward Wade Republican 1852 Re-elected
Ohio 20 Joshua Reed Giddings Republican 1842 Lost renomination
Republican Hold
Ohio 21 John Bingham Republican 1854 Re-elected

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during this Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ a b Includes 8 Anti-Lecompton Democrats and 7 Independent Democrats
  4. ^ 11 Stat. 269
  5. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing electors. Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections
  6. ^ Both Anti-Lecompton Democrats
  7. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat and 3 Anti-Lecompton Democrats
  8. ^ Includes 1 Anti-Lecompton Democrat
  9. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat
  10. ^ Includes 2 Anti-Lecompton Democrats
  11. ^ a b c d e f Last election before Reconstruction
  12. ^ New state, Representative seated January 29, 1861, and continued into the 37th Congress
  13. ^ Includes 4 Independent Democrats
  14. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 84, 85. 
  15. ^ (contested election)