Wardenclyffe Tower (1901–1917), also known as the Tesla Tower, was an early wireless transmission tower designed by Nikola Tesla in Shoreham, New York and intended for commercial trans-Atlantic wireless telephony, broadcasting, and proof-of-concept demonstrations of wireless power transmission. It never operated, and the tower was demolished in 1917.
The tower was named after James S. Warden, a western lawyer and banker who had purchased land for the endeavor in Shoreham, Long Island, about sixty miles from Manhattan. Here he built a resort community known as Wardenclyffe-On-Sound. He offered Tesla 200 acres (81 ha) of land close to a railway line on which to build his wireless telecommunications tower and laboratory facility. Warden planned to eventually build housing for 2000-2500 people who would work in a factory producing Tesla's patented devices.
- 1 History
- 2 Facility grounds
- 3 Tesla quotations
- 4 World Wireless System
- 5 Related patents
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Tesla began planning the Wardenclyffe Tower facility ca. 1898 and in 1901 construction began on the land near Long Island Sound. Architect Stanford White designed the Wardenclyffe facility main building. The tower was designed by W.D. Crow, an associate of White. Funding for Tesla's project was provided by influential industrialists and other venture capitalists. The project was initially backed by the wealthy J. P. Morgan who had invested $150,000 in the facility (more than $3 million in 2009 dollars). In June 1902, Tesla moved his laboratory operations from his West Houston Street laboratory to Wardenclyffe.
The project ran into many problems. Financiers began investing in Guglielmo Marconi's system which started regular transatlantic transmission in 1903 and seemed to be doing it with far less expensive equipment. By 1903 Tesla's project, still under construction due to numerous design changes, ran out of money and Morgan declined to fund it any further. Some in the press began turning against the project claiming it was a hoax. Tesla tried to generate more interest in Wardenclyffe by revealing its ability to transmit wireless electricity, but Morgan was not interested, and the 1903 "rich man's panic" on Wall Street dried up any further investment. By July 1904, Morgan (and the other investors) finally decided they would not provide any additional financing. In May 1905, Tesla's patents on alternating current motors and other methods of power transmission expired, halting royalty payments and causing a severe reduction of funding to the Wardenclyffe Tower. In an attempt to find alternative funding Tesla advertised the services of the Wardenclyffe facility but he was met with little success. By this time Tesla had also designed the Tesla turbine at Wardenclyffe and produced Tesla coils for sale to various businesses.
By 1905, since Tesla could not find any more backers, most of the site's activity had to be shut down. Employees were laid off in 1906, but parts of the building remained in use until 1907. In 1904 Tesla took out a mortgage on the Wardenclyffe property with George C. Boldt, proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel to cover Tesla's living expenses at the hotel. In 1908 Tesla procured a second mortgage from Boldt to further cover expenses. The facility was partially abandoned around 1911, and the tower structure deteriorated. Between 1912 and 1915, Tesla's finances unraveled, and when the funders wanted to know how they were going to recapture their investments, Tesla was unable to give satisfactory answers. The March 1, 1916 edition of the publication Export American Industries ran a story titled "Tesla's Million Dollar Folly" describing the abandoned Wardenclyffe site:
- "There everything seemed left as for a day — chairs, desks, and papers in businesslike array. The great wheels seemed only awaiting Monday life. But the magic word has not been spoken, and the spell still rests on the great plant.".
The facility's main building was breached and vandalized around this time. Collapse of the Wardenclyffe project may have contributed to the mental breakdown Tesla experienced during this period.
By 1915, with Tesla's debt at the Waldorf-Astoria being around $20,000 (about $400,000 in 2009 dollars) and unable to make any further payments on the mortgages, Boldt foreclosed on the Wardenclyffe property. Boldt failed to find any use for the property and finally decided to demolish the tower for scrap. On July 4, 1917 the Smiley Steel Company of New York began demolition of the tower by dynamiting it. The tower was knocked on a tilt by the initial explosion but it took till September to totally demolish it. The scrap value realized was $1750. Since this was during World War I a rumor spread, picked up by newspapers and other publications, that the tower was demolished on orders of the United States Government with claims German spies were using it as a radio transmitter or observation post, or that it was being used as a landmark for German submarines. Tesla was not pleased with what he saw as attacks on his patriotism via the rumors about Wardenclyffe, but since the original mortgages with Boldt as well as the foreclosure had been kept off the public record in order to hide his financial difficulties, Tesla was not able to reveal the real reason for the demolition.
George Boldt decided to make the property available for sale. On April 20, 1922, Tesla lost an appeal of judgment on Boldt's foreclosure. This effectively locked Tesla out of any future development of the facility.
In 1925, the property ownership was transferred to Walter L. Johnson of Brooklyn. On March 6, 1939, Plantacres, Inc. purchased the facility's land and subsequently leased it to Peerless Photo Products, Inc. AGFA Corporation bought the property from Peerless and used the site from 1969 to 1992 before closing the facility. The site has undergone a final cleanup of waste produced during its Photo Products era. The clean up was conducted under the scrutiny of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and paid for by AGFA. In 2009, they put the property up for sale for $1,650,000. The main building remains standing to this day; Agfa advertised that the land can “be delivered fully cleared and level.” It says it spent $5 million through September 2008 cleaning up silver and cadmium. A non-profit preservation organization supported by The Oatmeal purchased the land in 2013 with hopes to create a Tesla museum there.
On February 14, 1967, the nonprofit public benefit corporation Brookhaven Town Historical Trust was established. It selected the Wardenclyffe facility to be designated as a historic site and as the first site to be preserved by the Trust on March 3, 1967. The Brookhaven Town Historic Trust was rescinded by resolution on February 1, 1972. There were never any appointments made after a legal opinion was received; it was never set up properly. On July 7, 1976, a plaque from Yugoslavia was installed by representatives from Brookhaven National Laboratory near the entrance of the building. It reads:
IN THIS BUILDINGJuly 10, 1976
DESIGNED BY STANFORD WHITE, ARCHITECT
BORN SMILJAN, YUGOSLAVIA 1856—DIED NEW YORK, U.S.A. 1943
CONSTRUCTED IN 1901–1905 WARDENCLYFFE
HUGE RADIO STATION WITH ANTENNA TOWER
187 FEET HIGH /DESTROYED 1917/, WHICH
WAS TO HAVE SERVED AS HIS FIRST WORLD
IN MEMORY OF 120TH ANNIVERSARY OF TESLA'S BIRTH
AND 200TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE U.S.A INDEPENDENCE
The sign was stolen from the property in November 2009. An anonymous benefactor is offering a $2000 reward if it is returned to the property.
Designation of the structure as a National Landmark is awaiting completion of plant decommissioning activities by its present owner.
In 1976, an application was filed to nominate the main building for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). It failed to get approval. The Tesla Wardenclyffe Project, Inc. was established in 1994 for the purpose of seeking placement of the Wardenclyffe laboratory-office building and the Tesla tower foundation on both the New York State and NRHP. Its mission is the preservation and adaptive reuse of Wardenclyffe, the century-old laboratory of electrical pioneer Nikola Tesla located in Shoreham, Long Island, New York. In October 1994, a second application for formal nomination was filed. The New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation conducted inspections and determined the facility meets New York State criteria for historic designation. A second visit was made on February 25, 2009. The site cannot be registered until it is nominated by a willing owner.
Tesla Science Center at Wardenclyffe
In August 2012, concerned about an apparent offer to purchase the site and develop it for commercial use, The Oatmeal launched a fundraiser for the Tesla Science Center to raise $1.7 million in order to purchase the property, with the hope of eventually building a museum on the grounds. The state of New York agreed to match donations up to half that amount. As of October 3, 2012, the goal of $850,000 had been reached in just over six days after a $33,333 donation from the producers of the Tesla film Fragments From Olympus - The Vision of Nikola Tesla put them over the top. A total of $1.37 million was donated, the matching grant from the State of New York brings the total collected to over $2.2 million. The surplus will be used to fund the cleaning and restoration of the property. Tesla, Wardenclyffe and the museum fundraising effort will be the subject of a new documentary being produced called Tower to the People - Tesla's Dream at Wardenclyffe Continues. On 2 May 2013, the group announced that the site had been acquired. Proceedings for a museum on the site will occur in the years to come.
Wardenclyffe is located near the Shoreham Post Office and Shoreham Fire House on Route 25A in Shoreham, Long Island, New York. Wardenclyffe was divided into two main sections. The tower, which was located in the back, and the main building compose the entire facility grounds. At one time the property was about 200 acres (0.81 km2). Now it consists of slightly less than 16 acres (65,000 m2).
The wood-framed tower was 186 feet (57 m) tall and the cupola 68 feet (21 m) in diameter. It had a 55-ton steel (some report it was a better conducting material, such as copper) hemispherical structure at the top (referred to as a cupola). Designed by one of Stanford White's associates, the structure was such as to allow each piece to be taken out if needed and replaced as necessary. The transmitter itself was to have been powered by a 200 kilowatt Westinghouse alternating current industrial generator. Beneath the tower, a shaft sank 120 feet (37 m) into the ground. Sixteen iron pipes were placed one length after another 300 additional feet (94.4 m) in order for the machine, in Tesla's words, "to have a grip on the earth so the whole of this globe can quiver."
The main building occupied the rest of the facility grounds. It included a laboratory area, instrument room, boiler room, generator room and machine shop. Inside the main building, there were electromechanical devices, electrical generators, electrical transformers, glass blowing equipment, X-ray devices, Tesla coils, a remote controlled boat, cases with bulbs and tubes, wires, cables, a library, and an office. It was constructed in the style of the Italian Renaissance.
- "As soon as [the Wardenclyffe facility is] completed, it will be possible for a business man in New York to dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type at his office in London or elsewhere. He will be able to call up, from his desk, and talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe, without any change whatever in the existing equipment. An inexpensive instrument, not bigger than a watch, will enable its bearer to hear anywhere, on sea or land, music or song, the speech of a political leader, the address of an eminent man of science, or the sermon of an eloquent clergyman, delivered in some other place, however distant. In the same manner any picture, character, drawing, or print can be transferred from one to another place ..." – "The Future of the Wireless Art," Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, 1908, pg. 67–71.
- "It is not a dream, it is a simple feat of scientific electrical engineering, only expensive – blind, faint-hearted, doubting world! [...] Humanity is not yet sufficiently advanced to be willingly led by the discoverer's keen searching sense. But who knows? Perhaps it is better in this present world of ours that a revolutionary idea or invention instead of being helped and patted, be hampered and ill-treated in its adolescence – by want of means, by selfish interest, pedantry, stupidity and ignorance; that it be attacked and stifled; that it pass through bitter trials and tribulations, through the strife of commercial existence. So do we get our light. So all that was great in the past was ridiculed, condemned, combatted, suppressed – only to emerge all the more powerfully, all the more triumphantly from the struggle." – "The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires as a Means for Furthering Peace," Electrical World and Engineer, January 7, 1905.
World Wireless System
Transmission of electrical energy without wires
An electric current flowing through a conductor carries electrical energy. The body of the earth is an electrical conductor, nearly spherical in shape, insulated in space. It possesses an electric charge relative to the upper atmosphere beginning at about 50 kilometers elevation. When a second body, directly adjacent to Earth, is charged and discharged in rapid succession this causes an equivalent variation of Earth's electrostatic charge resulting in the passage of electric current through the ground.
The Tesla coil transmitter, both the single and dual tower forms, is an electrical machine specifically designed to create as large a displacement as possible of Earth's electric charge. It does this by alternately charging and discharging the oscillator's elevated terminal capacitance at a specific frequency, periodically altering the electrostatic charge of the earth, and consequently, with sufficient power, the electrical potential over its entire surface. "A connection to earth, either directly or through a condenser is essential." The placement of a grounded Tesla coil receiver tuned to the same frequency as the transmitter at another point on the surface results in the flow of electric current through the earth between the two, while an equivalent electrical displacement occurs in the atmosphere. This current can be used at the receiver to drive an electrical load, which in the case of an individual World Wireless Telecommunications System receiver is a sensitive device using only a small amount of energy. 
In 1891 and 1892, Tesla demonstrated the oscillatory transformer that bears his name in lectures delivered before meetings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE) in New York City" and the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE) in London, and in a later presentation titled "On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena" (Philadelphia/St. Louis; Franklin Institute in 1893), where he put forward his ideas on the wireless transmission of electrical energy.
- Tesla's patents
- "Means for Generating Electric Currents," U.S. Patent 514,168, February 6, 1894
- "Electrical Transformer," U.S. Patent 593,138, November 2, 1897
- "Method Of Utilizing Radiant Energy," U.S. Patent 685,958 November 5, 1901
- "Method of Signaling," U.S. Patent 723,188, March 17, 1903
- "System of Signaling," U.S. Patent 725,605, April 14, 1903
- "Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums," U.S. Patent 787,412, April 18, 1905
- "Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy," January 18, 1902, U.S. Patent 1,119,732, December 1, 1914
- Wireless energy transmission
- Transmission medium
- Distributed generation
- Electricity distribution
- Electric power transmission
- Friis transmission equation
- Terrestrial stationary waves
- Devices: Tesla coil, Magnifying Transmitter, Electro-mechanical oscillator
- Broad, William J. (May 4, 2009). "A Battle to Preserve a Visionary’s Bold Failure". New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2009. "Today, a fight is looming over the ghostly remains of that site, called Wardenclyffe – what Tesla authorities call the only surviving workplace of the eccentric genius who dreamed countless big dreams while pioneering wireless communication and alternating current. The disagreement began recently after the property went up for sale in Shoreham, N.Y."
- Anderson, Leland I., Nikola Tesla On His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, 21st Century Books, 2002, pp. 106, 153, 170.; Counsel, "This Wardenclyffe station was that – experimental?" Tesla, "No, it was a commercial undertaking... "
- Massie, Walter W. & Charles R. Underhill, Wireless Telegraphy & Telephony, Van Nostrand, 1908; "The Future of the Wireless Art"
- Cheney, Margaret, Robert Uth (1999), Tesla Master of Lightning, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, ISBN 0-7607-1005-8, pp. 107.; “Unable to overcome his financial burdens, he was forced to close the laboratory in 1905.”
- The Electrical World and Engineer, September 28 1901, Volume 38, No. 13, McGraw Publishing Company, 1901, page 510
- Margaret Cheney , Tesla: Man Out of Time, 2011 - pages 203 - 208
- Malanowski, Gregory, The Race for Wireless, AuthorHouse, page 35
- Cheney, Margaret, Tesla: Man Out of Time, 2011 - pages 203 - 208
- Childress, Hatcher Childress, The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla, 1993 - page 254
- Burgan, Michael, Nikola Tesla: Physicist, Inventor, Electrical Engineer, 2009. page 75
- Nikola Tesla on His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview, 21st Century Books - 2002, Appendex II, Wardenclyffe forclosure appeal proccedings
- Tesla Universe : Timeline, Year: 1915 -Wardenclyffe Deed Surrendered
- teslaresearch.jimdo.com printed version of Tesla's Million Dollar Folly by H. Winfield Secor, Export American Industries, March 1, 1916
- Tesla Universe : Timeline, July, 4th: Wardenclyffe Tower Destroyed
- Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, Simon and Schuster - 2011, pages 218-219
- See U.S. Blows Up Tesla Radio Tower (1917) (citing page 293 of the September 1917 issue of The Electrical Experimenter): "SUSPECTING that German spies were using the big wireless tower erected at Shoreham, L. I., about twenty years ago by Nikola Tesla, the Federal Government ordered the tower destroyed and it was recently demolished with dynamite."
- Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, Jim Glenn, Tesla, Master of Lightning, Barnes & Noble Publishing - 1999, page 129
- A Battle to Preserve a Visionary’s Bold Failure – New York Times – May 4, 2009
- "Tesla Lab: $1,650,000". New York Times. May 4, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009. "5 Randall Road, Shoreham, N.Y., between Tesla Court and Randall Road"
- Email from Brookhaven Town Historian, Barbara Russell, Mon, March 30, 2009
- Brookhaven Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 27, July 16, 1976
- "168314_w407.jpg". Retrieved February 1, 2010.
- "Valuable Plaque Stolen From Tesla Laboratory"
- Tesla, a Little-Recognized Genius, Left Mark in Shoreham – New York Times – November 10, 2002
- "A MUSEUM AT WARDENCLYFFE The Creation of a Monument to Nikola Tesla". Tesla Wardenclyffe Project, Inc. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- Inman, Matthew. "Help me raise money to buy Nikola Tesla's old laboratory". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Voakes, Greg (August 15, 2012). "The Oatmeal's Latest Fundraiser To Save The Tesla Tower". Forbes. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Solon, Olivia (16 August 2012). "Indiegogo project seeks crowdfunding for Tesla museum (Wired UK)". Wired UK. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Web Cartoonist Raises $1 Million For Tesla Museum". NPR. August 24, 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- "Elon Musk Pledges $1M to Tesla Museum". TIME. July 10, 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power, ISBN 1-893817-01-6, p. 203
- Ratzlaff, John T., Tesla Said, Tesla Book Company, 1984; THE DISTURBING INFLUENCE OF SOLAR RADIATION ON THE WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY by Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review and Western Electrician, July 6, 1912
- Ratzlaff, John T., Dr. Nikola Tesla Complete Patents; System of Transmission of Electrical Energy, September 2, 1897, U.S. Patent 645,576, March 20, 1900.
- Martin, Thomas Commerford, The Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, The Electrical Engineer, New York, 1894; "Experiments With Alternating Currents of Very High Frequency, and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination," AIEE, Columbia College, N.Y., May 20, 1891
- Martin, Thomas Commerford, The Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, The Electrical Engineer, New York, 1894; “Experiments With Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency," IEE Address, London, February 3, 1892.
- Martin, Thomas Commerford, The Inventions, Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla, The Electrical Engineer, New York, 1894; "On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena," February 24, 1893, before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, March 1893, before the National Electric Light Association, St. Louis.
- Anderson, Leland, "Rare Notes from Tesla on Wardenclyffe" in Electric Spacecraft – A journal of Interactive Research, Issue 26, September 14, 1998. Contains copies of rare documents from the Tesla Museum in Belgrade including Tesla's notes and sketches from 1901
- Bass, Robert W., "Self-Sustained Non-Hertzian Longitudal Wave Oscillations as a Rigorous Solution of Maxwell's Equations for Electromagnetic Radiation". Inventek Enterprises, Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada.
- "Boundless Space: A Bus Bar". The Electrical World, Vol 32, No. 19.
- Massie, Walter Wentworth, "Wireless telegraphy and telephony popularly explained ". New York, Van Nostrand. 1908.
- Rather, John, "Tesla, a Little-Recognized Genius, Left Mark in Shoreham". The New York Times. Long Island Weekly Desk.
- Tesla, Nikola, "The Transmission of Electrical Energy Without Wires", Electrical World and Engineer, March 5, 1904.
- Tesla, Nikola, "World System of Wireless Transmission of Energy", Telegraph and Telegraph Age, October 16, 1927.
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