Verona Porta Nuova railway station
|Verona Porta Nuova|
|The station and city bus stop.|
|Address||Piazzale 25 Aprile, 6
|Owner||Rete Ferroviaria Italiana|
|Urban / long distance / airport|
Verona Porta Nuova is the main railway station of the Italian city of Verona near the city centre in the square of Piazzale 25 Aprile. The station was first opened in 1852 and substantially rebuilt between 1910 and 1922. It was rebuilt again between 1946 and 1949 after being largely destroyed by allied bombing during World War II. The station serves a number of lines connecting Verona with Milan, Venice, Bologna and the Brenner Pass. Verona Porta Nuova currently handles 25 million passengers annually. Work has recently begun in preparation for it being linked to the Milan–Verona high-speed railway (construction work has commenced as of 2014) and the Verona–Venice high-speed railway (currently under planning).
The first train arrived at Verona Porta Nuova station, in 1852, was driven by the locomotive "Verona" on the new line from Venice, which crossed the Adige river on a recently completed bridge. As early as in 1853, it was possible to go from this station to Mantua via a single-track line. In the same year, construction of the Brenner railway began. The first station was built as a temporary wooden structure in 1851, but it was replaced in 1852 by a small masonry building. This building had an odd shape, with part of its front further forward than the other part: unequal sides, one with eight arched openings, and the other with only three openings. At first Verona Porta Nuova was less important than the Porta Vescovo station, which was located near a major Austrian military camp. At the time Verona was one of the main military strongholds of Europe with a capacity of 120,000 troops. The Porta Nuova station was initially used only by the two of the three classes of passenger trains then in Italy: "omnibus" and "mixed" trains. It did not handle the fastest and most expensive "direct" trains or offer baggage services.
In 1853, the Verona-Modena service commenced operation up to Sant'Antonio Mantovano, north of the Mincio river near Mantua. The line became connected through to Modena in 1874, joining the railway line to Bologna.
In 1854, the railway line from Venice was extended to Brescia and Bergamo. The Brenner railway to Bolzano/Bozen, constructed in 1859, and was extended to Innsbruck in 1867. The construction of these railways gave further impetus to the expansion of the massive Austrian defences in Verona, until the transfer of Veneto to Italy as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. The railway line to Rovigo opened in 1877. A more direct line to Bologna, via Isola della Scala and Nogara, was opened in 1924.
With the absorption of Veneto into Italy in 1866, the Milan–Venice railway came under the management of the Upper Italian Railways. The early-19th-century station was no longer sufficient to handle rail traffic. It was decided then to make Porta Nuova the main station of Verona. In 1900, it was temporarily enlarged with a central wooden building, while projects were being developing for the new station. Initially architects envisaged the station having six platforms, in addition to several other tracks for the storage of rolling stock and for freight train operations. On 31 December 1915. a contract was signed for the building of work at an estimated cost of 8 million lire, including a temporary building for passenger services.
Work on building the new station, designed by the architect Dini, began in 1910 and was almost complete in 1913, albeit in a preliminary form. The proposed building would be 114 metres long and 20 metres high, with a central dome and two smaller buildings on its side, with a canopy along its facade. The central section would have included the ticket office and luggage facility; there would have been a waiting room on the left was and a buffet the right. Offices would have occupied the second floor. However, the plans were not popular in Verona.
By early 1915, the new freight facilities were already in operation, including the commissioning of a large goods yard and locomotive depot. The outbreak of World War I halted reconstruction work of the station and its formal opening was delayed until 22 March 1922. The station's interior was decorated with mosaics by the master mosaic artist Amedeo Mantellato of Venice. In 1920s a track connection was built between the Brenner line and the goods yard, while in 1930s a new depot for locomotives was built. Electrification of the lines was completed in 1941.
The station was partially destroyed by bombing during World War II. The first isolated bombing raid of the station was carried out by a formation of four aircraft on 21 October 1940; the raid made use of cluster bombs and incendiaries. In total, the city has suffered twenty bombing raids. Two of the hardest attacks on the railway station and the city took place on 4 and 28 January 1945. Eventually the station was rendered unusable.
The station was then rebuilt on the same site to a design by the architect Roberto Narducci, with reconstruction beginning in September 1946. The new station, aesthetically very different from the original, though structurally similar, was completed in March 1949. In the building many types of marble from Verona were used, covering an area of 4,000 m²; the floors were laid out with mosaics composed of ceramic tiles and the furniture was installed that was designed to harmonise with the building.
The new station carried over from the previous station a gap between its elevated platforms and the level of the pedestrian areas outside the station. This peculiarity has forced services to be organised on two floors: on the ground floor there are services for business travellers and the public, while rail-related services are on the upper floor. The platforms have metal roofs in Art Nouveau style, even with those that survived from the previous station; whereas the roofs of the central and two lateral buildings are made of reinforced concrete. The current station does not include any elements of historical and architectural heritage.
Verona Porta Nuova is used by about 68 thousand passengers each day, for a total of 25 million users annually, and it is the ninth busiest train station in Italy. The station area is the centre of the transport network, incorporating urban and suburban public transport: the complex is located near the major bus terminal of the Verona public transport company (“Azienda Trasporti Verona”, ATV) which connects Verona with Verona-Villafranca Airport and with towns of Verona (province) and the Veneto region. In the future, there would be a direct connection to Verona's town centre by trolleybus.
The Verona Porta Nuova station is built on several levels:
- the basement is occupied by Ferrovie dello Stato offices;
- the ground floor is composed of several buildings, including passenger services. The side next to the square is occupied by commercial activities and passenger services, while there are technical rooms and offices in the other buildings on the west side;
- the platform level is used for passenger services;
- the first and second floor are occupied by offices.
The following services call at the station (incomplete):
- Night train (Thello): Paris - Dijon - Milan - Verona - Padua - Venice
|Preceding station||Trenitalia||Following station|
toward Paris-Gare de Lyon
- Night train (DB City Night Line): Munich - Kufstein - Jenbach - Innsbruck - Bolzano/Bozen - Trento/Trient - Verona - Milan or Venice
- Night train (ÖBB EuroNight): Milan - Brescia - Verona - Padua - Venice (Mestre) - Villach - Vienna (Meidling)
- Intercity train (ÖBB EuroCity): Munich - Kufstein - Jenbach - Innsbruck - Bolzano/Bozen - Trento/Trient - Rovereto/Rofreit - Verona - (Padua) - (Venice)
- Express train (Trenitalia Frecciabianca): Milan - Brescia - Verona - Vicenza - Padua - Venice
- Regional train (Trenitalia Regional Express or Regional): Brennero/Brenner - Fortezza/Franzensfeste - Bressanone/Brixen - Chuisa/Klausen - Bolzano/Bozen - Trento/Trient - Rovereto/Rofreit - Verona - Isola della Scala - Nogara - Bologna
- Regional train (Trenitalia Regional): Verona - Villafranca di Verona - Mantua - Suzzara - Modena
The station is included in the program of rehabilitation of the main Italian stations, carried out by Grandi Stazioni, a subsidiary of Italian State Railway. It would be renovated under the guidelines for the Milan–Verona high-speed railway (on which work is now beginning) and the Verona–Venice high-speed railway (on which planning is under way). The area, managed by Grandi Stazioni, extends over an area of 127,500 m² with buildings occupying 22,840 m². Among these, 2730 m² will be involved in the first phase of the renovation.
- History of rail transport in Italy
- List of railway stations in Veneto
- Rail transport in Italy
- Railway stations in Italy
- Facchinelli, L. (1995). La ferrovia Verona-Brennero. Storia della linea e delle stazioni nel territorio (The Verona–Bologna railway, history of the line and its stations) (in Italian). Bolzano: Athesia. pp. 86–88.
- "Chronological overview of the opening of railway lines from 1839 to 31 December 1926" (in Italian). Trenidicarta.it. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
- Facchinelli, L. (1995). La ferrovia Verona-Brennero. Storia della linea e delle stazioni nel territorio (The Verona–Bologna railway, history of the line and its stations) (in Italian). Bolzano: Athesia. pp. 89–96.
- Kalla-Bishop, P. M. (1971). Italian Railways. Newton Abbott, Devon, England: David & Charles. p. 113. ISBN 0-7153-5168-0.
- Facchinelli, L. (1995). La ferrovia Verona-Brennero. Storia della linea e delle stazioni nel territorio (The Verona–Bologna railway, history of the line and its stations) (in Italian). Bolzano: Athesia. pp. 97–98.
- Priante, G. (2006). L'Arena e Verona: 140 anni di storia (The Arena and Verona: 140 years of history) (in Italian). Verona: Athesis. p. 99.
- "Verona Porta Nuova". Italy’s major stations. Ferrovie dello Stato. Retrieved 22 January 2010.
Media related to Verona Porta Nuova railway station at Wikimedia Commons