Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
|Founded||21 April 1905|
|Products||Passenger and rail freight transport, rail infrastructure management, financial services|
|Revenue||€8 billion (2013)|
|€460 million (2013)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||Trenitalia, RFI, Italferr, Grandi Stazioni, Centostazioni|
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane S.p.A. (previously Ferrovie dello Stato, FS) is a government-owned holding company that manages infrastructure and services on the Italian rail network. One of the subsidiaries of the company, Trenitalia, is the main rail operator in Italy.
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane Spa owns: Trenitalia, Centostazioni, Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, Italferr, Ferservizi, FS Logistica, FS Sistemi Urbani, Busitalia Sita Nord, Fercredit, Grandi Stazioni, and Netinera.
Ferrovie dello Stato (State Railway) was instituted by an act on 22 April 1905, taking control over the majority of the national railways, which were private until then. The president was nominated by the government.
With the rise of fascism, a centralization policy was carried out. The board of directors and chief administrator office were abolished at the end of 1922. The institution was administered by a commissioner, appointed by the King until April 1924. Since then, Ferrovie dello Stato was managed by the newly born Ministry of Communications (including rail transport), under Costanzo Ciano.
At the end of 1944, the Ministry of Communications was split and the new Ministry of Transport was created, including the general management of Ferrovie dello Stato, and in 1945, the company was renamed Azienda Autonoma delle Ferrovie dello Stato.
From World War II to 1985
The period after World War II was particularly tough for Ferrovie dello Stato, since most of the Italian rail network was severely damaged and the rolling stock was obsolete. The network was rebuilt almost entirely by 1952. Since then, a period of renewal started. New trains were introduced, among them the ETR 300, and many sections of the national network were electrified and sometimes doubled.
In 1957, the new ALn 442/448 multiple unit was introduced, greatly reducing travel time on the Italian network. During these years, the rolling stock was generally renewed and expanded with the mass construction of electrical and diesel multiple units, like the Ale 883, ALe 840 and ALn 772.
However, the real revolution was the introduction in 1956 of the new FS ALn 668 diesel multiple unit. In the following years, 3 MU out of 4 were 668, which replaced many older units. Many electrical multiple units were also introduced during this period, like the ALe 601, progenitor of the Ale 801/940 and ALe 803 EMU, still in use today on regional service.
During the 1970s, electronic cars were first introduced on the Italian network, starting with the G.A.I. trains for regional and metropolitan service.
The new E.444 was the first attempt on high-speed rail, with a top speed of 200 km/h (120 mph). The ETR 401 (1976) was the first prototype of the new Pendolino class. Following other network improvements, works for the first Italian high-speed rail line started in these years. The Direttissima line from Florence to Rome was partially opened in 1986 and concluded in 1992. In 1986, trains were travelling the line at 200 km/h (120 mph), surpassing for the first time the previous maximum limit of 180 km/h on the Italian network. In 1988, the ETR 450 Pendolino was travelling regularly at 250 km/h (160 mph), today's top speed on the line. The line was the fastest in Europe after the French TGV lines.
The FS was left unchanged in its administrative structure until the end of 1985. From the following year, after 80 years, the Azienda Autonoma delle Ferrovie dello Stato was replaced by a new company, Ferrovie dello Stato.
The newly born Ferrovie dello Stato underwent major structural transformations between 1986 and 1992. The workforce was reduced to half: from 216,310 employees in 1988 to 112,018 in 1999. Divisions were created to rationalize the management.
The company was privatized in 1992 with the creation of the new Ferrovie dello Stato SpA, a joint-stock company, following a European guideline. However, the privatization was only formal, since shares were still owned by the Italian Government.
Only on 1 June 2000, the two main divisions, service and infrastructure, were separated and two different independent companies were created: Trenitalia, responsible for transport service, and Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, responsible for the management of the rail infrastructure. Both companies were still subsidiaries of Ferrovie dello Stato Holding SpA.
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane Spa has a debt of 4 billion €, and the company is 100% owned by the Italian Governament, so Italian people have to pay taxes to grant the existence of private state owned companies as Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane Spa.
- Lorenzo Necci (1989–1996)
- Giancarlo Cimoli (C1996–2004)
- Elio Catania (2004–2006)
- Mauro Moretti (2006-2014)
Trenitalia is the most important subsidiary company of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane because it manages all the trains of the company group.
- "Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane". fsitaliane.it. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- Livrea XMPR in Italian Wikipedia
- "LEGGE 17 maggio 1985, n. 210, Istituzione dell'ente "Ferrovie dello Stato"". Italian Government. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
- "Le Ferrovie dello Stato SpA. Anni '90: l'inizio di una nuova ristrutturazione". Il lungo treno della privatizzazione: da Ferrovie di Stato a ferrovie di libero mercato. Trent'anni di trasformazioni raccontate dai ferrovieri. Storia e Futuro. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- "Le Ferrovie dello Stato. Società di trasporti e servizi per azioni". Il lungo treno della privatizzazione: da Ferrovie di Stato a ferrovie di libero mercato. Trent'anni di trasformazioni raccontate dai ferrovieri. Storia e Futuro. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- "Le ferrovie di mercato". Il lungo treno della privatizzazione: da Ferrovie di Stato a ferrovie di libero mercato. Trent'anni di trasformazioni raccontate dai ferrovieri. Storia e Futuro. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
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