Western Apache

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Seal of the San Carlos Apache tribe
Seal of the White Mountain Apache tribe
San Carlos Apache woman, c. 1883-1887

Western Apache refers to the Apache peoples living today primarily in east central Arizona, in the United States. Most live within reservations. The Fort Apache, San Carlos, Yavapai-Apache, Tonto Apache, and the Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Indian reservations are home to the majority of Western Apache and are the bases of their federally recognized tribes. In addition, there are numerous bands. The Western Apache bands call themselves Ndee (Indé) (“The People”), because of dialectical differences the Pinaleño/Pinal and Arivaipa/Aravaipa bands of the San Carlos Apache use the softer term Innee or Nnēē:.[1]

The various dialects of Western Apache (called by them Ndee biyati' / Nnee biyati') are a form of Apachean, a branch of the Southern Athabaskan language family. The Navajo speak a related Apachean language, but the peoples separated several hundred years ago and are considered culturally distinct. Other indigenous peoples who are Athabaskan speakers are located in Alaska and Canada.

The anthropologist Grenville Goodwin (1938) classified the Western Apache into five groups based on Apachean dialect and culture:

  • Cibecue,
  • Northern Tonto,
  • Southern Tonto,
  • San Carlos, and
  • White Mountain.

Since Goodwin, other researchers have disputed his conclusion of five linguistic groups, but have agreed on three main Apachean dialects with several subgroupings:

Some 20,000 Western Apache still speak their native language, and efforts have been made to preserve it. Bilingual teachers are often employed in the lower elementary grades, to expedite this goal, but the tendency toward children learning to speak only English, mingled with occasional Spanish, remains dominant.

In relation to culture, tribal schools offer classes in native handicrafts, such as basket weaving, making bows, arrows, spears, shields; cradles for infants, native costumes from buckskin for the young women, and the making of silver jewelry (often by the men) at the elementary and secondary level.

Western Apache bands and tribes[edit]

  • White Mountain Apache of the Fort Apache Indian Reservation (Dzil Łigai Si'án Ndee - ‘People of the White Mountains’, Spanish: Sierra Blanca Apache, ranged from the White Mountains in the north over the Gila Mountains south to the Pinaleno Mountains, lived and planted along the East Fork North Fork of the White River, Turkey Creek, Black River and the Gila River, most isolated and eastern Western Apache group), a federally recognized tribe, including the Tca-tci-dn or "Dischiidn" (“red rock strata people”) clan of chief Pedro's Carrizo band of the Cibecue Apaches, who were not forced to move to San Carlos in 1875[2][3]
    • Western White Mountain band (Łįįnábáha, Laan Baaha or Łįįnábáha dinéʼiʼ - ‘Many Go to War People’, oft called Coyoteros or Coyotero Apaches)
    • Eastern White Mountain band (Dził Ghą́ʼ or Dzil Ghaa a - ‘On Top of Mountains People’)
      • Dzil Nchaa Si An (′Big Seated Mountain People′, i.e. ′People of Mount Graham′)[4]
  • Cibecue Apache (Spanish derivation of the autonym Dishchíí Bikoh - ‘People of the Red Canyon’, ranged north of the Salt River to well above the Mogollon Rim in the west to the Mazatzal Mountains), today all part of the federally recognized tribe of the White Mountain Apache of the Fort Apache Reservation
    • Canyon Creek band (Gołkizhn - ‘Spotted on Top People’, likely refers to a mountain that is spotted with junipers, lived along Canyon Creek, a tributary of the Salt River in the Mogollon Rim area, western band of the Cibecue Apache)
    • Carrizo band (Tłʼohkʼadigain, Tłʼohkʼadigain Bikoh Indee - ‘Canyon of the Row of White Canes People’, lived along Carrizo Creek, a tributary of the Salt River, eastern band of the Cibecue Apache)
    • Cibecue band (Dziłghą́ʼé, Dził Tʼaadn or Dził Tʼaadnjiʼ - ‘Base of Mountain People/Side of Mountain People’, lived along Cibecue Creek, a tributary of the Salt River, middle or central band of the Cibecue Apache)
  • San Carlos Apache of the San Carlos Reservation (Tsékʼáádn - “Metate People”, lived on both sides of the San Pedro River and in the foothills of the Santa Catalina Mountains near Tucson), a federally recognized tribe composed of the San Carlos Apache proper and several groups of the Cibecue Apache (excluding the Tca-tci-dn (“red rock strata people”) clan of the Carrizo band), some Tonto Apache, Lipan as well Chiricahua Apache peoples.
    • Apache Peaks band (Nadah Dogalniné - ‘Spoiled Mescal People’, ‘Tasteless Mescal People’, also called Bichi Lehe Nnee - ′Fled to the mountains People′, lived northeast of Globe between the Salt River and the Apache Peaks as far east as Ishįį (“Salt”) on the Salt River, between Cibicue Creek mouth and Canyon Creek mouths)
    • San Carlos band (Tsandee Dotʼán - ‘It is Placed Alone beside the Fire People’, oft simply called Tsékʼáádn - “Metate People”, or San Carlos proper, also called Tiis Zhaazhe Bikoh - ′Small cottonwood canyon People′, lived and farmed along the San Carlos River, a tributary of the Gila River)
    • Pinaleño/Pinal band (Spanish ‘Pinery People’, Tʼiisibaan, Tʼiis Tsebán or Tiis Ebah Nnee - ‘Cottonwoods Gray in the Rocks People’, ′Cottonwoods in Gray Wedge Shape People′, named after the trees at the mouth of the San Pedro River and their farms along Pinal Creek called Tʼii Tsebá, lived from the Mescal Mountains in the west to the northern edge of the Apache Peaks in the east, northward across the Salt River and in the north and eastern parts of the Pinaleno Mountains (Pinal Mountains, Dzi£ Nnilchí' Diyiléé - ‘pine-burdened mountain’)[5] southeast toward the Gila River, together with their Hwaalkamvepaya allies of the Guwevkabaya-Yavapai and their Arivaipa kin they hunted and camped in the Dripping Springs Mountains to the southwest, lived generally north of the Arivaipa band)
    • Arivaipa/Aravaipa band (Pima: ‘cowards, ‘women’, called by the Apaches Tsé hiné, Tséjìné or Tsee Zhinnee - ‘Dark Rocks People’ or ‘Black Rocks People’, after the black rocks of their range in the Aravaipa Creek Valley, the Galiuro Mountains, the Santa Teresa Mountains, Santa Catalina Mountains und Rincon Mountains (Itah Gos'án - ″Sits Close Together″) and the southern edge of the Pinaleno Mountains,[6] together with their Hwaalkamvepaya allies of the Guwevkabaya-Yavapai and their Pinaleño/Pinal kin they hunted and camped in the Dripping Springs Mountains to the northwest)
      • Tséjìné (Tsé hiné or Tsee Zhinnee - ‘Dark Rocks People’ or ‘Black Rocks People’, Arivaipa proper, because they outnumbered the Tsé Binestʼiʼé their name was used for all Arivaipa)
      • Tsé Binestʼiʼé (‘Rock encircling People’)
      • Dzil Dlaazhe (also known as Mount Turnbull Apache, a mixed Guwevkabaya (Kwevekapaya) - (Arivaipa ?)Apache band)[7]
  • Tonto Apache (autonym: Dilzhé`e, the Chiricahua called them Ben-et-dine - ‘wild’, ‘crazy’; neighboring Western Apache called them Koun`nde - ‘Those who you don’t understand’, ‘wild rough People’, the Spanish adapted this as Tonto - 'loose', 'foolish', the Dine called the Tonto Apache and neighboring Yavapai Dilzhʼíʼ dinéʼiʼ - ‘People with high-pitched voices’, lived from the San Francisco Peaks, East Verde River and Oak Creek Canyon along the Verde River into the Mazatzal Mountains and to the Salt River in the SW and the Tonto Basin in the SE, extending eastwards towards the Little Colorado River, were the most westerly group of the Western Apache)
    • Northern Tonto (inhabited the upper reaches of the Verde River and ranged north toward the San Francisco Mountains north of Flagstaff)
      • Bald Mountain band (Dasziné Dasdaayé Indee - ‘Porcupine Sitting Above People’, lived mainly around Bald Mountain or Squaw Peak, on the west side of the Verde Valley, southwest of Camp Verde. They lived entirely by hunting and gathering plant foods. They formed a bilingual mixed-band with Wi:pukba (Wipukepa) or Northeastern Yavapai)
      • Fossil Creek band (Tú Dotłʼizh Indee - ‘Blue Water People’, lived along and had a few tiny farms on Fossil Creek, Clear Creek and-a site on the Verde River below the mouth of Deer Creek, they hunted and gathered west of the Verde River, northwest to the Oak Creek band territory and northeast to Apache Maid Mountain. They formed a bilingual mixed-band with the Matkitwawipa band of the Wi:pukba (Wipukepa) or Northeastern Yavapai)
      • Mormon Lake band (Dotłʼizhi HaʼitʼIndee - ‘Turquoise Road Coming Up People’, lived east of Mormon Lake near the head of Anderson's Canyon and ranged up to the southern foot of the San Francisco Mountains, at Elden Mountain near Flagstaff, around Mormon, Mary's, Stoneman's and Hay Lakes, and at Anderson and Padre Canyons. Because they were exposed to the hostile Navajo on the north and east, they depended entirely on hunting and gathering wild plant foods for sustenance. Only the Mormon Lake band was composed entirely of Tonto Apache.)
      • Oak Creek band (Tsé Hichii Indee - ‘Horizontal Red Rock People’, lived near today´s Sedona, along Oak Creek, Dry Beaver Creek, Wet Beaver Creek and southward to the west side of the Verde River between Altnan and West Clear Creek, eastward to Stoneman's and Mary's Lakes, and northward to Roger's Lake and Flagstaff. They formed a bilingual mixed-band with the Wiipukepaya band of the Wi:pukba (Wipukepa) or Northeastern Yavapai)
    • Southern Tonto (lived in the Tonto Basin from the Salt River in south northward along and over the East Verde River, including the Sierra Ancha, Bradshaw Mountains and Mazatzal Mountains)
      • Mazatzal band (Tsé Nołtłʼizhn - ‘Rocks in a Line of Greenness People’, lived mainly in the eastern slopes of Mazatzal Mountains, formed bilingual mixed-bands with Hakayopa and Hichapulvapa local groups of the Wiikchasapaya (Wikedjasapa) band of the Guwevkabaya (Kwevkepaya) or Southeastern Yavapai)
      • Dil Zhęʼé semi-band (‘People with high-pitched voices’, first and most important semi-band under which name the five remaining semi-bands were known, some Dil Zhęʼé in the Sierra Ancha formed with members of the Walkamepa band of the Guwevkabaya (Kwevkepaya) or Southeastern Yavapai the bilingual mixed-band known as Matkawatapa)
      • second semi-band
      • third semi-band
      • fourth semi-band
      • fifth semi-band
      • sixth semi-band

Often groups of Wi:pukba (Wipukepa) and Guwevkabaya (Kwevkepaya) of the Yavapai lived together with the Tonto Apache (as well as bands of the San Carlos Apache) in bilingual rancherias, and could not be distinguished by outsiders (Americans, Mexicans or Spanish) except on the basis of their "Mother tongues." The Yavapai and Apache together were often referred to as Tonto or Tonto Apaches. Therefore, it is not always easy to find out whether it is now exclusively dealing with Yavapai or Apache, or those mixed bands. The Wi:pukba (Wipukepa) and Guwevkabaya (Kwevkepaya) were therefore, because of their ancestral and cultural proximity to the Tonto and San Carlos Apaches, often incorrectly called Yavapai Apaches or Yuma Apaches. The Ɖo:lkabaya (Tolkepaya), the southwestern group of Yavapai, and the Hualapai (also belonging to the Upland Yuma Peoples) were also referred as Yuma Apaches or Mohave Apaches.[8]

Notable Western Apache[edit]

White Mountain Apaches

  • Alchesay (aka William Alchesay and Alchisay, May 17, 1853 – Aug.6, 1928, was a chief of the White Mountain Apache and an Apache Scout. He received United States militaries highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Apache Wars and the Yavapai Wars. He tried to convince Geronimo to surrender peacefully and remained friends with Geronimo until his death. Became later a prominent stockman, made several trips to Washington D.C., and was active in Indian affairs.)
  • Bylas (aka Bailish, chief of the Eastern White Mountain band, for whom the present settlement of Bylas on the San Carlos Reservation is named, this Apache settlement is divided into two communities, one of the White Mountain, the other of San Carlos and Southern Tonto Apache)
  • Francisco (chief of the Western White Mountain (or Coyotero) Apache band)
  • Esh-kel-dah-sila (Eskiltesela, Esketeshelaw, Haskɛdasila - “He Is Constantly Angry”, Heske-hldasila - “Angry, Right Side Up”, also known as Clear-Eyed Eskeltesela, fl. c. 1850-1875, chief of the Nadostusn clan (Nddohots'osn, Ndhodits or Naagodolts'oosri - “slender peak standing up people”) as of the entire Eastern White Mountain Apache band, most respected and prominent Eastern White Mountain Apache chief in history, he maintained alliances with Hopi and Zuni, offered land for the establishment of Camp Apache (later Fort Apache), Pedro and his Carrizo band of Cibecue Apaches got permission from him to settle near later Fort Apache on White Mountain Apache territory, he and his band were generally ill disposed toward Cibecue Apache bands of Miguel, Diablo and Pedro, who had enlisted as Apache Scouts in 1871 and were scouting against “troublemakers” of Esh-kel-dah-sila's band)
  • Polone (succeeded in 1873 Esh-kel-dah-sila as chief of the Eastern White Mountain Apache band)
  • Jay Tavare, actor (White Mountain Apache and Navajo ancestry)

Cibecue Apache

  • Miguel (also known as One-Eyed-Miguel or El Tuerto, Esh-ke-iba, Es-chá´-pa, Es-ca-pa, sometimes called Pin-dah-kiss, ca. ? - †1871, Chief of the dominant local group and clan of the Carrizo band, during the 1850s and 1860s most prominent Carrizo chief, in 1869 Miguel and his younger brother Diablo initiated relations between Americans and the Cibecue and White Mountain Apaches, which led to the establishment of Fort Apache (first as Camp Apache in 1870). He supplied recruits for the first unit of Apache Scouts in 1871, because the Cibecue Apaches were forced to settle near Camp Apache on White Mountain Apache territory in spring 1874, he was killed shortly after during a feud with White Mountain Apaches, after that, Diablo took over leadership from his deceased older brother and avenged his death)
  • Diablo (El Diablo - “the Devil”, Es-ki-in-la, Eskiniaw, Esh-ken-la, c. 1846 - †30. Aug.1880, after the death of his older brother Chief Miguel in 1874 during a feud with the White Mountain Apaches, he became the most prominent chief of the Carrizo band, in the fall of 1874 he enlisted as Scout and was promoted to sergeant, in January 1876 he and his band together with other Cibecue Apache bands were forced to move onto the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, only Pedro's band was allowed to stay at Fort Apache - which led to ill feelings towards the latter, therefore Diablo's band attacked on August 30, 1880 Pedro's band near Fort Apache, which resulted in the killing of Diablo himself, not to be confused with Esh-kel-dah-sila, the most prominent Eastern White Mountain Apache chief at this time)
  • Pedro (Hacke-yanil-tli-din, also known as Pedro, the Imitator, ca. 1835 - †1885, chief of the Tca-tci-dn clan (also Cacidn, Tea-tci-dn or Tsee hachiidn - “red rock strata people”) and local group of the Carrizo band,[9] during a clan dispute in the early 1850s he was driven off the Carrizo Creek by Miguel, was allowed by the great Eastern White Mountain Apache chief Esh-kel-dah-sila after two years to settle near Fort Apache, Pedro's band intermarried with the White Mountain Apaches and were therefore classed as White Mountain Apaches, however they retained close clan ties with the Carrizo band of the Cibecue Apaches, he and his segundo (or war chief) Yclenny together with White Mountain Apache chiefs Alchesay and Petone killed August 30, 1880 Diablo, (oft mistaken for Esh-kel-dah-sila, the most prominent Eastern White Mountain Apache chief at this time) in selfdefense, in revenge for the death of Diablo he was shot through both knees but survived, only Petone was mortally wounded, was a constant friend of the Americans)
  • Petone (son of Pedro, succeeded his father about 1873 as chief of Pedro's Carrizo band of Cibecue Apaches - now generally classed as White Mountain Apaches, he was involved in the murder of the influential Carrizo band chief Diablo on August 30, 1880, half a year later in February 1881 members of Diablo's band would avenge his death. In this battle, Pedro was shot through both knees and Alchesay through the chest, both of them survived, but Petone was mortally wounded)
  • Capitán Chiquito (also known as Captain Chiquito, Chief of the Cibecue band, not to be confused with the Pinaleño Apache Chief of the same name)
  • Nock-ay-det-klinne (Nakaidoklini, Nakydoklunni - “spotted or freckled Mexican”, called by the Whites Babbyduclone, Barbudeclenny, Bobby-dok-linny and Freckled Mexican Matthews, Chief of the Cañon Creek band and a respected medicine man among his people, held dances and claimed to bring two dead chiefs, the Carrizo band chief Diablo and the Cibecue band chief Es-ki-ol-e to life, fearing an Apache uprising the Army tried to arrest the medicine man which led to the Battle of Cibecue Creek on Aug.30, 1881, after the fighting erupted the Apache scouts mutinied as suspected. The attacking Apaches fought mainly at rifle range, however, when the scouts turned against the soldiers, a brief close range engagement occurred. As the battle ended with a strategic Apache victory, despite their inability to rescue their leader, due to the soldiers retreat. After the battle, the American army buried six soldiers, Nock-ay-det-klinne, his wife, and young son, who was killed while riding into battle on his father's pony. The Cibecue affair touched off a regional Apache uprising, in which the leading men of the Chiricahua bands, such as Naiche (c. 1857-1919), Juh (c. 1825 – Nov. 1883), and Geronimo (June 16, 1829 – Feb.17, 1909), left the reservation and went to war in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. The warfare lasted about two years, ultimately ending in the US defeat of the Apache)
  • Ne-big-ja-gy (was also called Ka-clenny and Es-keg-i-slaw, brother and segundo of Nock-ay-det-klinne, the medicine men and chief of the Cañon Creek band, succeeded his brother as chief of the Cañon Creek band)
  • Sánchez (Bé-cbiɣo'dn - “Metal Tooth” or “Iron Tooth”, successor of Diablo as Chief of the Carizzo Creek band, whose band of about 250 people lived on Carrizo Creek, twelve miles north of Carrizo Crossing, was closely associated with Nock-ay-det-klinne)

San Carlos Apaches

  • Casador' (Casadora, Nànt'àntco - “great chief”, was the main chief of the San Carlos band, before he turned renegade)
  • Eskinospas (Eskenaspas, Hàckíná-sbás - “Angry Circular”, called by the Whites Nosy, chief of a local group of the Arivaipa band)
  • Santos (Arivaipa Apache Chief, father-in-law of Eskiminzin)
  • Eskiminzin (aka Hashkebansiziin, Hàckíbáínzín - "Angry, Men Stand in Line for Him", * 1828 near the Pinal Mountains as a Pinaleño, through marriage into the Arivaipa, he became one of them and later their chief, he and his band together with the Pinaleño band under Capitán Chiquito were attacked by on April 30, 1871 in the Camp Grant Massacre, William S. Oury and Jesús María Elías, which blamed every depredation in southern Arizona on the 500 Camp Grant Apaches, contacted an old ally Francisco Galerita, leader of the Tohono O'odham at San Xavier to punish them, 144 Apaches were killed and mutilated by Tohono O'odham (all but eight were women and children) and 27 children were sold into slavery in Mexico by the Tohono O'odham and the Mexicans themselves, † 1894 on the San Carlos Reservation)
  • Capitán Chiquito (Chief of the Pinaleño band, became together with the Arivaipa Chief Eskiminzin victim of the Camp Grant Massacre by Mexicans and their Tohono O'odham-allies, after the massacre the surviving Arivaipa and Pinaleño bands fled north to their Tonto Apache and Yavapai allies, together they raiding and fought the Americans until into 1875 with its culmination in General George Crook's Tonto Basin Campaign of 1872 and 1873)
  • Talkalai (Talkali, *1817 - †Mar. 4, 1930, Miami, Chief of the Apache Peaks band, served as Chief of Scouts for three different United States Army Generals, Crook, Miles, and Howard. In April 1887 he was the leader of the scouts that marched 400 miles into Mexico and captured Geronimo. He once saved the life of his good friend John Clum, first Indian Agent at San Carlos Indian reservation, by shooting his own brother. This act so inflamed some of his band members, that he was forced to flee the reservation and move into the town of Miami, Arizona. He was also a friend of the Earps in Tombstone and had been a guest of President Cleveland in the White House)
  • Michael Minjarez, actor & Apache dialect supervisor

Tonto Apaches

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shadows at Dawn - The Peoples - Nnēē / Apache / 'O:b
  2. ^ Fort Apache History
  3. ^ Ian W. Record: Big Sycamore Stands Alone: The Western Apaches, Aravaipa, and the Struggle for Place, p. 44, ISBN 978-0-8061-3972-2, 2008, University of Oklahoma Press
  4. ^ Yavapai and Nde Apache
  5. ^ The Pinal Mountains
  6. ^ The Apaches of the Aravaipa Canyon
  7. ^ Yavapai and Nde Apache
  8. ^ Timothy Braatz: Surviving Conquest: A History of the Yavapai Peoples, 2003, University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 978-0-8032-2242-7
  9. ^ the Tca-tci-dn (“red rock strata people”) of Pedro were limited almost exclusively to the Carrizo band of the Cibecue Apaches, and were the only people on the Fort Apache Reservation who were not forced to go to San Carlos in 1875

Further reading[edit]

Language pedagogy
  • Arizona State University & American Indian Language Development Institute. (1983). Nohwiyati’ [Our language]. SIL.
  • Bunney, Curtis. (1974). Nnee baa nadaagoni’ [Apache stories]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District.
  • Bunney, Curtis. (1974). Oshii bigonsh’aa. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District.
  • Bunney, Curtis. (n.d.). Apache Workbook l: Oshii bigonsh’aa. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District.
  • Bunney, Curtis. (n.d.). Nnee dii k’ehgo daagoląąni’. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District.
  • Bunney, Curtis. (n.d.). The Little Red Hen (and other stories): Chaghashe bi nagoni’e. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District.
  • Bunney, Curtis; & and Crowder, Jack. (1972). Western Apache Series. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District. [20 booklets].
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). The cactus boy: Hosh nteelé ishkiin. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Chagháshé táági [The three children]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Da’ónjii nadaagohilnéhé [We read we play]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Doo hant’é dalke’ da. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Gosh’ii: Shíí Mary nshlii: Gosh’ii. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Haigo: Zas naláá. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Idiists’ag, gosh’ii: [I hear, I see]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Kih nagodenk’áá: Kih diltli’. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Mary hik’e tl’oh bilgo. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Nnee kéhgo onltag bigonláa [Learn to count in Apache]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Shíí nnee nshlii. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Shíígo shil nlt’éé. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Shiyo’ tséé dotl’izhi alzáa [Mary's peridot necklace]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Stephen hik’e na’inniihí [Stephen and the airplane]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Tahbiyú [Early morning]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Tl’oh tú yidlaa. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). Tulgayé ligayi: Tulagayé bijaa igodi [The white donkey]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). The wild animals: Itsá. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Crowder, Jack L. (1972). [Apache language readers]. San Carlos, AZ.
  • Edgerton, Faye E.; & Hill, Faith. (1958). Primer, (Vols. 1-2). Glendale, AZ.
  • Goode, Phillip. (1985). Apache language course and lesson plans for Globe High School: Grades 9-12. [Unpublished manuscript].
  • Goode, Phillip. (1996). Total physical response sentences from Asher (1982) translated into San Carlos Apache, with commentary by Willem J. de Reuse. [Unpublished manuscript].
  • Johnson, James B.; Lavender, Bonnie; Malone, Beverley; Bead, Christina; & Clawson, Curry. (n.d.). Yati' nakih [Two languages]: Kindergarten bi naltsoos choh [Kindergarten's big book]. Title VII Bilingual Education Program Kindergarten Curriculum Manual. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Tribe.
  • Malone, Wesley; Malone, Beverly; & Quintero, Canyon Z. (1983). New keys to reading and writing Apache, (rev. ed.). Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • Perry, Edgar. (1989). Apache picture dictionary. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • Perry, Edgar; & Quintero, Canyon Z. (1972). Now try reading these. Fort Apache, AZ: Apache Culture Center.
  • Quintero, Canyon Z. (1972). Keys to reading Apache. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • de Reuse, Willem J. (2006). A practical grammar of the San Carlos Apache language. LINCOM Studies in Native American Linguistics 51. LINCOM. ISBN 3-89586-861-2.
  • de Reuse, Willem J.; & Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette. (1996). Ndee biyáti’ bígoch’il’aah [Learning Apache]: An introductory textbook in the White Mountain Apache language for non-speakers. [Unpublished manuscript].
  • de Reuse, Willem J.; & Goode, Phillip. (1996). Nnee biyati’ yánlti’go [Speak Apache]: An introductory textbook in the San Carlos Apache language for non-speakers. [Unpublished manuscript].
  • Steele, Lola; Smith, Dorothy; & Bunney, Curtis. (n.d.). Nnee Díí Kehgo Daagolii’ ni’ [Apaches used to live this way]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Steele, Lola; Smith, Dorothy; & Bunney, Curtis. (n.d.). Oshíí bígonsh’aa [I learn to read]. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20.
  • Uplegger, Francis J. (1966). Red man and white man in harmony: Songs in Apache and English. San Carlos, AZ: Lutheran Indian Mission.
  • White Mountain Apache Culture Center. (1972). Apache months. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • White Mountain Apache Culture Center. (1972). Apache plants. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • White Mountain Apache Culture Center. (1972). Keys to reading and writing Apache. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • White Mountain Apache Culture Center. (1972). Writing Apache. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • Wycliffe Bible Translators. (1900). Apache reader.
Literature and dictionaries
  • Basso, Keith H. (1979). Portraits of "the whiteman": Linguistic play and cultural symbols among the Western Apache. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29593-9.
  • Basso, Keith H. (1990). Western Apache language and culture: Essays in linguistic anthropology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1323-6.
  • Basso, Keith H. (1996). Wisdom sits in places: Landscape and language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1724-3.
  • Bourke, John G.; & Condie, Carole J. (1990). Vocabulary of the Apache or ’Indé language of Arizona and New Mexico. Occasional publications in anthropology: Linguistic series, (no. 7). Greenley, CO: Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado.
  • Bray, Dorothy, & White Mountain Apache Tribe. (1998). Western Apache-English dictionary: A community-generated bilingual dictionary. Tempe, AZ: Bilingual Press. ISBN 0-927534-79-7.
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1918). Myths and tales from the San Carlos Apache. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, (Vol. 24, Part 1). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1919). Myths and tales from the White Mountain Apache. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, (Vol. 24, Part 2). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1919). San Carlos Apache texts. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, (Vol. 24, Part 3). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Goddard, Pliny E. (1920). White Mountain Apache texts. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, (Vol. 24, Part 4). New York: The American Museum of Natural History.
  • Gordon, Matthew; Potter, Brian; Dawson, John; de Reuse, Willem; & Ladefoged, Peter. (2001). Phonetic structures of Western Apache. International Journal of American Linguistics, 67(4), 415-481.
  • Perry, Edgar. (1972). Western Apache dictionary. Fort Apache, AZ: White Mountain Apache Culture Center.
  • Plocher, Johannes & Eilers, Herman. (1893). English Apache dictionary: Containing a vocabulary of the San Carlos Apache, also some White Mount. terms, and many sentences illustrating the use of the words. [Unpublished manuscript].
  • de Reuse, Willem J. (2004). [personal communication].
  • Uplegger, Francis J. (1899–1964). Papers. [unpublished material].
  • Uplegger, Francis J. (1900). Apache dictionary. [unpublished].
  • Uplegger, Francis J. (1911). My life, how should it proceed. San Carlos, AZ [?]: Evangelical Lutheran Mission.
  • Uplegger, Francis J. (1940–1960). Apache language songbook. [unpublished archival material].

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